20.1.1  Introduction and Penalty Relief (Cont. 1)

20.1.1.3 
Criteria for Relief From Penalties

20.1.1.3.3 
Statutory Exceptions and Administrative Waivers

20.1.1.3.3.4 
Advice

20.1.1.3.3.4.1  (11-25-2011)
Written Advice from the IRS

  1. The IRS is required by IRC 6404(f) and Treas. Reg. 301.6404–3 to abate any portion of any penalty attributable to erroneous written advice furnished by an officer or employee of the IRS acting in their official capacity.

  2. If the taxpayer does not meet the criteria for penalty relief under IRC 6404(f), the taxpayer may qualify for other penalty relief. For instance, taxpayers who fail to meet all of the IRC 6404(f) criteria may still qualify for relief under reasonable cause if the IRS determines that the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence in relying on the IRS’s written advice. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.5 - Erroneous Advice or Reliance.

  3. Requests that qualify for penalty relief based on erroneous written advice from the IRS under IRC 6404(f) must be filed:

    1. Within the period allowed for collection of the penalty or addition to tax, or

    2. If the penalty or addition to tax has been paid, within the period allowed for claiming a credit or refund of such penalty or addition to tax.

20.1.1.3.3.4.2  (12-11-2009)
Oral Advice from IRS

  1. The IRS may provide penalty relief based on a taxpayer’s reliance on erroneous oral advice from the IRS. The IRS is required by IRC 6404(f) and Treas. Reg. 301.6404–3 to abate any portion of any penalty attributable to erroneous written advice furnished by an employee acting in their official capacity. Administratively, the IRS has extended this relief to include erroneous oral advice when appropriate.

  2. In addition to considering the criteria provided in Treas. Reg. 301.6404–3, IRM 20.1.1.3.3.4, Advice, and IRM 20.1.1.3.3.4.1, Written Advice From the IRS, consider the following:

    1. Did the taxpayer exercise ordinary business care and prudence in relying on that advice?

    2. Was there a clear relationship between the taxpayer’s situation, the advice provided, and the penalty assessed?

    3. What is the taxpayer’s prior tax history and prior experience with the tax requirements?

    4. Did the IRS provide correct information by other means (such as tax forms and publications)?

    5. What type of supporting documentation is available?

  3. The following is supporting documentation:

    1. A notation of the taxpayer’s question to the IRS,

    2. Documentation regarding the advice provided by the IRS,

    3. Information regarding the office and method by which the advice was obtained,

    4. The date the advice was provided, and

    5. The name of the employee who provided the information.

20.1.1.3.3.4.3  (12-11-2009)
Advice from a Tax Advisor

  1. Reliance on the advice of a tax advisor generally relates to the reasonable cause exception in IRC 6664(c) for the accuracy-related penalty under IRC 6662. See IRM 20.1.5, Return Related Penalties, and Treas. Reg. 1.6664–4(c).

  2. However, in very limited instances, reliance on the advice of a tax advisor may provide relief from other penalties when the tax advisor provides advice on a substantive tax issue.

    Example:

    The employer researched all available IRS publications on the subject of contract labor, provided clear and convincing documentation as to the duties of the workers to the tax advisor, and requested an opinion from the tax advisor as to whether the workers were "contract labor" or "employees." As a result, the tax advisor advised the employer that the workers were "contract labor." However, the IRS later determined that the workers were "employees" and not "contract labor."

  3. Penalty relief based on reliance on the advice of a tax advisor is limited to issues generally considered technical or complicated. The taxpayer’s responsibility to file, pay, or deposit taxes cannot be excused by reliance on the advice of a tax advisor.

  4. Because the IRC and Treasury Regulations sections that provide penalty relief criteria for erroneous advice from a tax advisor are generally limited to the accuracy-related penalty, relief from other penalties must meet the reasonable cause standards. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2, Reasonable Cause.

20.1.1.3.3.5  (11-25-2011)
Fire, Casualty, Natural Disaster, or Other Disturbance

  1. This section discusses penalty relief provisions for circumstances that generally fall under the definition of "major disaster " (such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, etc.) or "emergency" (see IRM 25.16.1.1) and that affect a significant number of taxpayers located within a designated geographical area.

  2. Generally, relief is provided in the form of extensions of time to file or pay and is usually provided systemically with the setting of an "-O" Freeze or "-S" Freeze posted to the account (see IRM 25.16.1.3.2, Disaster Assistance and Emergency Relief, "-O" Freeze, and IRM 25.16.1.3.3, Disaster Assistance and Emergency Relief, "-S" Freeze).

  3. The determination to grant relief from each penalty must be based on the facts and circumstances surrounding each individual case.

  4. For additional guidelines, including guidelines for reasonable cause consideration where systemic penalty relief is not applicable, see IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.2

20.1.1.3.3.6  (11-25-2011)
Official Disaster Area

  1. When a significant disaster occurs affecting a wide area of taxpayers, the IRS often issues special instructions to facilitate evaluating the request for penalty relief.

  2. Because these are one-time instructions, they will not be incorporated in this IRM. Territories, Campuses, and Customer Service sites will be kept informed of any special instructions affecting their areas.

20.1.1.3.4  (11-25-2011)
Correction of Service Error

  1. An IRS error can be any error made by the IRS in computing or assessing tax, crediting accounts, etc. Exhibit 20.1.1-2, Penalty Reason Code Chart, for the appropriate PRC to be used when abating either a systemically-generated or manually-input penalty.

  2. When an analyst from any area of the IRS identifies a computer programming application that caused a penalty to be assessed in error, that analyst should coordinate with an analyst from the Office of Servicewide Penalties to:

    1. Contact Modernization and Information Technology Services (MITS) to resolve the inadequate computer application, and

    2. Include on the unified work request (UWR) a statement indicating that PRC 015 must be used to identify any abatement of a penalty resulting from reversal of the computer application.

  3. Other Service Error examples are:

    1. A math error when manually computing a penalty,

    2. An extension of time to file that did not post to the Master File (and manual input of a TC 460 did not, or will not, result in an automatic penalty reversal, if input of a TC 460 is appropriate in accordance with IRM 20.1.2.1.3.1.1, Extension of Time to File Not Found, or

    3. Any other error, when it can be shown that; (1) the taxpayer did in fact comply with the law, and (2) the IRS did not initially recognize that fact.

20.1.1.3.5  (11-25-2011)
Requesting Penalty Relief

  1. The initial request for relief may occur either during or after an examination (but before a penalty is actually assessed), with a return that is either filed or paid late, or after assessment of the penalty(s) and notification issued to the taxpayer.

  2. When the request is received, carefully analyze the taxpayer’s reasons to determine if penalty relief is warranted. The burden of proving entitlement to relief is generally upon the taxpayer.

    Caution:

    Prior to analyzing the taxpayer's reason(s), analyze the account to determine if penalty relief cannot be considered, or if relief can only be considered by another IRS function. An example includes, but is not limited to Freeze Codes "F-," "-N," "-V," "-W," "-Y," "-Z," or "Z-."

  3. Each request must be evaluated on its own merit, including:

    1. The events or parties involved, and

    2. If the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence, but due to circumstances or events beyond the taxpayer’s control the taxpayer was unable to meet the tax requirement, or

    3. If other penalty relief criteria apply (such as a Statutory or Regulatory Exception or an Administrative Waiver).

  4. The taxpayer’s obligation to meet the requirement is ongoing. Ordinary business care and prudence requires that the taxpayer continue to attempt to meet the requirements, even though late.

  5. Determine if the taxpayer’s explanation addresses the penalty(s) imposed.

    1. The dates and explanations should clearly correspond with events on which the penalties are based to show that the taxpayer is entitled to relief from the penalty.

    2. Request additional information from the taxpayer to clarify any explanations if the dates and explanations do not correspond with the events on which the penalty is based.

  6. Review available IRS information in determining whether or not the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence. Check the preceding tax years (go back at least three years or twelve quarters) for payment patterns and the taxpayer’s overall compliance history.

    1. Assertion of the same penalty(s) in the taxpayer's history may indicate that the taxpayer is not exercising ordinary business care.

    2. If this is the taxpayer’s first incident of noncompliant behavior, weigh this factor with other reasons the taxpayer gives for relief, since a first time failure to comply does not by itself establish reasonable cause. See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.1 for First-Time Abate.

  7. Consider the length of time between the event cited as a reason for the noncompliance and subsequent compliance. The length of time between events may serve to cancel or reduce the event’s effect. Penalty relief may not be appropriate if, after considering all facts and circumstances, the taxpayer failed to correct their noncompliant behavior within a reasonable period of time.

  8. The following are examples where penalty relief may not be appropriate:

    1. The taxpayers claim that they were unable to comply with the filing requirement due to a death in the family. The death occurred several months prior to the due date of the return. The return was not filed until a year after the due date of the return.

