Internal Revenue Bulletin:  2007-52 

December 26, 2007 

T.D. 9365

Railroad Track Maintenance Credit


DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY
Internal Revenue Service
26 CFR Parts 1 and 602

AGENCY:

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury.

ACTION:

Final Regulations.

SUMMARY:

This document contains final regulations that provide rules for claiming the railroad track maintenance credit under section 45G of the Internal Revenue Code for qualified railroad track maintenance expenditures paid or incurred by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad and other eligible taxpayers during the taxable year. These final regulations reflect changes to the law made by the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act of 2005, and the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006.

DATES:

Effective Date: These regulations are effective on November 13, 2007.

Applicability Date: For dates of applicability, see §1.45G-1(g).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

David Selig, (202) 622-3040 (not a toll-free number).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Paperwork Reduction Act

The collection of information contained in these final regulations has been reviewed and approved by the Office of Management and Budget in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)) under control number 1545-2031.

The collection of information in these final regulations is in §1.45G-1(d). This information is required to enable the IRS to verify the assignments of railroad track miles made under section 45G(b).

An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a valid control number.

Books or records relating to this collection of information must be retained as long as their contents might become material in the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C. 6103.

Background

This document contains amendments to 26 CFR part 1 to provide regulations under section 45G of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Section 45G was added to the Code by section 245(a) of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Public Law 108-357 (118 Stat. 1418) (AJCA), and was modified by section 403(f) of the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act of 2005, Public Law 109-135 (119 Stat. 2577), and section 423(a) of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, Public Law 109-432 (120 Stat. 2922) (TRHCA). On September 8, 2006, the IRS and Treasury Department published in the Federal Register temporary and proposed regulations (REG-142270-05, 2006-43 I.R.B. 791) under section 45G (71 FR 53009, 71 FR 53053). The IRS and Treasury Department issued a correction notice for the temporary regulations in T.D. 9286, 2006-43 I.R.B. 750, on December 8, 2006 (71 FR 71039). No requests were received to testify on the proposed regulations and, accordingly, no public hearing was held. Written and electronic comments responding to the proposed regulations were received. After consideration of all the comments, the proposed regulations are adopted as amended by this Treasury decision and the corresponding temporary regulations are removed.

General Overview

Section 38 allows a credit for the taxable year for, among other things, the current year business credit. The current year business credit is the sum of the credits listed in section 38(b). Section 245(c)(1) of the AJCA amended section 38(b) to add to the list of credits the railroad track maintenance credit (RTMC) determined under section 45G(a).

Section 45G(a) provides that, for purposes of section 38, the RTMC for the taxable year is an amount equal to 50 percent of the qualified railroad track maintenance expenditures (QRTME) paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year.

Section 45G(b) imposes limitations on the amount of the RTMC for any taxable year. The credit allowed under section 45G(a) may not exceed $3,500 multiplied by the sum of (1) the number of miles of railroad track owned by, or leased to, the eligible taxpayer as of the close of the taxable year, and (2) the number of miles of railroad track assigned to the eligible taxpayer by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad that owns or leases the track as of the close of the taxable year.

Section 45G(c) defines an eligible taxpayer to mean any Class II railroad or Class III railroad, and any person who transports property using the rail facilities of such a railroad, or who furnishes railroad-related property or services to such a railroad, but only with respect to miles of railroad track assigned to such person by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad.

Section 45G(d), as amended by section 423(a) of the TRHCA, defines the term QRTME to mean gross expenditures (whether or not chargeable to capital account) for maintaining railroad track (including roadbed, bridges, and related track structures) owned or leased as of January 1, 2005, by a Class II or Class III railroad (determined without regard to any consideration for such expenditures given by the Class II or Class III railroad which made the assignment of such track).

Section 45G(e) defines the terms Class II railroad and Class III railroad to have the respective meanings given those terms by the Surface Transportation Board (STB).

Under section 45G(f), section 45G applies to QRTME paid or incurred during taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, and before January 1, 2008. The amendments to section 45G(d) made by section 423(a) of the TRHCA apply retroactively to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004.

Summary of Comments

Eligible Taxpayers

A commentator suggested that the final regulations clarify that a Class II or Class III railroad may not be recharacterized as an ineligible taxpayer because the railroad is a member of a controlled group of corporations under section 45G(e)(2) that includes a Class I railroad. Section 45G(c)(1) defines the term eligible taxpayer to include any Class II or Class III railroad. Section 45G(e)(1) provides that the terms Class II railroad and Class III railroad have the respective meanings given such terms by the STB. The controlled group rules do not affect the class designations made by the STB. The temporary regulations did not prescribe that the class designations made by the STB be superseded by the controlled group rules. Nevertheless, in response to the comment, the final regulations in §1.45G-1(b)(1) state explicitly that the definitions of Class II and Class III railroads are determined without regard to the controlled group rules under section 45G(e)(2).

Effect on Reimbursements

Commentators stated that the reimbursement rule in §1.45G-1T(c)(3)(ii) of the temporary regulations prevents eligible taxpayers from being made whole for their expenditures on railroad track infrastructure, because the credit is only for 50 percent of eligible expenditures. Under §1.45G-1T(c)(3)(ii), QRTME is treated as not paid or incurred during the taxable year to the extent that a taxpayer is entitled to reimbursement of any expenditures that would otherwise qualify as QRTME. Section 1.45G-1T(c)(3)(ii) further provides that reimbursements may consist of amounts paid either directly or indirectly to the taxpayer. Examples of indirect reimbursements in the temporary regulations include discounted freight shipping rates, price markups of railroad-related property, debt forgiveness, and similar arrangements. Thus, §1.45G-1T(c)(3)(ii) limits the QRTME paid or incurred to the actual out-of-pocket expenditures paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer.

On December 20, 2006, Congress enacted the TRHCA, which changed the definition of QRTME. Although statutory changes other than technical corrections are usually made prospectively, this change to the statute was made retroactive to the original date of enactment of section 45G. The new definition provides that QRTME is not reduced by the discount amount in the case of discounted freight shipping rates, the increment in a markup of the price for track materials, or by debt forgiveness or cash payments made by the Class II or Class III railroad to the assignee as consideration for railroad track maintenance expenditures. Consideration received directly or indirectly from persons other than the Class II or Class III railroad, however, does reduce the amount of QRTME. See Joint Committee on Taxation Staff, General Explanation of Tax Legislation Enacted in the 109th Congress, 109th Cong., 2d Sess. 769 (January 17, 2007).

Consistent with the change to the statute, the final regulations retroactively limit the application of the reimbursement rule in §1.45G-1(c)(3)(ii) to consideration received directly or indirectly from persons other than the Class II or Class III railroad. A taxpayer that relied on the reimbursement rule in §1.45G-1T(c)(3)(ii) and reduced its QRTME reported on Form 8900, “Qualified Railroad Track Maintenance Credit,” that was filed with the taxpayer’s Federal income tax return, may amend its return to apply §1.45G-1(c)(3)(ii) to the taxable year provided the taxpayer applies all of §1.45G-1 to the taxable year.

