Passive Activity Loss ATG - Exhibit 6-4: Self-Charged Interest
Publication Date - December, 2004
NOTE: This guide is current through the publication date. Since changes may have occurred after the publication date that would affect the accuracy of this document, no guarantees are made concerning the technical accuracy after the publication date.
Exhibit 6-4: Self-Charged Interest
ISSUE: Are self-charged items on Form 8582 line 1a or 3a non-passive? If so, the income should be removed from Form 8582, thereby limiting allowable passive losses. Stated differently, have self-charged items for passive activities been appropriately characterized as passive income? Since passive losses are deductible only to the extent of passive income, removing income from FORM 8582 generally results in the amount of currently deductible passive losses being reduced.
LAW: To offset interest income which taxpayer is required to report (generally on Schedule B) from loans to related entities, the taxpayer may treat self-charged interest income as passive income (reflecting it on Form 8582, thereby triggering the same amount of interest expense). See Reg. § 1.469-7. The recharacterization rule for self-charged items applies only to interest income. There is no provision in law for any other self-charged income item to be entered on Form 8582 as passive income.
_____ Verify that self-charged interest income on Form 8582 line 1a or 3a (which has been recharacterized as passive income per Reg. § 1.469-7) has not also been entered on Form 4952 as investment income, erroneously triggering deductions for investment interest expense. The same income should never be on both Form 8582 and Form 4952. The IRC § 163(d)(4)(D) specifically states that investment income does not include any income taken into account in computing passive losses under IRC § 469. Since investment interest expense is deductible only up to investment income, removing self-charged interest income from Form 4952 will result in automatic adjustments to investment interest expense. While the interest income should not be reflected on Form 4952, it is, of course, reportable on Schedule B.
_____ Request the loan instrument and verify that self-charged interest income is actually interest on a loan. Also check balance sheet for loans from shareholder/partner. Other self-charged items such as management fees, guaranteed payments, rents, royalties, etc. should not be on Form 8582 as passive income. There is no provision in IRC or Regulations for any other type of income to be treated as passive other than interest income as provided for in Reg. § 1.469-7. To read proposed Reg. §1.469-7 as providing self-charged treatment to nonlending transactions expands the Regulations to transactions it was not intended to cover.
_____ Verify that loans are not between two entities which are not tiered.
Example: Two S Corporations owned 100 percent by one shareholder). One S Corporation loans the other money. One entity does not own part of the other entity; therefore, no direct interest. See Reg. § 1.469-7(b)(1).
_____ Verify that self-charged interest is from a partnership or S- Corporation. Reg. §1.469-7(b)(1) defines a pass through entity as a partnership or S- Corporation.
_____ Verify that interest income has been reported on Schedule B in the same dollar amount as self-charged passive income on Form 8582 line 1a or 3a. Passive income must be reported on the return. Form 8582 is merely a computational schedule which figures allowable passive losses. Entering income does not report it on return. It must be entered on one of return schedules to be appropriately reported. The self-charged income rules are the one exception where portfolio income is recharacterized from non-passive to passive income. Typically, interest income is reported on Schedule B – although taxpayers sometimes reflect it on Schedule E in the passive income column.
_____ Verify that income in the same amount as the self-charged interest has NOT been removed from Schedule B. Reg. § 1.469-7 merely permits interest income (which otherwise is non-passive) to be entered on FORM 8582 as passive income in order to trigger a like amount of loss (representing the related interest expense). The allowed loss would generally be reflected on Schedule E line 27 in the passive loss column. If in doubt as to where the loss is reflected, refer to worksheet 6 of Form 8582 which designates the schedules allowed passive losses are entered on. Reminder: Form 8582 is only a computational schedule. It does not in any manner report income. If income is removed from Schedule B and reflected only on Form 8582, it results in unreported income!
_____ Verify that interest expense on a loan which is capitalized has not been recharacterized. Reg. § 1.469-7(c)(1)(i) & (d)(1)(ii) provide that the loan must give rise to an interest deduction for the same year.
_____ Verify that a passive loss (from the same activity as self-charged interest) has also been entered on FORM 8582. For self-charged interest to be on Form 8582, it must be from a passive activity (a rental/leasing activity OR business in which taxpayer does not materially participate). The Reg. § 1.469-7(a)(1)(ii) and § 1.469-7(c)(iii) and § 1.469-7(d)(iii)
_____ Verify that the interest income is not from a non-passive activity. If the partnership or S Corporation generating the interest is entered as non-passive, the interest income cannot be on Form 8582. Similarly, if the taxpayer materially participated any 5 of the prior 10 years, income in the current year is non-passive.
_____ Verify that self-charged interest has been properly allocated based on the portion that is self-paid. Fraction to compute allocation: Taxpayer’s ownership percentage (i.e. his share of entity's self-charged interest expense) multiplied by taxpayer’s Schedule B interest income. Obviously, this procedure is not necessary if taxpayer is 100 percemt shareholder of an S Corporation. For example, if the taxpayer receives $100 in interest income and has a 10 percent ownership interest, only $10 may be treated as passive income on Form 8582 line 1a or 3a. There are very clear examples of how the applicable percent works with multiple investor in Reg. § 1.469-7 Example (1) and Example (2).
Adjustment: Remove income from Form 8582 Line 1a or 3a and recompute. Adjustment to allowable passive losses is difference between Form 8582 Line 16 per return and Form 8582 Line 16 as corrected. Also, modified AGI on Form 8582 line 7 will be increased by the amount of income determined to be non-passive. Thus, the taxpayer may lose part of his $25,000 offset under IRC § 469(i), i.e. you may have a second computational adjustment.