    2. Taxpayers claim that they were unable to comply with the filing requirement because the records necessary for filing were in the control of a third party, i.e., a bankruptcy trustee or an accountant. The records were returned to the taxpayer well in advance of the time the return was required to be filed. The return was not filed until several months after the records were returned.

    3. In both of the examples, the timing of the event may prevent the taxpayer from receiving penalty relief unless other factors justify the delay in filing.

  9. Consider if the taxpayer could have anticipated the event that caused the non-compliance. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2, Ordinary Business Care and Prudence.

20.1.1.3.5.1  (11-25-2011)
Subsequent Requests for Penalty Relief

  1. A second or subsequent request for penalty relief may be received after the initial request for relief has been denied. The request is generally considered an appeal of the previous penalty relief denial.

  2. If the penalty was previously sustained in Appeals, forward the request to the appropriate Appeals office. (This may be identified by the presence of PRC 041/042 followed by a TC 290 for $0.00 with a blocking series 96X, -N Freeze code on the account.)

  3. If the review of the account indicates that the taxpayer’s request for penalty relief was previously disallowed (and not sustained in Appeals), review the circumstances of the previous denial:

    If And Then
    The taxpayer is submitting new information The facts presented in the new information meet penalty relief criteria (See IRM 20.1.1.3) Abate the penalty(s). See IRM 20.1.1.3.5.2
    The facts presented in the new information do not meet penalty relief criteria Notify the taxpayer that you are unable to grant relief based on the new information provided and the information contained in the original disallowance.
    The facts presented do not meet penalty relief criteria and the taxpayer indicates a desire for appealing the decision. Forward the case to Appeals with all required information (and notify the taxpayer the additional information does not meet penalty relief criteria and their request is being forwarded to Appeals).
    The taxpayer is not submitting new information The taxpayer has not requested an appeal of the previous determination Inform the taxpayer we are unable to reconsider the penalty relief request.
    The taxpayer is requesting an appeal of the previous determination Forward the case to Appeals with all required information.
    It is unclear what the taxpayer wants Contact the taxpayer to request clarifying information.

  4. Generally, a Campus Penalty Appeals Coordinator will forward the cases to the Appeals Office (See IRM 20.1.1.4.1). Cases transferred to the Appeals Office must include the following documents:

    1. The letter requesting an appeal, signed by the taxpayer or an authorized Power of Attorney (POA) (with a valid Form 2848, Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative on file. Form 8821, Tax Information Authorization, or Form 2848, Level H, is not considered an authorized POA).

    2. A copy of the previously denied penalty relief request (the TC 290 .00 in Blocking Series 98/99 Source Document). If the Source Document is not available, provide a copy of the Files charge-out information to Appeals.

    3. A copy of the disallowance letter or a print of the RCA conclusion screen (852C, 853C, IDRS Print, 854C, 2413(P), 2414(P) or other disallowance letter).

    4. A cover sheet (Form 12835, Transmittal of a Case to Appeals) identifying the tax period and the type and amount of each penalty.

    5. Form 3210, Document Transmittal (may not be required when transferring via the Correspondence Imaging System (CIS). Check with the receiving function).

    Note:

    Ensure the case is being routed to the correct Appeals office as identified by the 3-digit Appeals Office Code. Consult the Campus Case Routing page on the Appeals web site.

  5. When transferring a case to the Appeals Office:

    1. Input a TC 971 with Action Code 251 on each tax period being transferred,

    2. Reassign the control base to Appeals (category APPZ), and

    3. Input TC 470 with Closing Code 90, if applicable

20.1.1.3.5.2  (11-25-2011)
Taxpayer Entitled to Relief

  1. If the taxpayer provides an explanation that supports their request for penalty relief, waive or abate the applicable penalty(s). If the explanation applies to one (or more) penalty(s) but not all penalties, only the penalty(s) to which the explanation applies should be waived or abated.

  2. Document the decision and the basis for providing relief according to functional guidelines. Attach a copy of the information to the original return (if available) or other transaction (input) document.

  3. Decisions with respect to penalties made by Compliance personnel should not ordinarily be changed by personnel within another functional area. Before considering relief for any penalty(s) asserted by Compliance personnel, contact that office to determine if the case should be returned to the originating office.

  4. If relief is granted prior to assertion of the penalty(s), use computer condition codes to suppress the automatic assertion of the penalty(s). Functional areas that forward returns to be processed must request that the campus prevent the assessment of the penalty(s). This may be done by:

    1. Writing "Reasonable Cause" or "Penalty Relief" (as appropriate) in the preprinted penalty block on the return or on Form 4364, Delinquency Computations,

    2. Requesting the penalty assessment transaction code be input for zero amount,

    3. Editing a Computer Condition Code on the return, or

    4. Preparing other forms appropriate for forwarding returns or penalty computations for processing.

      Note:

      In addition, annotate the appropriate Penalty Reason Code (PRC) on the respective form or return.

  5. If relief is granted after the assessment of a penalty, follow procedures for abating the penalty or the appropriate portion of the penalty. Adjustments to penalties that are due to reasonable cause must include Reason Code 062 and the appropriate PRC. Exhibit 20.1.1-2, Penalty Reason Code Chart.

20.1.1.3.5.3  (02-22-2008)
Taxpayer Not Entitled to Relief

  1. If the criteria for penalty relief has not been established, determine if additional information would be helpful to evaluate the taxpayer’s request. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2 - Reasonable Cause.

  2. If a final determination that the criteria for granting penalty relief was not established:

    1. Document the decision and its basis according to functional guidelines, and

    2. Attach a copy of the information to the original return (if available) or other transaction (input) document.

  3. Employees denying a request for pre-assessment relief (prior to assessment) or abatement (after assessment), must provide written notification to the taxpayer of the denial and of the taxpayers appeal rights, regardless of whether the request was received:

    1. In person,

    2. Over the phone, or

    3. In writing.

  4. The notice should include:

    1. A complete explanation of the IRS’s decision and the basis for denial,

    2. Information on the appeal procedures, including instructions on how to submit a written protest, and

    3. Power of attorney information.

  5. The IRS has developed standardized letters that are used by various offices. They include:

    • IDRS Correspondex Letter 0854C, Penalty Waiver or Abatement Disallowed/Appeals Procedure Explained, which is generally used by Campuses and Area Offices. If the Reasonable Cause Assistant (RCA) is used (see IRM 20.1.1.3.6), Correspondex letters 0852C (BMF) and 0853C (IMF) are generated through RCA and IDRS.

    • ACS LT38, which is used by the Automated Collection System.

    • Pattern letters 2413(P) and 2414(P), which are used by Collection Area Offices, available as an ICS macro.

  6. Functions that process returns through the campus will need to alert the campus of their decision to deny penalty relief. This can be done by writing "Penalty Relief Denied" in the appropriate preprinted penalty block on the return or on Form 4364, Delinquency Computations.

  7. If a request for penalty relief is denied after assessment, request or input TC 290 for zero amount, using blocking series 98/99 (Appeals uses blocking series 96) with Reason Code 062 and Hold Code 3.

20.1.1.3.6  (11-25-2011)
Reasonable Cause Assistant (RCA)

  1. The Reasonable Cause Assistant (RCA) will be used when considering penalty relief due to reasonable cause. RCA is to be used after normal case research has been performed, (i.e., applying missing deposits/payments, adjusting tax, or researching for missing extensions of time to file, etc.) for the following penalties:

    1. IMF - failure to file (FTF) and failure to pay (FTP)

    2. BMF - failure to deposit (FTD) (currently limited to MFTs 01, 10, 11, 14, and 16)

  2. RCA is a decision-support interactive software program developed to reach a reasonable cause determination. RCA is accessed through the AMS (Account Management Services) Tools menu.

  3. Use of RCA will ensure consistent and equitable administration of penalty relief consideration.

  4. When an employee has determined that a taxpayer has requested penalty relief based on Reasonable Cause, whether the request was made by telephone or in writing, RCA will be accessed to determine if penalty relief will be granted.

    Caution:

    See IRM 20.1.1.3.5 to determine if penalty relief can be considered, or if penalty relief can only be considered by another function.

20.1.1.3.6.1  (11-25-2011)
First Time Abate (FTA)

  1. RCA provides an option for penalty relief for the FTF, FTP, and/or FTD penalties if the taxpayer has not previously been required to file a return or if no prior penalties (except the Estimated Tax Penalty, TC 17X) have been assessed on the same MFT (except MFT 30/31, and see the exception for MFTs 01 and 14 in paragraph (3)(f)) in the prior 3 years. This First-time Abate (FTA) aspect is an Administrative Waiver and does not carry any Oral Statement Authority (OSA) dollar threshold. See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.3 for additional OSA information. Also, FTA carries its own PRCs - 018 for non-RCA/manual look-back, or 020 for RCA being used to make the determination. See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.2

  2. Notwithstanding the exception in paragraph (5)(c) of this section, a penalty assessed and subsequently reversed in full will generally be considered to show compliance for that tax period. RCA considers fully reversed penalties in its FTA analysis.