Basis Adjustment

Commentators suggested that the basis reduction required by section 45G(e)(3) should only be taken by the Class II or Class III railroad owning the railroad track even if an assignee claims the RTMC. Section 45G(e)(3) requires that if a credit is allowed with respect to any railroad track, the basis of such track shall be reduced by the amount of the credit so allowed. Section 1.45G-1T(e) of the temporary regulations provides rules for adjusting basis for the amount of the RTMC claimed by an eligible taxpayer. The temporary regulations provide that for purposes of the basis adjustment under section 45G(e)(3), railroad track is the asset, if any, to which the QRTME must be capitalized, whether the asset is tangible or intangible. Therefore, the only basis that is reduced under section 45G(e)(3) is basis created by capitalizing the QRTME.

Congress commonly includes a basis adjustment rule when it enacts business tax credits as an investment incentive. See, for example, sections 43(d), 44(e), 45D(h), 45F(f), 45H(d), 45L(e), and 280C. The purpose of a basis adjustment is to prevent the taxpayer who claims the credit from obtaining a double tax benefit by also including the expenditures on which the credit was claimed in the basis of the asset created by the expenditures. Section 45G(e)(3) is clear and requires that the basis be reduced on the track with respect to which the credit is allowed. Therefore, to further the intent of Congress by preventing the double tax benefit, the basis adjustment rule must require that the increase in basis of property that results from the QRTME (without regard to the basis adjustment rule) be reduced by the amount of the credit allowed with respect to such QRTME. Allowing the reduction in basis by a taxpayer other than the taxpayer claiming the credit on property other than the property whose basis is increased by the QRTME (without regard to the basis adjustment rule) is contrary to the statute. Therefore, the final regulations do not adopt the commentators’ suggestion.

Commentators also suggested that the definition of railroad track under section 45G(e)(3) should be limited to rails, ties, ballast, and other track materials. As stated previously, section 45G(e)(3) requires that basis be reduced on the track with respect to which the credit is allowed. The credit is allowed with respect to QRTME expended on railroad track. The definition of railroad track for purposes of the basis adjustment must be the same as the definition used for determining QRTME. Limiting the definition of railroad track under the basis adjustment rule to rails, ties, ballast, and other track materials is inconsistent with the intent of the definition of railroad track on which expenditures may qualify as QRTME. The definition of railroad track for which expenditures may qualify as QRTME was intended by Congress to be expansive and includes bridges and other related track structures.

Commentators further suggested that the definition of railroad track under section 45G(e)(3) should not include intangibles. All or some of the QRTME paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year may be required to be capitalized under section 263(a) as a tangible asset or as an intangible asset for improvements to another taxpayer’s real property depending upon whether the eligible taxpayer owns (leases) the railroad track and improvements or not. (See, for example, §1.263(a)-4(d)(8), which generally requires capitalization of amounts paid or incurred by a taxpayer to produce or improve real property owned by another.) Regardless of whether an asset created by QRTME is tangible railroad track owned by the taxpayer, leasehold improvement to railroad track, or intangible railroad track for improvements to another taxpayer’s real property, capitalization of the QRTME creates the basis in railroad track that must be reduced under section 45G(e)(3) if the RTMC is claimed on such expenditures. The rules requiring capitalization of amounts paid or incurred by a taxpayer to produce or improve real property owned by another under section 263(a) were prescribed prior to the enactment of section 45G. The provision in these final regulations that specifically references intangible assets is a reminder that, for purposes of section 45G(e)(3), it is possible that the basis that must be reduced is the basis of an intangible asset.

Coordination with Section 61

The temporary regulations, as corrected, do not contain a specific provision relating to the application of section 61, because such a provision would need to be placed in regulations under section 61. Section 1.45G-1T was never intended to provide rules for determining gross income under section 61. Section 61 and its regulations apply to certain transactions involving section 45G regardless of these regulations or the temporary regulations, and additional regulations under section 61 are not necessary. As stated in the preamble to the temporary regulations, there is no provision in section 45G that prevents the application of section 61 to certain transactions under section 45G. Taxpayers are reminded, therefore, that certain transactions under section 45G may generate gross income.

Other Changes

The final regulations contain other various changes that clarify the application of section 45G.

Effective Dates

Section 245(a) of the AJCA provides that section 45G applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004 and beginning before January 1, 2008. Section 423(b) of the TRHCA provides that the amendments made by section 423(a) to section 45G(d) take effect as if included in section 245(a) of the AJCA. The final regulations provide that §1.45G-1 is effective for taxable years ending on or after September 7, 2006 (the effective date of §1.45G-1T). Section 1.45G-1(g)(2) provides that a taxpayer may apply §1.45G-1 to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before September 7, 2006, provided that the taxpayer applies all provisions in §1.45G-1 to the taxable year.

Special Analyses

It has been determined that this Treasury decision is not a significant regulatory action as defined in Executive Order 12866. Therefore, a regulatory assessment is not required. It has been determined that section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 5) does not apply to these regulations, and because the regulations do not impose a collection of information on small entities, the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6) does not apply. Therefore, a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6) is not required. Pursuant to section 7805(f) of the Internal Revenue Code, the notice of proposed rulemaking was submitted to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on its impact on small business.

Adoption of Amendments to the Regulations

Accordingly, 26 CFR parts 1 and 602 are amended as follows:

PART 1—INCOME TAXES

Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to read in part as follows:

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805 * * *

Par. 2. Section 1.45G-0 is added to read as follows:

§1.45G-0 Table of contents for the railroad track maintenance credit rules.

This section lists the table of contents for §1.45G-1.

§1.45G-1 Railroad track maintenance credit.

(a) In general.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Class II railroad and Class III railroad.

(2) Eligible railroad track.

(3) Eligible taxpayer.

(4) Qualifying railroad structure.

(5) Qualified railroad track maintenance expenditures.

(6) Rail facilities.

(7) Railroad-related property.

(8) Railroad-related services.

(9) Railroad track.

(10) Form 8900.

(11) Examples.

(c) Determination of amount of railroad track maintenance credit for the taxable year.

(1) General amount.

(2) Limitation on the credit.

(i) Eligible taxpayer is a Class II railroad or Class III railroad.

(ii) Eligible taxpayer is not a Class II railroad or Class III railroad.

(iii) No carryover of amount that exceeds limitation.

(3) Determination of amount of QRTME paid or incurred.

(i) In general.

(ii) Effect of reimbursements received from persons other than a Class II or Class III railroad.

(4) Examples.

(d) Assignment of track miles.

(1) In general.

(2) Assignment eligibility.

(3) Effective date of assignment.

(4) Assignment information statement.

(i) In general.

(ii) Assignor.

(iii) Assignee.

(iv) Special rule for returns filed prior to November 9, 2007.

(5) Special rules.

(i) Effect of subsequent dispositions of eligible railroad track during the assignment year.

(ii) Effect of multiple assignments of eligible railroad track miles during the same taxable year.

(6) Examples.

(e) Adjustments to basis.

(1) In general.

(2) Basis adjustment made to railroad track.

(3) Examples.

(f) Controlled groups.

(1) In general.

