Tax Challenges of Business Income
FS-2008-20, April 2008
WASHINGTON—Internal Revenue Service research indicates that understated business income contributes significantly to the tax gap, with the majority understated by small businesses.
To assist small business and self-employed taxpayers better understand their reporting obligations, this fact sheet addresses the issue of income and how to determine gross income.
Business Income, Gross Receipts or Sales
If there is a connection between any income received and a business, the income is business income. A connection exists if it is clear that the payment of income would not have been made if the business did not exist and operate.
Small business owners and self-employed taxpayers must report on their tax returns all income received from their businesses unless specifically excluded by law. In most cases, business income will be in the form of cash, checks and credit card charges.
But business income can be in other forms, such as property or services. There are many forms, including: bartering, real estate rents, personal property rents, interest and dividend income, canceled debt, promissory notes, lost income payments, damages, economic injury payments, as well as kickbacks.
All income earned is taxable. Directing payment of income to a third party does not remove the reporting and payment requirements for small businesses and self-employed taxpayers.
Cost of Goods Sold
Some businesses may make or buy goods to sell. If so, these businesses may deduct the cost of goods sold (COGS) from their gross receipts. To determine these costs, the value of inventory at the beginning and end of the year must be calculated.
There are several factors that go into determining COGS, including: inventory at the beginning of the year; purchases less cost of items withdrawn for personal use; labor costs (generally applies to manufacturing and mining operations); materials and supplies (generally a manufacturing cost); other costs (generally applies to manufacturing and mining operations); and inventory at the end of the year.
Inventory, net purchases, cost of labor, materials and supplies, and other costs are added together. Inventory at the end of the year is subtracted from this total to determine COGS.
To calculate gross income, first determine net receipts (gross receipts minus returns and allowances) and minus the cost of goods sold. Returns and allowances include cash or credit refunds made to customers, rebates and other allowances off the actual sales price. Then add any other income, including fuel tax credits. Gross income must be determined first before deducting business expenses.
Tools to Use
There are tools available to assist small business owners and the self-employed track and report income such as the use of: a formal set of books and records with strong; accounting/financial computer software; and separate bank accounts for business and personal income and expenses.
Small businesses and self-employed taxpayers greatly benefit by accurately recording and reporting all income. Insufficient recordkeeping could cause income to be over-reported and too much tax paid or too little income reported and too little tax paid.
The Small Business and Self-Employed One-Stop Resource is a Web based tool. It contains a wealth of information to educate business owners and the self-employed on their unique tax filing and reporting obligations.
Another Web based tool is the Online Learning and Educational Products section of IRS.gov which allows business owners to view a streaming video of an IRS Small Business Workshop, order the Small Business Workshop on DVD, take an IRS course, or complete an online, self-directed version of a workshop taught live around the country.
These tools can help to more accurately determine income and expenses as well. There are benefits beyond accurate income and expense reporting to be gained. Formalized financial records will help small businesses when it is time to apply for loans or efforts to obtain capital for expansion.