  3. The FTA Administrative Waiver can only apply to a single tax period for a given MFT. For example, if a request for penalty relief is being considered for 2 or more tax periods on the same MFT and the earliest tax period meets FTA criteria, penalty relief based on FTA only applies to the earliest tax period, not all tax periods being considered. Penalty relief for all subsequent tax periods will be based on the showing of reasonable cause (and absence of willful neglect).

  4. The reasonable cause explanation provided by the taxpayer will be considered after RCA performs the First-time Abate/Clean Compliance History analysis. If FTA criteria does not apply based on reasons shown in (3) below, then the taxpayer’s explanation will be used to determine if reasonable cause penalty relief criteria is met. If the RCA determination is to abate the penalty(s), penalty relief can be granted as appropriate per the RCA conclusion (i.e., Reasonable Cause, Official Disaster Relief area, IRS Error, Statutory and Administrative Waivers). Using the First-time Abate/Clean Compliance History analysis up front was based on a request from HQ Customer Accounts Services.

  5. A First Time Abate conclusion WILL NOT apply if any of the following criteria applies:

    1. Any tax period in the prior 3 years, for the same MFT (except MFT 30/31, and see the exception for MFTs 01 and 14 in paragraph (3)(f)), is in TDI Status 02 or 03, or IMF Status 04.

    2. An unreversed penalty for a significant amount (see Caution for an explanation of significant amount) is present (except the ES penalty) on any tax period in the prior 3 years, for the same MFT (except MFT 30/31, and see the exception for MFTs 01 and 14 in paragraph (3)(f)), and a notice was issued showing the assessed penalty(s).

      Caution:

      ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡

      Note:

      A module balance cleared with a TC 606 indicates a notice showing the assessed penalty(s) was not issued.

    3. Any penalty reversal or penalty suppression on any tax period in the prior 3 years for the same MFT (except MFT 30/31, and see the exception for MFTs 01 and 14 in paragraph (3)(f)) was input with Penalty Reason Code (PRC) 018, 020, or 021. See Exhibit 20.1.1-2, Penalty Reason Code Chart.

      Additional criteria specific to BMF accounts is as follows:

    4. The FTD penalty is charged for EFTPS Avoidance. Taxpayers required by law to deposit using EFTPS have received multiple notifications from the Treasury Financial Agent (TFA) and the Electronic Tax Administration (ETA) prior to their required EFTPS start date. Use RCA for normal penalty relief consideration.

      Note:

      Beginning Jan. 1, 2011, all required deposits must be made by EFTPS, and the TFA/ETA notifications were discontinued. However, this criterion will continue to apply.

    5. A total of four or more FTD Penalty Waiver Codes are present in the taxpayer's three-year penalty history for the same MFT (see the exception for MFTs 01 and 14 in paragraph (3)(f)). Waiver Code 24 is set when the FTD penalty is waived due to a change in deposit frequency. Waiver Code 25 is set when the FTD penalty is waived per IRM 20.1.4.3, Restrictions on Assessments criteria. When a Waiver Code applies, the applicable Waiver Code will be shown with the literal "FTD PEN WAIVER CD" on CC BMFOL definer "R." RCA will check the taxpayer's three-year history for the presence of four or more Waiver Codes.

    6. The three-year penalty history for either MFT 01 (Form 941, Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return,) or MFT 14 (Form 944, Employer's Annual Federal Tax Return,) must include a review of both MFT 01 AND MFT 14 accounts.

      Example:

      Taxpayer A files Form 944 for tax year 2010 and is assessed a FTD penalty (TC 186) on the MFT 14 account. For all years prior to tax year 2010, the taxpayer filed Form 941. The MFT 01 account for the 2nd quarter of 2009 (200906) has unreversed FTD, FTF, and FTP penalties; therefore, the taxpayer does not qualify for FTA relief on the MFT 14 account for 2010 (201012).

  6. When checking the three-year penalty history, RCA does not recognize any module(s) that has moved to the retention register. This should not be a problem when using RCA on current tax periods; however, when using RCA for an older tax period, the employee must manually review any tax period(s) in the three-year penalty history that has gone to the retention register.

  7. If RCA determines a First -Time Abate is applicable, correspondex letters 3502C for BMF FTD penalty relief, or 3503C for IMF FTF and/or FTP penalty relief can be generated through RCA and IDRS. Both letters contain a paragraph automatically selected by RCA informing the taxpayer that the penalty(s) was removed based on their history of compliance. The following is an example of this paragraph:

    We are pleased to inform you that your request to remove the (use applicable penalty, i.e. failure to file, failure to fay, or failure to deposit) penalty(s) has been granted. However, this action has been taken based solely on your compliance history rather than on the information you provided. This type of penalty removal is a one-time consideration available only for a first-time penalty charge. IRS will base decisions on removing any future (failure to file, failure to pay, failure to deposit) penalties on any information you provide that meets reasonable cause criteria. You should receive a notice of penalty adjustment within the next few weeks.

    Note:

    Include an explanation that educates the taxpayer how to be compliant in the future.

  8. First-time abatement may be considered for FTF and/or FTP on all forms (see Exception , following Note , below). The employee must check the three prior years and document the clean compliance history. If RCA is not used to consider first-time relief and relief is granted, use PRC 018 when making the adjustment. Notify the taxpayer that the penalty removal was based on their history of compliance rather than on the information they provided (see example paragraph above). Also include an explanation that educates the taxpayer about how to be compliant in the future.

    Note:

    If RCA does not offer FTA relief because the FTD penalty was charged for EFTPS Avoidance, FTA relief can still be granted for the FTF and/or FTP penalties, if applicable.

    Exception:

    Penalty relief under the FTA provision does not apply to returns with an event-based filing requirement, such as Form 706, U.S. Estate Tax Return, and Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation - Skipping Transfer) Tax Return; the Daily Delinquency Penalty (DDP); Form 1120, U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return/Form 1120S, U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation if, in the prior 3 years, at least 1 Form 1120S was filed late but not penalized. This list is not all-inclusive.

  9. If the tax is not paid in full on the tax period when the request for abatement is received, allow first-time abate/clean compliance history on the failure to pay (FTP) penalty amount assessed. Use RC 062 with the TC 271 and PRC 018 or 020. This will allow the FTP penalty to start up when the TC 271 posts to Master File on the remaining tax due. While the first-time abatement is due to an administrative waiver, not reasonable cause, the RC 062 will not restrict the tax period and is to be used in this instance only. The proper use of the PRC will allow for the tracking of first-time/compliance history abatements.

    Note:

    The employee will need to use the open paragraph in the 3502C or 3503C letter to inform the taxpayer that the FTP penalty will start accruing again on the unpaid taxes and will continue until the tax is paid in full. After the tax is paid in full, the taxpayer may request reasonable cause abatement of the additional FTP penalty.

  10. If the tax is fully paid, the First-time Abate/Clean Compliance History adjustment to the FTP (TC 271) may be done using RC 065 (IMF Accounts) with PRC 018 or 020 as the restrictive action will not have a negative effect. Adjustment notices will be sent in both abatement instances.

  11. RCA will also display a First-time Abate window on a BMF account when the taxpayer has a change in deposit frequency. Employees need to be aware this is different than a First-time Abate for a good compliance history and use the appropriate PRC when removing the penalty for a first-time change in deposit frequency.

20.1.1.3.6.2  (02-22-2008)
Penalty Reason Codes

  1. When removing a penalty(s) based on First-time Abate criteria, use the following Penalty Reason Codes (PRC’s) in the 4th Reason Code (RC) position on CC ADJ54:

    1. PRC 020 will be used when using RCA and RCA determines FTA relief applies. RC 065 is also required on IMF accounts.

    2. PRC 018 will be used when considering First-time Abate penalty relief where RCA is not available, and for BMF FTF and/or FTP penalties if FTA for the FTD penalty does not apply (since RCA is currently not programmed for BMF FTF and/or FTP penalty consideration).

    3. A First-time abatement is not due to Reasonable Cause, so RC 062 is not used. See the FTP Exception in IRM 20.1.1.3.6.1.

  2. When removing the penalty(s) for a reason other than the First-time Abate, use the appropriate PRC in the 4th position in accordance with the PRC chart, Exhibit 20.1.1-2. If reasonable cause has been established, use RC 062 in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd RC position and the appropriate PRC in the 4th position.

20.1.1.3.6.3  (11-25-2011)
Increase in Oral Statement Ceiling

  1. Beginning January 1, 2002, the oral statement ceiling for failure to file, failure to pay, and failure to deposit penalties was increased. See IRM 20.1.1.3.1.