(2) Definitions.

(i) Trade or business.

(ii) Group and controlled group.

(iii) Group credit.

(iv) Consolidated group.

(v) Credit year.

(3) Computation of the group credit.

(4) Allocation of the group credit.

(i) In general.

(ii) Stand-alone entity credit.

(5) Special rules for consolidated groups.

(i) In general.

(ii) Special rule for allocation of group credit among consolidated group members.

(6) Tax accounting periods used.

(i) In general.

(ii) Special rule when timing of QRTME is manipulated.

(7) Membership during taxable year in more than one group.

(8) Intra-group transactions.

(i) In general.

(ii) Payment for QRTME.

(g) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Taxable years ending before September 7, 2006.

(3) Special rules for returns filed prior to November 9, 2007.

§1.45G-0T [Removed]

Par. 3. Section 1.45G-0T is removed.

Par. 4. Section 1.45G-1 is added to read as follows:

§1.45G-1 Railroad track maintenance credit.

(a) In general. For purposes of section 38, the railroad track maintenance credit (RTMC) for qualified railroad track maintenance expenditures (QRTME) paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year is determined under this section. A taxpayer claiming the RTMC must do so by filing Form 8900, “Qualified Railroad Track Maintenance Credit,” with its timely filed (including extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year the RTMC is claimed. Paragraph (b) of this section provides definitions of terms. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for computing the RTMC, including rules regarding limitations on the amount of the credit. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for assigning miles of railroad track. Paragraph (e) of this section contains rules for adjusting basis for the amount of the RTMC claimed by an eligible taxpayer. Paragraph (f) of this section contains rules for computing the amount of the RTMC in the case of a controlled group, and for the allocation of the group credit among members of the controlled group.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of section 45G and this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Class II railroad and Class III railroad have the respective meanings given to these terms by the Surface Transportation Board (STB) without regard to the controlled group rules under section 45G(e)(2).

(2) Eligible railroad track is railroad track (as defined in paragraph (b)(9) of this section) located within the United States that is owned or leased by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad at the close of its taxable year. For purposes of section 45G and this section, a Class II railroad or Class III railroad owns railroad track if the railroad track is subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167 by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad.

(3) Eligible taxpayer is—

(i) A Class II railroad or Class III railroad during the taxable year;

(ii) Any person that transports property using the rail facilities (as defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this section) of a Class II railroad or Class III railroad during the taxable year, but only is an eligible taxpayer with respect to the miles of eligible railroad track assigned to the person for that taxable year by that Class II railroad or Class III railroad under paragraph (d) of this section; or

(iii) Any person that furnishes railroad-related property (as defined in paragraph (b)(7) of this section) or railroad-related services (as defined in paragraph (b)(8) of this section), to a Class II railroad or Class III railroad during the taxable year, but only is an eligible taxpayer with respect to the miles of eligible railroad track assigned to the person for that taxable year by that Class II railroad or Class III railroad under paragraph (d) of this section.

(4) Qualifying railroad structure is property located within the United States that is described in the following STB property accounts in 49 CFR Part 1201, Subpart A:

(i) Property Account 3, Grading.

(ii) Property Account 4, Other right-of-way expenditures.

(iii) Property Account 5, Tunnels and subways.

(iv) Property Account 6, Bridges, trestles, and culverts.

(v) Property Account 7, Elevated structures.

(vi) Property Account 8, Ties.

(vii) Property Account 9, Rails and other track material.

(viii) Property Account 11, Ballast.

(ix) Property Account 13, Fences, snowsheds, and signs.

(x) Property Account 27, Signals and interlockers.

(xi) Property Account 39, Public improvements; construction.

(5) Qualified railroad track maintenance expenditures (QRTME) are expenditures for maintaining, repairing, and improving qualifying railroad structure (as defined in paragraph (b)(4) of this section) that is owned or leased as of January 1, 2005, by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad. These expenditures may or may not be chargeable to a capital account.

(6) Rail facilities of a Class II railroad or Class III railroad are railroad yards, tracks, bridges, tunnels, wharves, docks, stations, and other related assets that are used in the transport of freight by a railroad and that are owned or leased by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad.

(7) Railroad-related property is property that is provided directly to, and is unique to, a railroad and that, in the hands of a Class II railroad or Class III railroad, is described in—

(i) The following STB property accounts in 49 CFR Part 1201, Subpart A:

(A) Property Account 3, Grading;

(B) Property Account 5, Tunnels and subways;

(C) Property Account 22, Storage warehouses; and

(ii) Asset classes 40.1 through 40.54 in the guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service under section 168(i)(1) (for further guidance, for example, see Rev. Proc. 87-56, 1987-2 C.B. 674, and §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter), except that any office building, any passenger train car, and any miscellaneous structure if such structure is not provided directly to, and is not unique to, a railroad are excluded from the definition of railroad-related property.

(8) Railroad-related services are services that are provided directly to, and are unique to, a railroad and that relate to railroad shipping, loading and unloading of railroad freight, or repairs of rail facilities (as defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this section) or railroad-related property (as defined in paragraph (b)(7) of this section). Examples of railroad-related services are the transport of freight by rail; the loading and unloading of freight transported by rail; railroad bridge services; railroad track construction; providing railroad track material or equipment; locomotive leasing or rental; maintenance of railroad’s right-of-way (including vegetation control); piggyback trailer ramping; rail deramping services; and freight train cars repair services. Examples of services that are not railroad-related services are general business services, such as, accounting and bookkeeping, marketing, legal services; janitorial services; office building rental; banking services (including financing of railroad-related property); and purchasing of, or services performed on, property not described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section.

(9) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, railroad track is property described in STB property accounts 8 (ties), 9 (rails and other track material), and 11 (ballast) in 49 CFR part 1201, Subpart A. Double track is treated as multiple lines of railroad track, rather than as a single line of railroad track. Thus, one mile of single track is one mile, but one mile of double track is two miles.

(10) Form 8900. If Form 8900 is revised or renumbered, any reference in this section to that form shall be treated as a reference to the revised or renumbered form.

(11) Examples. The application of this paragraph (b) is illustrated by the following examples. In all examples, the taxpayers use a calendar taxable year, and are not members of a controlled group.

Example 1. A is a manufacturer that in 2006, transports its products by rail using the railroad tracks owned by B, a Class II railroad that owns 500 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. B properly assigns for purposes of section 45G 100 miles of eligible railroad track to A in 2006. A is an eligible taxpayer for 2006 with respect to the 100 miles of eligible railroad track.

Example 2. C is a bank that loans money to several Class III railroads. In 2006, C loans money to D, a Class III railroad, who in turn uses the loan proceeds to purchase track material. Because providing loans is not a service that is unique to a railroad, C is not providing railroad-related services and, thus, C is not an eligible taxpayer, even if D assigns miles of eligible railroad track to C for purposes of section 45G.

Example 3. E leases locomotives directly to Class I, Class II, and Class III railroads. In 2006, E leases locomotives to F, a Class II railroad that owns 200 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. F properly assigns for purposes of section 45G 200 miles of eligible railroad track to E. Because locomotives are property that is unique to a railroad, and E leases these locomotives directly to F in 2006, E is an eligible taxpayer for 2006 with respect to the 200 miles of eligible railroad track assigned to E by F.