  2. The Reasonable Cause Assistant (RCA) will be used where available. Where RCA is not available, employees should receive managerial approval to allow for the oral abatement of penalties when reasonable cause criteria are met. The ceiling also applies to BMF FTF and FTP penalties (even though RCA is not programmed to consider these penalties at this time).

20.1.1.3.6.4  (02-22-2008)
Oral Statement Ceiling Exceeded

  1. A signed, written statement is not required to deny a penalty relief request, regardless of the penalty amount(s). Therefore, users will not be required to obtain a signed, written statement before accessing RCA in Oral Mode. If the RCA determination is to abate the penalty(s) and the oral ceiling threshold is exceeded, RCA will display a message stating a signed, written statement is required to allow the abatement, in addition to any other documentation required. See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.5

    1. If RCA determines the penalty should be sustained, follow established RCA Sustain procedures.

    2. If RCA determines the penalty should be abated, request a signed, written statement.

20.1.1.3.6.5  (02-22-2008)
Documentation

  1. Specific circumstances within RCA require the taxpayer to provide documentation to support their claim before a penalty relief determination can be reached. Other circumstances will allow the employee to accept "Credible Information," either orally or in writing.

    1. "Credible Information" must explain facts and circumstances showing the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence, and cite specific dates for the non-compliance. All information, including dates, must substantiate why the taxpayer was unable to comply.

    2. RCA has been programmed to include reasonable and specific time frames to allow for filing and/or paying taxes after the event that prevented compliance ended. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2, Ordinary Business Care and Prudence.

20.1.1.3.6.6  (11-25-2011)
Attaching RCA Determination

  1. When RCA reaches a conclusion to either abate (remove) or sustain (deny) the penalty relief request, the program automatically displays a print dialog to allow printing the determination that includes all information input by the RCA user. This print must be attached as a source document, or attached to the CIS case, if applicable. See IRM 21.5.2, Adjustment Guidelines, for additional information.

  2. See IRM 20.1.1.3.1 for additional information concerning unsigned and oral requests.

20.1.1.3.6.7  (11-25-2011)
Reasonable Cause Penalty Relief Request Prior to Penalty Assessment

  1. Currently, RCA is unable to consider penalty relief on IMF accounts when a TC 150 has not posted. However, RCA can consider FTF and/or FTP penalty relief on IMF accounts if a TC 150 has posted, but no penalties have been assessed, or if the penalties have been fully reversed. It can also consider FTD penalty relief on BMF accounts with or without a posted TC 150.

  2. While the reasons for accessing RCA under these conditions vary, this functionality is most beneficial for:

    1. BMF CP 207 (or 207L) replies where the taxpayer knows they made one or more deposits late and request reasonable cause penalty relief prior to assessment of the FTD penalty, or

    2. IMF accounts where the taxpayer is liable for accrued, but unassessed, FTP penalty (generally per IRC 6651(a)(3)) and the taxpayer requests FTP penalty relief based on reasonable cause.

  3. For CP 207 and 207L replies (see IRM 20.1.4.18, CP 207/207L Notices), use CC FTDPN to compute the appropriate penalty prior to accessing RCA.

    1. If a penalty applies, access RCA for a penalty relief determination.

    2. If RCA determines reasonable cause criteria has been met, input a TC 180 for zero, BLK 14, RC 062, and the appropriate PRC in the 4th RC position. (This action is required to avoid sending the taxpayer unnecessary notices).

    3. If RCA determines reasonable cause criteria has not been met, follow normal CP 207 assessment procedures and normal penalty relief request denial procedures.

  4. On IMF accounts, certain account conditions can result in the taxpayer receiving a balance due notice that includes an accrued FTP penalty charge but no TC 27X is present on the account. RCA can be accessed for a penalty relief determination in this situation, but RCA only recognizes assessed penalty amounts and may display a message that penalties applicable to RCA are not present.

    1. Although not necessary, a TC 290 for .00 with Priority Code (PC) 5 can be input to allow Master File to post the accrued FTP.

    2. If the RCA determination is to abate, the FTP penalty and a TC 290 .00 with PC 5 has not been input, input a TC 270 for .00 with applicable PRC (and RC 062 for reasonable cause, if applicable).


    Note:

    For either IMF or BMF condition referenced here, RCA WILL NOT perform the systemic First-time Abate (FTA) check. IRM 20.1.1.3.6.1 for FTA criteria for a manual FTA determination.

20.1.1.3.6.8  (02-22-2008)
RCA Letter Generation

  1. If RCA determines reasonable cause has not been established, Correspondex Letter 0852C (BMF) or Letter 0853C (IMF) can be issued through RCA providing reason(s) for denial and explaining the appeal procedures.

    1. Special Insert and Return Address Codes are required on the Letter 0852C and Letter 0853C to generate the appropriate Appeals Coordinator's name and return address. Enter the codes established by your local Campus User Support function (normally used on Letter 0854C) These codes are also available on the SERP Penalty Appeal Coordinators List page.

    2. If the codes entered do not generate the correct information, report the problem to your local User Support function.

  2. RCA will transmit the required paragraphs and fill-ins to CC LPAGE. To generate the letter, RCA provides two options:

    1. Review/Manual Transmit (Recommended) - Allows a review of the letter to ensure an appropriate explanation and all letter information is correct. Requires manual transmission of the letter. After reviewing the letter, return to the first CC LPAGE screen and transmit.

    2. No Review/Systemic Transmit - After transmitting the appropriate paragraphs and fill-ins to CC LPAGE, RCA will automatically transmit the letter. The letter cannot be reviewed or changed with this option.

    Caution:

    Regardless of the option selected, the originator must ensure "Request Completed" is displayed on IDRS to ensure the letter transmitted. RCA cannot make this determination.

20.1.1.3.6.9  (02-22-2008)
RCA for BMF

  1. RCA cannot consider BMF FTP and FTF penalty relief at this time. However, because most BMF accounts that have been penalized for FTF and FTP penalties also include FTD penalties, RCA should be used to consider penalty relief for the FTD penalty.

    1. If the same reasons are used for requesting FTF and FTP penalty relief (as they usually are), the RCA conclusion should apply to all three penalties.

    2. If the RCA conclusion is to sustain the penalty and Correspondex Letter 0852C is issued, RCA provides an option to automatically insert a paragraph stating the FTD denial reason also applies to FTF and/or FTP (or an open paragraph can be inserted to notify the taxpayer the denial applies to the FTF and/or FTP penalties in addition to the FTD penalty).

    3. If more than one penalty is involved, only one IDRS adjustment should be made. Use the PRC that would be applicable for the FTD penalty abatement.

20.1.1.3.6.10  (11-25-2011)
RCA Conclusions/Determinations

  1. RCA programming applies the reasonable cause standards outlined throughout IRM 20.1.1.3.2 against the reasonable cause category(s) chosen by the RCA user and the answers selected and/or dates entered (if applicable) to the questions posed by RCA. Therefore, to ensure the correct determination is reached, users must make every effort to choose the applicable category(s) and answers (correct date(s) entered, etc.) based on the information provided by the taxpayer. RCA will reach 1 of 5 possible conclusions for the MFT and tax period (Module) reviewed (listed in order of priority):

    RCA Conclusion Explanation Action Additional Information
    1. Abate Reasonable cause established; Remove penalty(s)

    Caution:

    At this time, RCA is unable to determine if the account contains "unassessed FTP penalty" when the FTP penalty is being abated for reasonable cause. Refer to IRM 20.1.2.1.4.1(4) for additional information and, if necessary, edit the TC 271 amount defaulted by RCA to match the "Total FTP."

    2. Other Not a reasonable cause issue. RCA will display additional information/instructions)  
    3. Suspend Sufficient information was not provided for RCA to reach a conclusion. RCA displays all information required to support a showing of reasonable cause.

    Note:

    Not applicable to revenue officers

    4. Sustain Reasonable cause not established. Deny the request.  
    5. Mixed In general, reasonable cause partially established.
    • IMF – Abate one penalty/sustain the other penalty

    • BMF – Abate a portion of the FTD penalty applicable to one or more late deposit(s)/sustain a portion of the FTD penalty applicable to one or more late deposit(s). Also see IRM 20.1.4.3, Restrictions on Assessments

    Caution:

    In some instances on BMF accounts (FTD penalty), RCA requires the deposit due date be provided for each late-deposited liability (RCA allows for up to 3 due dates). When this is the case, the RCA "Module conclusion" only applies to the late-deposited liability(s) for which a due date was entered. Consequently, it may be necessary to access RCA more than once if more than 3 deposits for the tax period were late.

  2. An "abate" or "sustain" conclusion, dependent on the reasonable cause category(s) chosen and the answers selected, is reached after RCA has:

    1. Made an unbiased analysis of the facts of the case,

    2. Properly applied the law and IRS policy to the facts of the case, and

    3. Performed the actions in the first 2 bullets fairly and consistently compared to similar cases.

  3. Therefore, fair and consistent application of penalties requires employees to make a final penalty relief determination consistent with the RCA conclusion. However, understanding that the individual facts and circumstances vary for each case and that there may be unique facts and circumstances in certain cases that RCA cannot consider, an "override (abort" ) function is available in RCA. See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.10.1.

20.1.1.3.6.10.1  (11-25-2011)
Overriding (Aborting) RCA’s Conclusion

  1. Overriding the ‘Module Conclusion’ reached by RCA may be appropriate in limited situations. Prior to overriding the RCA conclusion, employees must:

    1. Verify that all pertinent reasonable cause categories applicable to the facts and circumstances addressed in the request were selected for review. If not, select Add Category and select one or more additional categories for RCA review.

    2. Verify the most appropriate answers to all questions posed by RCA were selected (correct dates entered, etc.). If not, select Previous to return to previous questions and select a more appropriate answer.

  2. If there are unique individual facts and circumstances RCA is unable to consider, those individual facts and circumstances must be carefully analyzed and must clearly show, in accordance with the reasonable cause guidelines outlined throughout IRM 20.1.1.3.2, that despite the exercise of ordinary business care and prudence the taxpayer was nevertheless unable to comply within the prescribed time.

    Caution:

    Per IRM 20.1.1.3.6.10, RCA has properly applied the law and IRS policy to the facts it has considered. A determination to override RCA's conclusion cannot conflict with law or IRS policy. For example, delegating a non-delegable duty may appear to show the exercise of ordinary business care and prudence, but such an act is not legally supported.

  3. A determination to override RCA’s conclusion must be justified. The reason(s) the RCA conclusion is being overridden is required and must clearly state why the RCA conclusion is incorrect and why, or why not, the facts and circumstances of the case support the action being taken. In addition, the specific IRM 20.1.1.3.2 section(s) used to support an override determination is required.

  4. Managerial approval to override RCA’s determination is not required but is recommended.

20.1.1.4  (02-22-2008)
Methods of Appealing Penalties

  1. Various administrative and legislative remedies are provided for taxpayers who disagree with the IRS’s determination that they are liable for a particular penalty. Generally, when a taxpayer disagrees with our determination regarding a penalty, they have the right to an administrative appeal.

  2. Taxpayers have the right to challenge the assertion or assessment of a penalty, and generally may do so at any stage in the penalty process. Taxpayers may request:

    1. A review of the penalty prior to assessment (e.g. deficiency procedures),

    2. A penalty abatement after it is assessed, and either before or after it is paid (post-assessment review), or

    3. An abatement and refund after payment (claim for refund).

  3. Taxpayers may indicate their disagreement with the IRS either verbally or in writing, or if the penalty has already been paid, by filing a claim for refund or credit.

  4. If agreement cannot be reached at the area field office or the campus, the taxpayer may request a conference with the employee’s immediate manager, or (in most cases) the taxpayer may request that the case be forwarded to Appeals. Taxpayers should provide a written request for consideration by Appeals.

  5. The taxpayer may also file suit in court. Depending on the procedural circumstances of the taxpayer’s case, the taxpayer may petition the United States Tax Court or file a complaint with either the United States District Court or a United States Court of Federal Claims (as appropriate). See IRM 8.20, Appeals Case Processing Manual.

20.1.1.4.1  (02-22-2008)
The Appeals Function

  1. The Appeals Office is an independent administrative body within the IRS that is the only formal internal level of appeal.

  2. The review of a penalty determination by Appeals is not automatic. Appeals will only review a penalty if the request for relief has been previously denied by an IRS employee and the taxpayer requests an appeal.

  3. In addition, Appeals may make a determination that the taxpayer did not commit the prohibited action or failure to act for which the penalty is asserted (charged). Issues of basic liability for a penalty may be considered in the appeals process, and should be considered before determining if reasonable cause or other relief criteria exist.

  4. Appeals has the authority to settle penalties for less than the full amount based on hazards of litigation.

20.1.1.4.1.1  (11-25-2011)
Pre-assessment Appeals

  1. Generally, Appeals will consider the appropriateness of the following type of penalties prior to assessment:

    1. Penalties that are asserted by the IRS in the course of an examination of a taxpayers income tax return,

    2. Penalties that are granted a specific pre-assessment appeal right such as the Trust Fund Recovery Penalty under IRC 6672 (see IRM 8.25.1, Trust Fund Recovery Penalty (TFRP), Overview and Authority) or the preparer penalties under IRC 6694 (see IRM 8.11.3, Return Preparer Penalty Cases), and/or

    3. The intentional disregard penalty of IRC 6721(e) when it is asserted for failures to comply with the cash reporting requirements of IRC 6050I (Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business).

  2. Generally, if Appeals considers a penalty before it is assessed, Appeals will not reconsider the same penalty after it is assessed.

    1. However, at its discretion, Appeals may reconsider its prior decision if evidence becomes available that indicates further consideration is warranted.

    2. Taxpayers may also pay the penalty previously upheld by Appeals, and file a claim for refund. The claim for refund may be transferred to Appeals, if denied at the campus level.

  3. More detailed Appeals procedures are described in the Appeals Returns Processing and Control Handbook. Also see IRM 8.11.1, Return Related Penalties in Appeals.

20.1.1.4.1.2  (11-25-2011)
Post-assessment Appeals

  1. To request abatement of a penalty after assessment, the taxpayer must submit a written request to the IRS.

  2. The employee must consider all the facts and circumstances to determine if the taxpayer’s explanation meets the penalty relief criteria. See IRM 20.1.1.3, Criteria For Relief From Penalties.

    1. If a taxpayer orally requests the abatement of a penalty, instruct the taxpayer to submit the request in writing. IRM 20.1.1.3.1.

    2. If a taxpayer orally requests an appeal of a decision, instruct the taxpayer to submit the request in writing.

20.1.1.4.2  (11-25-2011)
Deficiency Procedures

  1. IRC 6211 generally defines a deficiency as the excess of the correct amount of income tax, estate tax, or gift tax owed, minus the tax amount shown on the return and amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency, plus the amounts of rebates made. In general, deficiency procedures are used when additional income, estate, or gift taxes, and/or related penalties are proposed. The IRS generally:

    1. Cannot assess an additional amount of income tax, estate tax, or gift tax, including related penalties, unless it complies with deficiency procedures;

    2. Can assess additional amounts of employment tax and certain excise tax, and related penalties, without providing a notice of deficiency;

    3. Can assess penalties not related to a tax (e.g., IRC 6694, IRC 6695, IRC 6695A, IRC 6700, IRC 6701, IRC 6702, and IRC 6713) without providing a notice of deficiency;

    4. Can assess estimated tax penalties (IRC 6654 and IRC 6655) if a return was filed for the tax year, without providing a notice of deficiency; and

    5. Can assess the failure to file and failure to pay penalties (IRC 6651) applicable to the portion of the tax liability that is not a tax deficiency, without providing a notice of deficiency.

      Example:

      Taxpayer files the return one month late and reports and pays a tax of $4,000. During an audit, the IRS determines a tax deficiency of $1,000. The failure to file penalty (FTF) is 5 percent per month (for up to 5 months) of the amount of tax. The total FTF penalty is $250 (5 percent of $5,000 for one month). If the taxpayer contests the deficiency, the taxpayer will be entitled to a notice of deficiency for $1,050 ($1,000 tax deficiency and $50 FTF penalty (5 percent of $1,000). The remaining $200 failure to file penalty which was attributable to the original tax assessment is not part of the deficiency and is collectible by immediate assessment.

  2. A penalty is subject to deficiency procedures if the related tax underpayment being assessed is subject to deficiency procedures. For example, if the negligence penalty was assessed on an underpayment of income tax, the deficiency procedures would apply to the negligence penalty as well as the income tax deficiency. However, if the penalty was the result of an underpayment of employment tax, deficiency procedures would not apply to the penalty.

    1. The taxes and related penalties subject to deficiency procedures include income tax, estate tax, gift tax, and certain excise taxes.

    2. The taxes and related penalties not subject to deficiency procedures include employment taxes imposed by Subtitle C of the IRC, and certain excise taxes.

  3. The procedure called "notice of deficiency" provides the taxpayer a method of appealing tax and/or penalties to the United States Tax Court prior to their assessment. See IRC 6212.

20.1.1.4.2.1  (11-25-2011)
Non-Deficiency Procedures

  1. Most employment taxes and excise taxes are not subject to deficiency procedures. No statutory notice of deficiency is issued and the taxpayer cannot petition the Tax Court.

  2. Generally, non-deficiency procedures are as follows:

    IF AND THEN
    a. penalties are proposed the taxpayer agrees the penalties are assessed.
    b. penalties are proposed the taxpayer disagrees a 30-day letter is issued and the taxpayer may file a protest with Appeals.
    c. Appeals sustains the penalty proposal   the penalties are assessed.