Example 4. The facts are the same as in Example 3, except that E leases passenger trains, not locomotives, to F. Because passenger trains are not railroad-related property for purposes of section 45G, E is not an eligible taxpayer even if F assigns miles of eligible railroad track to E for purposes of section 45G.

(c) Determination of amount of railroad track maintenance credit for the taxable year—(1) General amount. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, for purposes of section 38, the RTMC determined under section 45G(a) for the taxable year is equal to 50 percent of the QRTME paid or incurred (as determined under paragraph (c)(3) of this section) by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year.

(2) Limitation on the credit—(i) Eligible taxpayer is a Class II railroad or Class III railroad. If an eligible taxpayer is a Class II railroad or Class III railroad, the RTMC determined under paragraph (c)(1) of this section for the Class II railroad or Class III railroad for any taxable year must not exceed $3,500 multiplied by the sum of—

(A) The number of miles of eligible railroad track owned or leased by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad, reduced by the number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned under paragraph (d) of this section by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad to another eligible taxpayer for that taxable year; and

(B) The number of miles of eligible railroad track owned or leased by another Class II railroad or Class III railroad that are assigned under paragraph (d) of this section to the Class II railroad or Class III railroad for the taxable year.

(ii) Eligible taxpayer is not a Class II railroad or Class III railroad. If an eligible taxpayer is not a Class II railroad or Class III railroad, the RTMC determined under paragraph (c)(1) of this section for the eligible taxpayer for any taxable year must not exceed $3,500 multiplied by the number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned under paragraph (d) of this section by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad to the eligible taxpayer for the taxable year.

(iii) No carryover of amount that exceeds limitation. Amounts that exceed the limitation under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section or paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, may never be carried over to another taxable year.

(3) Determination of amount of QRTME paid or incurred—(i) In general. The term paid or incurred means, in the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, a liability incurred (within the meaning of §1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under section 45G and this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred. Any amount that an eligible taxpayer (assignee) pays a Class II railroad or Class III railroad (assignor) in exchange for an assignment of one or more miles of eligible railroad track under paragraph (d) of this section, is treated, for purposes of this section, as QRTME paid or incurred by the assignee, and not by the assignor, at the time and to the extent the assignor pays or incurs QRTME.

(ii) Effect of reimbursements received from persons other than a Class II or Class III railroad. The amount of QRTME treated as paid or incurred during the taxable year by an eligible taxpayer under paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section shall be reduced by any amount to which the eligible taxpayer is entitled to be reimbursed, directly or indirectly, from persons other than a Class II or Class III railroad.

(4) Examples. The application of this paragraph (c) is illustrated by the following examples. In all examples, the taxpayers use an accrual method of accounting and a calendar taxable year, and are not members of a controlled group.

Example 1. Computation of RTMC; section 45G credit limitation is not exceeded. (i) G is a Class II railroad that owns or has leased to it 1,000 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. H is a manufacturer that in 2006, transports its products by rail using the rail facilities of G. In 2006, for purposes of section 45G, G assigns 100 miles of eligible railroad track to H and does not make any other assignments of railroad track miles. H did not receive any other assignments of railroad track miles in 2006. During 2006, G incurred QRTME in the amount of $2.5 million and H incurred QRTME in the amount of $200,000.

(ii) For 2006, G determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $1,250,000 (50% multiplied by $2,500,000 QRTME incurred by G during 2006). G further determines G’s credit limitation under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for 2006 to be $3,150,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 900 miles of eligible railroad track (1,000 miles owned by, or leased to, G on December 31, 2006, less 100 miles assigned by G to H in 2006)). Because G’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed G’s credit limitation amount for 2006, G may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $1,250,000.

(iii) For 2006, H determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $100,000 (50% multiplied by $200,000 QRTME incurred by H during 2006). H further determines H’s credit limitation under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for 2006 to be $350,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 100 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by G to H in 2006). Because H’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed H’s credit limitation amount for 2006, H may claim a RTMC in the amount of $100,000.

Example 2. Computation of RTMC; section 45G credit limitation is exceeded. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that G assigned for purposes of section 45G only 50 miles of railroad track to H in 2006 and, during 2006, H incurred QRTME in the amount of $400,000.

(ii) For 2006, G determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $1,250,000 (50% multiplied by $2,500,000 QRTME incurred by G during 2006). G further determines G’s credit limitation under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for 2006 to be $3,325,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 950 miles of eligible railroad track (1,000 miles owned by, or leased to, G on December 31, 2006, less 50 miles assigned by G to H in 2006)). Because G’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed G’s credit limitation amount for 2006, G may claim a RTMC in the amount of $1,250,000

(iii) For 2006, H determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $200,000 (50% multiplied by $400,000 QRTME incurred by H during 2006). H further determines H’s credit limitation under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for 2006 to be $175,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 50 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by G to H in 2006). Because H’s tentative amount of RTMC exceeds H’s credit limitation amount for 2006, H may claim a RTMC in the amount of $175,000 (the credit limitation amount). Under paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section, there is no carryover of the $25,000 (the tentative amount of $200,000 less the credit limitation amount of $175,000) that exceeds the limitation.

Example 3. Railroad track miles assigned for payment. (i) J is a Class II railroad that owns or has leased to it 1,000 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. K is a corporation that sells ties, ballast, and other track material to Class I, Class II, and Class III railroads. During 2006, K sold these items to J and J incurred QRTME in the amount of $1 million. Also, on December 6, 2006, J assigned for purposes of section 45G 150 miles of eligible railroad track to K and K paid J $800,000 for that assignment. K did not pay or incur any other QRTME during 2006.

(ii) For 2006, in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, J is treated as having incurred QRTME in the amount of $200,000 ($1 million QRTME actually incurred by J less the $800,000 paid by K to J for the assignment of the railroad track miles in 2006). For 2006, J determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $100,000 (50% multiplied by $200,000 QRTME treated as incurred by J during 2006). J further determines J’s credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for 2006 to be $2,975,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 850 miles of eligible railroad track (1,000 miles owned by, or leased to, J on December 31, 2006, less 150 miles assigned by J to K in 2006)). Because J’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed J’s credit limitation amount for 2006, J may claim a RTMC in the amount of $100,000.

(iii) For 2006, K is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, K provided railroad-related property to J and received an assignment of eligible railroad track miles from J. Under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, K is treated as having incurred QRTME in the amount of $800,000 (the amount paid by K to J for the assignment of the railroad track miles in 2006). For 2006, K determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $400,000 (50% multiplied by $800,000 QRTME treated as incurred by K during 2006). K further determines K’s credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for 2006 to be $525,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 150 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by J in 2006). Because K’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed K’s credit limitation amount for 2006, K may claim a RTMC in the amount of $400,000.

(iv) The results in this Example 3 would be the same if K sold the ties, ballast, and other track material with a fair market value of $1 million to J for $200,000 in exchange for the assignment by J of 150 miles of eligible railroad track to K.