    Note:

    See IRM 20.1.1.2.3, Managerial Approval for Penalty Assessments.

  3. If penalties are assessed and the taxpayer cannot or does not file a protest with Appeals, the taxpayer must pay the penalty, then file a claim for credit or refund.

  4. If a 30-day letter was not issued, or if a claim for refund was denied, give the taxpayer the opportunity for an appeal.

20.1.1.5  (02-22-2008)
Master File Indicators

  1. Master File indicators are listed in the following subsections.

    1. Master File Penalty Reason Codes

    2. Penalty Transaction Codes

    3. Penalty Reference Numbers

20.1.1.5.1  (11-25-2011)
Master File Penalty Reason Codes

  1. Penalty Reason Codes (PRC’s) were adopted to enable the IRS to track penalties. Accurate reporting of these reason codes is vital. PRCs provide the basis for determining a taxpayer’s compliance history and the foundation for analyzing trends in penalty abatements. PRCs are used with both BMF and IMF document code 54 and 47 transactions.

  2. PRCs are divided into two categories:

    • Systemically generated

    • Manually input

  3. Exhibit 20.1.1-2 shows all current PRCs and identifies which PRCs are available for manual input and which are systemically generated.

  4. If an abatement, partial abatement, or suppression of a penalty is appropriate, either input the abatement transaction or complete the appropriate form to request that the support area abate the penalty using the specified PRC.

    1. Taxpayer Service - IDRS (ADJ54) - The PRC MUST be input only in the fourth reason code position.

    2. Compliance - The PRC must be used to identify the reason for the abatement or non-assertion of a penalty when completing any of the following forms: Form 5344, Examination Closing Record (ADJ47); Form 5599, TE/GE Examined Closing Record (ADJ47); and Form 8278, Assessment and Abatement of Miscellaneous Civil Penalties (ADJ54).

    3. Appeals - The PRC must be used to identify the reason for the abatement or non-assertion of a penalty when completing any of the following forms: Form 5403, Appeals Closing Record (ADJ47), Form 5402, Appeals Transmittal and Case Memo (ADJ54), and Form 8278, Assessment and Abatement of Miscellaneous Civil Penalties (ADJ54).

  5. The main categories of PRCs available for manual input are:

    1. Reasonable Cause - used when the taxpayer has established that, despite the exercise of ordinary business care and prudence, they were unable to comply due to circumstances beyond their control. Reason Code (RC) 062 is required in addition to the appropriate PRC. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2 - Reasonable Cause.

    2. General Penalty Relief - including disaster relief, penalty removal or reduction due to an amended return, or other specific penalty provisions provided throughout IRM 20.1 (including certain Statutory Exceptions and Administrative Waivers). See IRM 20.1.1.3

    3. Statutory Exception or Administrative Waivers - to be used when written procedures have been established. Generally, PRC 044 identifies penalty relief based on a Statutory or Regulatory Exception, and PRC 043 identifies Administrative Waivers. Some Exceptions and Waivers are assigned a specific PRC. Use PRCs 043 and 044 when a specific PRC is not assigned.

    4. Correction of Service Error - to be used when it is determined that the Service made an error that resulted in an incorrect penalty or computed the penalty incorrectly or inappropriately. Generally, PRC 045 is to be used to identify penalty relief based on the correction of a Service error.

    5. Appeals - the following four PRCs are to be used only by Appeals: PRC 039 - third-party full or partial abatement of penalties (Appeals settlement usually involving a bulk or batch filer with one penalty issue, but multiple taxpayers); PRC 040 - hazards of litigation, or other Appeals settlement, when the entire penalty is abated; PRC 041 - penalties are sustained by Appeals; PRC 042 - partial abatement (Appeals settlement where only part of the penalty is abated).

  6. If more than one penalty is abated for more than one reason, each abatement action must reference its own PRC. This will require a separate adjustment for each PRC. For example:

    • 16X Reasonable Cause - PRC 025

    • 27X Partially abated - PRC 042

    • 18X Hazards - PRC 040

  7. If all penalties are abated for the same reason, only one PRC must be referenced. For example:

    • 16X Reasonable Cause - PRC 025

    • 27X Reasonable Cause

    • 18X Reasonable Cause

20.1.1.5.2  (11-25-2011)
Penalty Transaction Codes

  1. Penalty Transaction Codes (TCs) indicate penalty assessment or abatement actions. Generally, return-related penalties are based on an underpayment of tax. See Exhibit 20.1.1-3 for a description of the penalty TCs and their related IRC section(s). Related penalty TCs in a series are shown with the first two digits, followed by an "X" as the third digit.

    Example:

    In the failure to file (FTF) penalty series, the TC will be shown as 16X.

  2. Generally, when the penalty is assessed on the tax module, each penalty is assigned a TC that identifies the type of penalty. However, some penalties assessed on a tax module will use a TC 240 with a Penalty Reference Number (PRN) that identifies the type of penalty. See IRM 20.1.1.5.3 These reference numbers are generally between 500 and 699. See Exhibit 20.1.1-4 and Exhibit 20.1.1-5

    Note:

    To accommodate additional penalties added to the IRC, PRNs between 700-799 are being added. See Exhibit 20.1.1-6 for current 700 series PRNs.

  3. There are usually four potential transaction codes for each penalty, one each for manual and computer assessments with the related abatement codes. For example, FTF penalty:

    1. TC 160 — Manually assessed

    2. TC 161 — Manually abated

    3. TC 166 — Systemically-generated assessment

    4. TC 167 — Systemically-generated abatement

20.1.1.5.3  (11-25-2011)
Penalty Reference Numbers

  1. Generally, Penalty Reference Numbers (PRNs) are used to identify penalties that are not based on information from a tax return. These penalties are based on a failure to perform an act required by the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). The penalty is usually assessed on MFT 13 (BMF) or 55 (IMF), and is identified by Transaction Code (TC) 240 and the appropriate PRN. However, assessment of a penalty with an assigned PRN(s) is not limited to MFTs 13 and 55.

    Caution:

    Because a PRN for a positive amount will result in a systemic TC 240 assessment, and a PRN for a negative amount will result in a systemic TC 241 abatement, manual input of a TC 240 or 241 is appropriate only in rare circumstances.

  2. At times, several PRNs will be assigned to identify one IRC section, though the failure may be the same or similar. This is done to identify the area or program responsible for assessing or abating the penalty. For example, both PRNs 500 and 600 are used to identify a penalty assessed as the result of IRC 6721.

    1. PRN 500 is used if the failure was identified on the Payer Master File (PMF) and is assessed by a campus function.

    2. PRN 600 is used if the failure was identified during an examination, audit, or other compliance determination based on the taxpayer's books and records and is assessed by a Compliance Field Function.

  3. Some PRNs between 600 and 699 are used to identify return-related penalties. For example:

    • PRNs 680 and 681 are used to identify accuracy-related penalty assessments and abatements (per IRC 6662 and IRC 6662A, respectively). See IRM 20.1.5, Return Related Penalties.

    • PRN 666 is used to identify a Frivolous Tax Return penalty (per IRC 6702(a)). See IRM 20.1.10.10, IRC section 6702 Frivolous Tax Submissions.

  4. Exhibit 20.1.1-4 and Exhibit 20.1.1-5 for PRNs, their related IRC section, and a brief description of the penalty computation, or the computer paragraph language inserted in the balance due notice.

  5. The following are examples of PRNs assigned for various failures relating to IRC 6721, Failure to file correct information returns.

    Reference Number Description Source
    500 - 514 Used by Campuses to assess/abate penalties based on PMF information IRM 20.1.7, Information Return Penalties
    549/550 Use to assess/abate penalties based on the CAWR Program IRM 4.19.4,CAWR Reconciliation Balancing
    600 series Use to assess/abate a penalty as the result of an examination or a determination made by a Compliance Field Function employee, e.g.;
    PRN 600 — failure to timely file, or accurately file, or file in the correct format an information return
    PRN 651 — failure to file Form 8300 reporting cash transactions greater than $10,000
    PRN 652 — Intentional disregard of the requirement to file Form 8300, reporting cash transactions greater than $10,000.
    Exhibit 20.1.1-5

20.1.1.5.4  (02-22-2008)
Corporate Files on Line (CFOL)

  1. CFOL provides on-line research of Master File account and return data. The use of command codes such as IMFOL, BMFOL, RTVUE, BRTVU, and TRDBV is an alternative to MFTRA or ESTAB requests.

  2. However, since Master File does not carry all information available on the IDRS screen displays (IDRS notice status, case control information, pending transaction, etc.), it is imperative that IDRS research be initiated before accessing Master File information via CFOL command codes.

    Note:

    IDRS input command codes that will cause a change to Master File data cannot be preceded by BRTVU or RTVUE.

  3. CFOL command codes should be used to research entity and/or tax data that may not be available on IDRS.

    1. It is recommended that CFOL command codes be used in lieu of MFTRA or ESTAB when the case can be resolved from information provided by the CFOL command codes.

    2. This will eliminate the need to order MFTRA transcripts in most cases.

  4. IMFOL accesses the IMF and allows several screen displays based on an input definer code. These include:

    1. An index screen which shows whether a specific tax period is available on-line or not. The index screen also includes a balance due field showing if the account is in debit, credit, or zero balance.

    2. A screen which shows entity type information (similar to INOLE).

    3. A screen which has specific data from the tax account (similar to TXMOD and MFTRA).

    4. A screen titled IMF Adjustment Transaction Screen which includes detailed information about input adjustment transactions.

    5. A screen which includes retention register account information.

    6. A posted TC 150 return screen, which displays return data that is transcribed along with systemically-generated fields.

    7. A status history screen, which includes extension to file data.

    8. A help screen which displays information to assist in using IMFOL (or BMFOL).

  5. RTVUE accesses the Return Transaction File (RTF). It contains all edited, transcribed, and error corrected data from data entry lines of returns and related forms and schedules filed in the current processing year (including returns for prior tax years). This file contains information for the current year and two prior year returns. This command code requires a definer to access a particular screen and has an index type screen.

  6. For further explanation of the screen displays and applicable definer codes, refer to IRM 4.4.13, AIMS/Processing Handbook - IDRS Research, or IRM 2.3, IDRS Terminal Responses.

Exhibit 20.1.1-1 
Penalty Relief—Application Chart

Statute   Type of Penalty Reasonable
Cause Relief
Other
Relief
IRC 6039E Failure to Provide Information Concerning Resident Status Yes Yes
IRC 6651(a)(1) Failure to File Tax Return Yes Yes
IRC 6651(a)(2) Failure to Pay Tax when Due Yes Yes
IRC 6651(a)(3) Failure to Pay within 10 Days of Notice of Additional Tax Due (Notices issued prior to 1/1/1997) Yes Yes
IRC 6651(a)(3) Failure to Pay within 21 Days of Notice of Additional Tax Due (10 business days if amount is $100,000 or more) (Notices issued after 12/31/1996) Yes Yes
IRC 6651(f) Fraudulent Failure to File No No
IRC 6652(a)(1) Failure to File Certain Information Returns Yes Yes
IRC 6652(c)(1) Failure to File Annual Return by Exempt Organization Yes Yes
IRC 6652(c)(2) Failure to File Returns under IRC 6034 or IRC 6043(b)) Yes Yes
IRC 6652(d)(2) Notification of Change in Status of a Plan Yes Yes
IRC 6652(e) Information Required in Connection with Certain Plans of Deferred Compensation—Form 5500, Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan Yes Yes
IRC 6652(h) Failure to Give Notice to Recipients of Certain Pension, etc., Distributions Yes Yes
IRC 6652(i) Failure to Give Written Explanation to Recipients of Certain Qualifying Rollover Distributions Yes Yes
IRC 6652(j) Failure to File Certification with Respect to Certain Residential Rental Projects Yes Yes
IRC 6654 Estimated Tax Penalty on Individuals No Yes
IRC 6655 Estimated Tax Penalty on Corporations No No
IRC 6656(a) Failure to Deposit Yes Yes
IRC 6657 Bad Checks Yes Yes
IRC 6662 Accuracy-Related Penalty on Underpayments Yes* Yes
IRC 6662A Accuracy-Related Penalty on Understatements with Respect to Reportable Transactions Yes* Yes
IRC 6663 Fraud No No
IRC 6676 Erroneous Claim for Refund or Credit No Yes
IRC 6692 Failure to File Actuarial Report Yes Yes
IRC 6698 Failure to File Partnership Return Yes Yes
IRC 6699 Failure to File S corporation Return Yes Yes
IRC 6721 Failure to File Correct Information Reporting Returns Yes Yes
IRC 6722 Failure to Furnish Correct Payee Statements Yes Yes
IRC 6723 Failure to Comply with other Information Reporting Requirements Yes Yes

*Reasonable cause does not apply to any portion of the underpayment (IRC 6662) or understatement (IRC 6662A) attributable to an IRC 6662(b)(6) transaction (transactions lacking economic substance within the meaning of IRC 7701(o), or failing to meet the requirements of any similar rule of law).

Note:

This list is not all-inclusive. Refer to the appropriate IRM 20.1 section for relief provisions for penalties not listed in this exhibit.

Exhibit 20.1.1-2 
Penalty Reason Code Chart

The PRCs contained in this exhibit are to be used when abating/suppressing a penalty. The exhibit has been divided by PRC group type. Where applicable, the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd position reason code (RC) shown with each PRC is required. PRCs are input in the 4th RC position.

The PRCs contained in the table below are to be used when manually abating/suppressing a penalty when reasonable cause has been established.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/ Relief Criteria
062 062 022 Normal business care and prudence followed, but taxpayer was still unable to comply due to circumstances beyond their control. Generally used when the taxpayer establishes a single circumstance prevented compliance. See IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2
062 N/A 024 IMF - Death, serious illness, or unavoidable absence of the taxpayer or a member of their immediate family. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.1
062 062 025 Records inaccessible / Unable to obtain records / Records destroyed by fire or other casualty. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.3
N/A 062 026 BMF - Death, serious illness, or unavoidable absence of the person responsible for filing and/or paying taxes (i.e., owner, corporate officer, partner, etc.) or a member of their immediate family. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.1
062 062 030 Other - Combination of mistakes. Normal business care and prudence followed, but documentation shows non-compliance was due to circumstances beyond the taxpayer's control. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.1
062 062 046 Y2K Relief.
N/A 062 071 Limited to Form 990–PF, Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Nonexempt Charitable Trust Treated as a Private Foundation (MFT 44) - Allows a private foundation reasonable cause for FTF and FTP 90 days after it received a determination letter from the Service stating the organization is a private foundation or it cannot be expected to be a public charity.
N/A 062 072 Membership organization (MFT 67) has no full-time employees responsible for administering finances and was unable to timely file due to little continuity or understanding of duties due to frequent officer changes. Normal business care and prudence.
N/A 062 073 Membership organization (MFT 67) has no full-time employees responsible for administering finances and has no prior history of late filing and claims ignorance of the requirement.

The PRCs in the table below are limited to use by Appeals.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
065 None 039 Appeals – Partial/Full abatement of penalties based on Third Party (Bulk and Batch Filers or Payroll Tax Service Bureaus) Settlement.
065 None 040 Appeals Settlement based on Hazards of Litigation. Complete removal of penalty/penalties.
065 None 041 Appeals sustains penalty/penalties.
065 None 042 Appeals partial abatement.

The PRCs in this table are used when manual penalty relief/suppression is warranted/required per the IRM for criteria other than reasonable cause.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
065 None 010 Amended/Corrected return or schedule. TP prepared original (For example, FTD - Schedule B/CP 207 replies).
065 None 013 Amended/Corrected return. Original prepared by IRS (SFR / IRC 6020(b)
065 None 014 Misdated FTD. After 1-1-2000 used only for manual abatement if the penalty is restricted from systemic abatement after TC 971 AC 301 to 308 is input to adjust a TC 186.
Also use for misdated payments affecting FTF – FTP – Estimated Tax Penalties.
065 None 016 Estimated Tax Penalties - Taxpayer computational error (Form 2210, Underpayment of Estimated Tax by Individuals, Estates and Trusts or Form 2220, Underpayment of Estimated Tax by Corporations
065 None 021 Tolerance Criteria Met – FTD, FTF, FTP and Estimated Tax Penalties.
065 None 023 Taxpayer relied on practitioner or third party advice. IRM 20.1.1.3.2.2.5
065 None 027 Timely mailed/timely filed.
065 None 028 Official Disaster Area IRM 20.1.1.3.3.6
065 None 029 Undue economic hardship/inability to pay (FTP) IRM 20.1.1.3.3.3

Note:

Rarely Allowed on Employment Tax Deposits.