Example 4. Reimbursement of QRTME. (i) L is a Class III railroad that owns or has leased to it 500 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. M is a manufacturer that in 2006 transports its products by rail using the rail facilities of L. During 2006, L did not incur any QRTME. Also, in 2006, L assigned for purposes of section 45G 200 miles of eligible railroad track to M and agreed to reduce L’s freight shipping rates to M by $250,000 in exchange for M upgrading these railroad track miles. Consequently, during 2006, M incurred QRTME of $500,000 to upgrade these 200 miles of railroad track and L reduced L’s freight shipping rates for M by $250,000.

(ii) For 2006, M is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, M transported property using the rail facilities of L and received an assignment of eligible railroad track miles from L. The amount of QRTME paid or incurred by M during 2006 is $500,000 and is not reduced by the reimbursement of $250,000 by L to M because, under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, QRTME is not reduced by reimbursements from Class II or Class III railroads. For 2006, M determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $250,000 (50% multiplied by $500,000 QRTME incurred by M during 2006). M further determines M’s credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for 2006 to be $700,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 200 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by L to M in 2006). Because M’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed M’s credit limitation amount for 2006, M may claim a RTMC in the amount of $250,000.

(d) Assignment of track miles—(1) In general. An assignment of any mile of eligible railroad track under this paragraph (d) is a designation by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad that is made solely for purposes of section 45G and this section of a specific number of miles of eligible railroad track as being assigned to another eligible taxpayer for a taxable year. A designation must be in writing and must include the name and taxpayer identification number of the assignee, and the information required under the rules of paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(B) of this section. A designation requires no transfer of legal title or other indicia of ownership of the eligible railroad track, and need not specify the location of any assigned mile of eligible railroad track. Further, an assigned mile of eligible railroad track need not correspond to any specific mile of eligible railroad track with respect to which the eligible taxpayer actually pays or incurs the QRTME.

(2) Assignment eligibility. Only a Class II railroad or Class III railroad may assign a mile of eligible railroad track. If a Class II railroad or Class III railroad assigns a mile of eligible railroad track to an eligible taxpayer, the assignee is not permitted to reassign any mile of eligible railroad track to another eligible taxpayer. The maximum number of miles of eligible railroad track that may be assigned by a Class II railroad or Class III railroad for any taxable year is its total miles of eligible railroad track less the miles of eligible railroad track that the Class II railroad or Class III railroad retains for itself in determining its RTMC for the taxable year.

(3) Effective date of assignment. If a Class II railroad or Class III railroad assigns a mile of eligible railroad track, the assignment is treated as being made by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad at the close of its taxable year in which the assignment was made. With respect to the assignee, the assignment of a mile of eligible railroad track is taken into account for the taxable year of the assignee that includes the date the assignment is treated as being made by the assignor Class II railroad or Class III railroad under this paragraph (d)(3).

(4) Assignment information statement—(i) In general. A taxpayer must file Form 8900, “Qualified Railroad Track Maintenance Credit,” with its timely filed (including extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year for which the taxpayer assigns any mile of eligible railroad track, even if the taxpayer is not itself claiming the RTMC for that taxable year.

(ii) Assignor. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iv) of this section, a Class II railroad or Class III railroad (assignor) that assigns one or more miles of eligible railroad track during a taxable year to one or more eligible taxpayers must attach to the assignor’s Form 8900 for that taxable year an information statement providing—

(A) The name and taxpayer identification number of each assignee;

(B) The total number of miles of the assignor’s eligible railroad track;

(C) The number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned by the assignor to each assignee for the taxable year; and

(D) The total number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned by the assignor to all assignees for the taxable year.

(iii) Assignee. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iv) of this section, an eligible taxpayer (assignee) that has received an assignment of miles of eligible railroad track during its taxable year from a Class II railroad or Class III railroad, and that claims the RTMC for that taxable year, must attach to the assignee’s Form 8900 for that taxable year a statement—

(A) Providing the total number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned to the assignee for the assignee’s taxable year; and

(B) Attesting that the assignee has in writing, and has retained as part of the assignee’s records for purposes of §1.6001-1(a), the following information from each assignor:

(1) The name and taxpayer identification number of each assignor.

(2) The date of each assignment made by each assignor (as determined under paragraph (d)(3) of this section) to the assignee;

(3) The number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned by each assignor to the assignee for the assignee’s taxable year.

(iv) Special rules for returns filed prior to November 9, 2007. If an eligible taxpayer’s Federal income tax return for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before November 9, 2007, was filed before December 13, 2007, and the eligible taxpayer is not filing an amended Federal income tax return for that taxable year pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section before the eligible taxpayer’s next filed original Federal income tax return, and the eligible taxpayer wants to apply paragraph (g)(2) of this section but did not include with that return the information specified in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) or (iii) of this section, as applicable, the eligible taxpayer must attach a statement containing the information specified in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) or (iii) of this section, as applicable, to either—

(A) The eligible taxpayer’s next filed original Federal income tax return; or

(B) The eligible taxpayer’s amended Federal income tax return that is filed pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, provided that amended Federal income tax return is filed by the eligible taxpayer before its next filed original Federal income tax return.

(5) Special rules—(i) Effect of subsequent dispositions of eligible railroad track during the assignment year. If a Class II railroad or Class III railroad assigns one or more miles of eligible railroad track that it owned or leased as of the actual date of the assignment, but does not own or lease any eligible railroad track at the close of the taxable year in which the assignment is made by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad, the assignment is not valid for that taxable year for purposes of section 45G and this section.

(ii) Effect of multiple assignments of eligible railroad track miles during the same taxable year. If a Class II railroad or Class III railroad assigns more miles of eligible railroad track than it owned or leased as of the close of the taxable year in which the assignment is made by the Class II railroad or Class III railroad, the assignment is valid for purposes of section 45G and this section only with respect to the name of the assignee and the number of miles listed by the assignor Class II railroad or Class III railroad on the statement required under paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section and only to the extent of the maximum miles of eligible railroad track that may be assigned by the assignor Class II railroad or Class III railroad as determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. If the total number of miles on this statement exceeds the maximum miles of eligible railroad track that may be assigned by the assignor Class II railroad or Class III railroad (as determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section), the total number of miles on the statement shall be reduced by the excess amount of miles. This reduction is allocated among each assignee listed on the statement in proportion to the total number of miles listed on the statement for that assignee.

(6) Examples. The application of this paragraph (d) is illustrated by the following examples. In none of the examples are the taxpayers members of a controlled group:

Example 1. Assignor and assignee have the same taxable year. (i) N, a calendar year taxpayer, is a Class II railroad that owns 500 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. O, a calendar year taxpayer, is not a railroad, but is a taxpayer that provides railroad-related property to N during 2006. On November 7, 2006, N assigns for purposes of section 45G 300 miles of eligible railroad track to O. O receives no other assignment of eligible railroad track in 2006. O pays or incurs QRTME in the amount of $100,000 in November 2006, and $50,000 in February 2007. N and O each file Form 8900 with their timely filed Federal income tax returns for 2006 and attach the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) and (iii), respectively, of this section reporting the assignment of the 300 miles of eligible railroad track to O.

(ii) The assignment of the 300 miles of eligible railroad track made by N to O on November 7, 2006, is treated as made on December 31, 2006 (at the close of the N’s taxable year). Consequently, the assignment is taken into account by O for O’s taxable year ending on December 31, 2006. For 2006, O is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, O provides railroad-related property to N and receives an assignment of 300 eligible railroad track miles from N. For 2006, O determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $50,000 (50% multiplied by $100,000 QRTME paid or incurred by O during 2006). O further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for 2006 to be $1,050,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 300 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by N to O on December 31, 2006). Because O’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed O’s credit limitation amount for 2006, O may claim a RMTC for 2006 in the amount of $50,000.

Example 2. Assignor and assignee have different taxable years. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that O’s taxable year ends on March 31.

(ii) The assignment of the 300 miles of eligible railroad track made by N to O on November 7, 2006, is treated as made on December 31, 2006. As a result, the assignment is taken into account by O for O’s taxable year ending on March 31, 2007. Thus, for the taxable year ending on March 31, 2007, O determines the tentative amount of RMTC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $75,000 (50% multiplied by $150,000 QRTME incurred by O during its taxable year ending March 31, 2007). Because O’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed O’s credit limitation amount for the taxable year ending March 31, 2007, O may claim a RMTC for the taxable year ending March 31, 2007, in the amount of $75,000.

Example 3. Assignment location differs from QRTME location. (i) P, a calendar-year taxpayer, is a Class III railroad that owns or has leased to it 200 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. P owns 50 miles of this railroad track and leases 150 miles of this railroad track from Q, a Class I railroad. On February 8, 2006, P assigns for purposes of section 45G 50 miles of eligible railroad track to R. R is not a railroad, but is a taxpayer that ships products using the 50 miles of eligible railroad track owned by P, and R paid $100,000 in 2006 to P to enable P to upgrade these 50 miles of eligible railroad track. In March 2006, P also assigns for purposes of section 45G 150 miles of eligible railroad track to S. S is not a railroad, but is a taxpayer that provides railroad-related property to P, and S paid $400,000 to P to enable P to upgrade P’s 200 miles of eligible railroad track. For 2006, P pays or incurs QRTME in the amount of $500,000 to upgrade the 150 miles of eligible railroad track that it leases from Q and pays or incurs no QRTME on the 50 miles of eligible railroad track that it owns. For 2006, P receives no other assignment of eligible railroad track miles and did not retain any eligible railroad track miles for itself. Also, R and S do not pay or incur any other amounts that would qualify as QRTME during 2006. P, R, and S each file Form 8900 with their timely filed Federal income tax returns for 2006 and attach the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) or (iii) of this section, whichever applies, reporting the assignment of eligible railroad track by P to R or S in 2006.

(ii) For 2006, in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, P is treated as having incurred QRTME in the amount of $0 ($500,000 QRTME actually incurred by P less the $100,000 paid by R to P for the assignment of the 50 miles of eligible railroad track and the $400,000 paid by S to P for the assignment of the 150 miles of eligible railroad track). Further, P assigned all of its eligible railroad track miles to R and S for 2006. Accordingly, for 2006, P may not claim any RTMC.

(iii) For 2006, R is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, R ships property using the rail facilities of P and receives an assignment of 50 eligible railroad track miles from P. In accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, R is treated as having incurred QRTME in the amount of $100,000 (the amount paid by R to P for the assignment of the eligible railroad track miles in 2006) even though no work was performed on the 50 miles of eligible railroad track that was assigned by P to R. For 2006, R determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $50,000 (50% multiplied by $100,000 QRTME treated as incurred by R during 2006). R further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to be $175,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 50 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by P to R in 2006). Because R’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed R’s credit limitation amount for 2006, R may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $50,000.

(iv) For 2006, S is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, S provides railroad-related property to P and receives an assignment of 150 eligible railroad track miles from P. In accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, S is treated as having incurred QRTME in the amount of $400,000 (amount paid by S to P for the assignment of the eligible railroad track miles in 2006). For 2006, S determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $200,000 (50% multiplied by $400,000 QRTME treated as incurred by S during 2006). S further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to be $525,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 150 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by P to S in 2006). Because S’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed S’s credit limitation amount for 2006, S may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $200,000.

Example 4. Multiple assignments of track miles. (i) T, a calendar-year taxpayer, is a Class III railroad that owns or has leased to it 200 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. T owns 75 miles of this railroad track and leases 125 miles of this railroad track from U, a Class I railroad. V and W are not railroads, but are both taxpayers that provide railroad-related services to T during 2006. On January 15, 2006, T assigns for purposes of section 45G 200 miles of eligible railroad track to V. V agrees to incur, in 2006, $1.4 million of QRTME to upgrade a portion of/segment of these 200 miles of eligible railroad track. Due to unexpected financial difficulties, V only incurs $250,000 of QRTME during 2006 and on May 15, 2006, T learns that V is unable to incur the remainder of the QRTME. On June 15, 2006, T assigns for purposes of section 45G the 200 miles of railroad track to W. In 2006, W incurs $1,100,000 of QRTME to upgrade a portion of/segment of the railroad track. For 2006, T receives no other assignment of eligible railroad track miles and did not retain any eligible railroad track miles for itself. V and W do not receive any other assignments of miles of eligible railroad track miles from a Class II railroad or Class III railroad during 2006. T and W each file Form 8900 with their timely filed Federal income tax returns for 2006, and attach the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) and (iii), respectively, of this section, reporting the assignment of 200 miles of eligible railroad track to W.

(ii) Because T did not retain any miles of eligible railroad track for itself for 2006, the maximum miles of eligible railroad track that may be assigned by T for 2006 is 200 miles pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section. On the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, T assigned a total of 200 miles of eligible railroad track to W. Consequently, because T did not list V as an assignee on T’s statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, V did not receive an assignment of eligible railroad track miles from T during 2006 and V is not an eligible taxpayer for 2006. Thus, for 2006, V may not claim any RTMC even though V incurred QRTME in the amount of $250,000.

(iii) For 2006, W is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, W provides railroad-related services to T and receives an assignment of 200 eligible railroad track miles from T. W determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $550,000 (50% multiplied by $1,100,000 QRTME incurred by W during 2006). W further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to be $700,000 ($3,500 multiplied by the 200 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by T to W in 2006). Because W’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed W’s credit limitation amount for 2006, W may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $550,000.

Example 5. Multiple assignments of track miles. (i) Same facts as in Example 4, except T, to its Form 8900 for 2006, attaches the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section assigning 200 miles of eligible railroad track to W and 200 miles of eligible railroad track to V.

(ii) Because T did not retain any miles of eligible railroad track for itself for 2006, the maximum miles of eligible railroad track that may be assigned by T for 2006 is 200 miles pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section. However, on the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, T assigned a total of 400 miles of eligible railroad track (200 miles to W and 200 miles to V). Consequently, the 400 miles of eligible railroad track on this statement must be reduced to the 200 maximum miles of eligible railroad track available for assignment for 2006. Because the statement reports 200 miles of eligible railroad track assigned to each W and V, the reduction of 200 miles (400 total miles of eligible railroad track on the statement less 200 maximum miles of eligible railroad track available for assignment) is allocated pro-rata between W and V and, therefore, 100 miles each to W and V. Thus, pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, the number of miles of eligible railroad track assigned by T to W and V for 2006 is 100 miles each.

(iii) For 2006, V is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, V provides railroad-related services to T and receives an assignment of 100 eligible railroad track miles from T. V determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $125,000 (50% multiplied by $250,000 QRTME incurred by V during 2006). V further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to be $350,000 ($3,500 multiplied by the 100 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by T to V in 2006). Because V’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed W’s credit limitation amount for 2006, V may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $125,000.

(iv) For 2006, W is an eligible taxpayer because, during 2006, W provides railroad-related services to T and receives an assignment of 100 eligible railroad track miles from T. W determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $550,000 (50% multiplied by $1,100,000 QRTME incurred by W during 2006). W further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to be $350,000 ($3,500 multiplied by the 100 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by T to W in 2006). Because W’s tentative amount of RTMC exceeds W’s credit limitation amount for 2006, W may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $350,000 (the credit limitation). There is no carryover of the amount of $200,000 (the tentative amount of $550,000 less the credit limitation amount of $350,000).

(e) Adjustments to basis—(1) In general. All or some of the QRTME paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year may be required to be capitalized under section 263(a) as a tangible asset or as an intangible asset. See, for example, §1.263(a)-4(d)(8), which requires capitalization of amounts paid or incurred by a taxpayer to produce or improve real property owned by another (except to the extent the taxpayer is selling services at fair market value to produce or improve the real property) if the real property can reasonably be expected to produce significant economic benefits for the taxpayer. The basis of the tangible asset or intangible asset includes the capitalized amount of the QRTME.

(2) Basis adjustment made to railroad track. An eligible taxpayer must reduce the adjusted basis of any railroad track with respect to which the eligible taxpayer claims the RTMC. For purposes of section 45G(e)(3) and this paragraph (e)(2), the adjusted basis of any railroad track with respect to which the eligible taxpayer claims the RTMC is limited to the amount of QRTME, if any, that is required to be capitalized into the qualifying railroad structure or an intangible asset. The adjusted basis of the railroad track is reduced by the amount of the RTMC allowable (as determined under paragraph (c) of this section) by the eligible taxpayer for the taxable year, but not below zero. This reduction is taken into account at the time the QRTME is paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer and before the depreciation deduction with respect to such railroad track is determined for the taxable year for which the RTMC is allowable. If all or some of the QRTME paid or incurred by an eligible taxpayer during the taxable year is capitalized under section 263(a) to more than one asset, whether tangible or intangible (for example, railroad track and bridges), the reduction to the basis of these assets under this paragraph (e)(2) is allocated among each of the assets subject to the reduction in proportion to the unadjusted basis of each asset at the time the QRTME is paid or incurred during that taxable year.

(3) Examples. The application of this paragraph (e) is illustrated by the following examples. In each example, all taxpayers use a calendar taxable year, and no taxpayers are members of a controlled group.

Example 1. (i) X is a Class II railroad that owns 500 miles of railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. During 2006, X incurs $1 million of QRTME for maintaining this railroad track. X uses the track maintenance allowance method for track structure expenditures (for further guidance, see Rev. Proc. 2002-65, 2002-2 C.B. 700, and §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). Assume all of the $1 million QRTME is track structure expenditures and none of it was expended for new track structure.

(ii) For 2006, X determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $500,000 (50% multiplied by $1 million QRTME incurred by X during 2006). X further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for 2006 to be $1,750,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 500 miles of eligible railroad track). Because X’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed X’s credit limitation amount for 2006, X may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $500,000.

(iii) Of the $1 million QRTME incurred by X during 2006, X determines under the track maintenance allowance method that $750,000 is the track maintenance allowance under section 162 and $250,000 is the capitalized amount for the track structure. In accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section, X reduces the capitalized amount of $250,000 by the RTMC of $500,000 claimed by X for 2006, but not below zero. Thus, the capitalized amount of $250,000 is reduced to zero. X also deducts under section 162 a track maintenance allowance of $750,000 on its 2006 Federal income tax return.

Example 2. (i) Y is a Class II railroad that owns or has leased to it 500 miles of eligible railroad track within the United States on December 31, 2006. Z is not a railroad, but is a taxpayer that, in 2006, transports its products using the rail facilities of Y. In 2006, Y assigns for purposes of section 45G 300 miles of eligible railroad track to Z. Z does not receive any other assignments of eligible railroad track miles in 2006. During 2006, Z incurs QRTME in the amount of $1 million, and Y does not incur any QRTME. Y and Z each file Form 8900 with their timely filed Federal income tax returns for 2006 and attach the statement required by paragraph (d)(4)(ii) and (iii), respectively, of this section reporting the assignment of the 300 miles of eligible railroad track to Z.

(ii) For 2006, Z determines the tentative amount of RTMC under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to be $500,000 (50% multiplied by $1 million QRTME incurred by Z during 2006). Z further determines the credit limitation amount under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for 2006 to be $1,050,000 ($3,500 multiplied by 300 miles of eligible railroad track assigned by Y to Z in 2006). Because Z’s tentative amount of RTMC does not exceed Z’s credit limitation amount for 2006, Z may claim a RTMC for 2006 in the amount of $500,000.

(iii) For 2006, Z also must determine the portion of the $1 million QRTME that Z incurs that is required to be capitalized under section 263(a), and the portion that is a section 162 expense. Because Z is not a Class II railroad or Class III railroad, Z cannot use the track maintenance allowance method. Assume that all of the QRTME constitutes an intangible asset under §1.263(a)-4(d)(8) and, therefore, is required to be capitalized by Z under section 263(a) as an intangible asset. In accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section, Z reduces the capitalized amount of $1 million by the RTMC of $500,000 claimed by Z for 2006. Thus, the capitalized amount of $1 million for the intangible asset is reduced to $500,000. Further, pursuant to §1.167(a)-3(b)(1)(iv), Z may treat this intangible asset with an adjusted basis of $500,000 as having a useful life of 25 years for purposes of the depreciation allowance under section 167(a).

(f) Controlled groups—(1) In general. Pursuant to section 45G(e)(2), if an eligible taxpayer is a member of a controlled group of corporations, rules similar to the rules in §1.41-6T apply for determining the amount of the RTMC under section 45G(a) and this section. To determine the amount of RTMC (if any) allowable to a trade or business that at the end of its taxable year is a member of a controlled group, a taxpayer must—

(i) Compute the group credit in the manner described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section; and

(ii) Allocate the group credit among the members of the group in the manner described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(2) Definitions. For purposes of section 45G(e)(2) and paragraph (f) of this section—

(i) A trade or business is a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a trust, an estate, or a corporation that is carrying on a trade or business (within the meaning of section 162). Any corporation that is a member of a commonly controlled group shall be deemed to be carrying on a trade or business if any other member of that group is carrying on any trade or business;

(ii) Group and controlled group means a controlled group of corporations, as defined in section 41(f)(5), or a group of trades or businesses under common control. For rules for determining whether trades or businesses are under common control, see §1.52-1 (b) through (g);

(iii) Group credit means the RTMC (if any) allowable to a controlled group;

(iv) Consolidated group has the meaning set forth in §1.1502-1(h); and

(v) Credit year means the taxable year for which the member is computing the RTMC.

(3) Computation of the group credit. All members of a controlled group are treated as a single taxpayer for purposes of computing the RTMC. The group credit is computed by applying all of the section 45G computational rules (including the rules set forth in this section) on an aggregate basis.

(4) Allocation of the group credit—(i) In general. (A) To the extent the group credit (if any) computed under paragraph (f)(3) of this section does not exceed the sum of the stand-alone entity credits of all of the members of a controlled group, computed under paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section, such group credit shall be allocated among the members of the controlled group in proportion to the stand-alone entity credits of the members of the controlled group, computed under paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section:

group credit that does not exceed sum of all the members’ stand-alone entity credits × member’s stand-alone entity credit
  Sum of all the members’ stand-alone entity credits.

(B) To the extent that the group credit (if any) computed under paragraph (f)(3) of this section exceeds the sum of the stand-alone entity credits of all of the members of the controlled group, computed under paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section, such excess shall be allocated among the members of a controlled group in proportion to the QRTMEs of the members of the controlled group:

(group credit less the sum of all the members’ stand-alone entity credits) × QRTMEs of members that are eligible taxpayers
  sum of QRTMEs of all members that are eligible taxpayers.

(ii) Stand-alone entity credit. The term stand-alone entity credit means the RTMC (if any) that would be allowable to a member of a controlled group if the credit were computed as if section 45G(e)(2) did not apply, except that the member must apply the rules provided in paragraphs (f)(5) (relating to consolidated groups) and (f)(8) (relating to intra-group transactions) of this section.

(5) Special rules for consolidated groups—(i) In general. For purposes of applying paragraph (f)(4) of this section, a consolidated group whose members are members of a controlled group is treated as a single member of the controlled group and a single stand-alone entity credit is computed for the consolidated group.

(ii) Special rule for allocation of group credit among consolidated group members. The portion of the group credit that is allocated to a consolidated group is allocated to the members of the consolidated group in accordance with the principles of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. However, for this purpose, the stand-alone entity credit of a member of a consolidated group is computed without regard to section 45G(e)(2).

(6) Tax accounting periods used—(i) In general. The credit allowable to a member of a controlled group is that member’s share of the group credit computed as of the end of that member’s taxable year. In computing the group credit for a group whose members have different taxable years, a member generally should treat the taxable year of another member that ends with or within the credit year of the computing member as the credit year of that other member. For example, Q, R, and S are members of a controlled group of corporations. Both Q and R are calendar year taxpayers. S files a return using a fiscal year ending June 30. For purposes of computing the group credit at the end of Q’s and R’s taxable year on December 31, S’s fiscal year ending June 30, which ends within Q’s and R’s taxable year, is treated as S’s credit year.

(ii) Special rule when timing of QRTME is manipulated. If the timing of QRTME by members using different tax accounting periods is manipulated to generate a credit in excess of the amount that would be allowable if all members of the group used the same tax accounting period, then the appropriate Internal Revenue Service official in the operating division that has examination jurisdiction of the return may require each member of the group to calculate the credit in the current taxable year and all future years as if all members of the group had the same taxable year and base period as the computing member.

(7) Membership during taxable year in more than one group. A trade or business may be a member of only one group for a taxable year. If, without application of this paragraph (f)(7), a business would be a member of more than one group at the end of its taxable year, the business shall be treated as a member of the group in which it was included for its preceding taxable year. If the business was not included for its preceding taxable year in any group in which it could be included as of the end of its taxable year, the business shall designate in its timely filed (including extensions) federal income tax return for the taxable year the group in which it is being included. If the business does not so designate, then the appropriate Internal Revenue Service official in the operating division that has examination jurisdiction of the return will determine the group in which the business is to be included. If the Federal income tax return for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before November 9, 2007, was filed before December 13, 2007, and the business wants to apply paragraph (g)(2) of this section but did not designate its group membership in that return, the business must designate its group membership for that year either—

(i) In its next filed original Federal income tax return; or

(ii) In its amended Federal income tax return that is filed pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, provided that amended Federal income tax return is filed by the business before its next filed original Federal income tax return.

(8) Intra-group transactions—(i) In general. Because all members of a group under common control are treated as a single taxpayer for purposes of determining the RTMC, transfers between members of the group are generally disregarded.

(ii) Payment for QRTME. Amounts paid or incurred by the owner (or lessor) of eligible railroad track to another member of the group for QRTME shall be taken into account as QRTME by the owner (or lessor) of the eligible railroad track for purposes of section 45G only to the extent of the lesser of—

(A) The amount paid or incurred to the other member; or

(B) The amount that would have been considered paid or incurred by the other member for the QRTME, if the QRTME was not reimbursed by the owner (or lessor) of the eligible railroad track.

(g) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (g)(2) and (g)(3) of this section, this section applies to taxable years ending on or after September 7, 2006.

(2) Taxable years ending before September 7, 2006. A taxpayer may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before September 7, 2006, provided that the taxpayer applies all provisions in this section to the taxable year.

(3) Special rules for returns filed prior to November 9, 2007. If a taxpayer’s Federal income tax return for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before November 9, 2007, was filed before December 13, 2007, and the taxpayer is not filing an amended Federal income tax return for that taxable year pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section before the taxpayer’s next filed original Federal income tax return, see paragraphs (d)(4)(iv) and (f)(7) of this section for the statements that must be attached to the taxpayer’s next filed original Federal income tax return.

§1.45G-1T [Removed]

Par. 5. Section 1.45G-1T is removed.

PART 602—OMB CONTROL NUMBERS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

Par. 6. The authority citation for part 602 continues to read as follows:

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805.

Par. 7. In §602.101, paragraph (b) is amended by removing the entry for “1.45G-1T” from the table.

Par. 8. In §602.101, paragraph (b) is amended by adding the following entry in numerical order to the table to read as follows:

§602.101 OMB control numbers.

* * * * *

(b) * * *

CFR part or section where identified and described   Current OMB control no.
* * * * *    
1.45G-1   1545-2031
* * * * *    

Linda E. Stiff,
Deputy Commissioner for
Services and Enforcement
.

Approved November 2, 2007.

Eric Solomon,
Assistant Secretary of the
Treasury (Tax Policy)
.

Note

(Filed by the Office of the Federal Register on November 9, 2007, 8:45 a.m., and published in the issue of the Federal Register for November 13, 2007, 72 F.R. 63813)

Drafting Information

The principal author of these regulations is David Selig, Office of the Associate Chief Counsel (Passthroughs and Special Industries). However, other personnel from the IRS and Treasury Department participated in their development.

* * * * *


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