N/A None 066 Cascading FTD Penalty Relief (1998 only).
N/A None 067 Educational FTD Penalty Relief (i.e., ABCs of FTD).
065 None 017 Bank Error caused Dishonored Check Penalty (TC 286). Banking documentation provided showing credit availability.
065 None 018 First-time penalty relief. RCA not used - manual 3-year look back for compliant behavior. IRM 20.1.1.3.6.1
065 None 019 Bulk/Batch Filer – Payroll Tax Service Bureau related penalty. Use restricted to the Penalty Prevention and Resolution Group (PPRG).
065 None 020 RCA used– Good History of Compliance. IRM 20.1.1.3.6.1

The PRC in this table is used when manual penalty relief/suppression is warranted/required per the IRM for an Administrative Waiver.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
065 None 043 Service provided relief for a valid penalty. (i.e., RRA '98 section 3304(b) change in FTD deposit frequency for 1st quarter only starting in 1999) IRM 20.1.1.3.3.2

The PRCs in this table are used when manual penalty relief/suppression is warranted/required per the IRM for a Statutory Waiver or Regulatory Exception.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
N/A None 012 Decrease to FTD penalty per RRA '98 section 3304(a) Rev. Proc. 99-10, Taxpayer designated FTD applications; based on a valid ROFTL. See IRM 20.1.4.26.3, Statutory Penalty Relief.
None None 044 Erroneous or Late Written Advice by IRS. Relief based on Revenue Procedures. IRM 20.1.1.3.3.1

The PRCs in this table are used when systemic penalty relief/suppression is warranted.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
065 None 001 Suppressed/Abated - Due to Tolerance Criteria.
065 None 002 Penalty adjusted due to computational error.
065 None 003
066
Master File recovery.
N/A None 068 Systemic FTD penalty abatement per the EFTPS/FTD Penalty Refund Program.

The PRCs in this table are used to identify manual penalty relief/suppression as a result of some error caused by IRS or some other treasury agency.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
065 None 015 General IRS Error. Specific instructions for use of this code would be released in IRM Updates or SERP Alerts.
065 None 031 Erroneous Oral Advice by IRS. IRM 20.1.1.3.3.4.2
065 None 032 Other Treasury Agency Errors (FMS or EFTPS Treasury Financial Agent (TFA) errors).
065 None 045 IRS Error. Math Error in computing penalty(s). Extension to file not posted to Master File. Taxpayer complied with law but IRS did not recognize compliance. IRM 20.1.1.3.4

This table identifies User Fee reversal codes (input with TC 361). These are not used for penalty relief/suppression, but they are used in the same manner as PRCs. Refer to IRM 5.19.1.5.5.5.3, User Fee Payment Transfer/User Fee Abatements for additional information.

IMF RC BMF RC PRC Definition/Relief Criteria
None None 047
048
049
050
051
User Fee reversals.

Exhibit 20.1.1-3 
Penalty Transaction Codes

The descriptions provided in this exhibit are intended to provide a general overview of the penalty calculation. Refer to the specific IRM 20.1 section for current penalty rates and policy.

TC Statute Description Reference
16X IRC 6651(a)(1) Failure to file a tax return (FTF). The FTF penalty is equal to the appropriate percentage of the net tax due multiplied by each month or part of a month (not to exceed 5 months) the return is not filed:
  • 41/2% — if the FTP penalty also applies (for the period the FTP applies), or

  • 5% — if only the FTF penalty applies.

IRM 20.1.2.2.7
IRM 20.1.2.2.7.3
16X IRC 6698(a)(1) Failure to file partnership return - Late filed Form 1065, U.S. Return of Partnership Income, or Form 1066, U.S. Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) Income Tax Return. The penalty is computed by multiplying the applicable base penalty rate times number of partners times the number of months late, up to a maximum of 5 months for returns due before Dec. 21, 2007, or up to a maximum of 12 months for returns due after Dec. 20, 2007. The applicable base penalty rates are:
  • For returns due before Dec. 21, 2007 - $50

  • For returns due after Dec. 20, 2007 but before Jan. 1, 2009 - $85

  • For returns due after Dec. 31, 2008 - $89 or $90, depending on the beginning of the taxable year

  • For returns for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009 - $195

Note:

For taxable years beginning in 2008, add $1 to the effective rate.

IRM 20.1.2.3.2
16X IRC 6699(a)(1) Failure to file an S-corporation return - Late filed Form 1120S, U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation. The penalty is computed by multiplying the applicable base penalty rate times number of shareholders times the number of months late, up to a maximum of 12 months. The applicable base penalty rates are:
  • For returns due after Dec. 20, 2007 but before Jan. 1, 2009 - $85.

    Note:

    See IRM 20.1.2.5.2.

  • For returns due after Dec. 31, 2008 - $89 if the taxable year does not begin after Dec. 31, 2009

  • For returns for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009 - $195

IRM 20.1.2.5.2
17X IRC 6654 Failure by an individual to pay estimated income tax (aka ES Penalty):
  • The excess of the required installment minus the amount paid or credited on or before the due date of the installment is the underpayment.

  • To determine the penalty for each installment, multiply:
    — the penalty rate (the underpayment interest rate for the applicable quarter)
    — by the amount of the underpayment,
    — for the period of the underpayment (the earlier of the date the payment is received or the return due date).

IRM 20.1.3.2
IRM 20.1.3.2.1.1
17X IRC 6655 Failure by a corporation to pay estimated income tax.
  • The excess of the required installment minus the amount paid or credited on or before the due date of the installment is the underpayment.

  • To determine the penalty for each installment, multiply:
    — the penalty rate (the underpayment interest rate for the applicable quarter)
    — by the amount of the underpayment,
    — for the period of the underpayment (the earlier of the date the payment is received or the return due date).

IRM 20.1.3.3
IRM 20.1.3.3.1.1
18X IRC 6656 Failure to deposit (FTD). The penalty is based on the:
  • required amount(s) not properly or timely deposited, and

  • the number of days between the deposit due date and the date the deposit is received

  • 2% — 1 to 5 days late

  • 5% — 6 to 15 days late

  • 10% — more than 15 days late but before 10 days after notice and demand, or

  • 15% — payments received more than 10 days after notice and demand

  • 10% — FTD avoidance - Payments made directly to the IRS, or deposits made to a bank when the employer is required to deposit electronically.

    Note:

    All deposits due after Dec. 31, 2010 must be made electronically.

IRM 20.1.4
IRM 20.1.4.2
IRM 20.1.4.7.1
20X IRC 6723 Failure to provide a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN). The penalty is $50 per failure, not to exceed $100,000 per calendar year.  
23X IRC 6652(c) Daily delinquency penalty (DDP) — Generally, $20 times the number of days the failure to file or the failure to include required information continues after the due date, not to exceed the lesser of $10,000 or 5% of the gross receipts per return. IRM 20.1.8.2.1
240**   Assesses a miscellaneous penalty generally associated with a Penalty Reference Number (PRN).

Caution:

Manual input of a TC 240 is limited to rare circumstances. Input of a PRN for a positive amount will result in a systemic TC 240

 
241**   Abates a miscellaneous penalty generally associated with a PRN / Abates a TC 246 FTF penalty.

Caution:

Manual input of a TC 241 is limited to rare circumstances (except TC 246 reversals). Input of a PRN for a negative amount will result in a systemic TC 241.

 
246 IRC 6698(a)(2) Assesses the partnership FTF penalty for missing information. Refer to the TC 16X, IRC 6698(a)(1) description in this table for penalty computation. IRM 20.1.2.3
246 IRC 6699(a)(2) Assesses the S corporation FTF penalty for missing information. Refer to the TC 16X, IRC 6699(a)(1), description in this table for penalty computation. IRM 20.1.2.5
246 IRC 6721(a)(2)(A) TC 246 with PRN 688 identifies failure by a large partnership (over 100 partners) to file electronically. The penalty is: $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) times the number of partners in excess of 100. IRM 20.1.2.4 and IRM 21.7.4.4.2.8.1
246 IRC 7519(f)(4) MFT 15 - Failures related to Form 8752, Required Payment or Refund Under Section 7519. The TC 246 is assessed with PRN 684. IRM 20.1.10.17
247   Systemically abates a penalty assessed with a TC 246.  
27X IRC 6651(a)(2) Failure to pay tax shown on a return (FTP). The penalty rate is 1/2 of 1% (.005) per month, for each month or part of a month, from the due date of the return to the date the tax is paid or the maximum of 25% of the unpaid tax is reached. IRM 20.1.2.2.8.4
27X IRC 6651(a)(3) Failure to pay tax required to be shown on a return (FTP). The penalty rate is 1/2 of 1% (.005) for each month or part of a month, from 21 calendar days (10 business days for amounts of $100,000 or more) of the date of notice and demand until the tax is paid or the maximum of 25% of the unpaid tax is reached.

Note:

For notices issued prior to 1/1/1997, the penalty is from 10 days of the date of the notice and demand for any amount.

IRM 20.1.2.2.8.5
27X IRC 6651(d) Increases the FTP penalty from 1/2 of 1% (.005) to 1% (.01) per month, the earlier of the day on which notice and demand for immediate payment is given or 10 days after the service has issued the notice of intent to levy. IRM 20.1.2.2.8.1.1
27X IRC 6651(h) When specific conditions are met, the FTP penalty rate decreases from 1/2 of 1% (.005) to 1/4 of 1% (.0025) for any month that begins on or after the taxpayer has entered into an installment agreement. IRM 20.1.2.2.8.1.2
28X IRC 6657 Bad check penalty imposed against dishonored checks or other forms of payment.

Note:

Prior to July 2, 2010, only payments made in the form of a paper check or money order were subject to this penalty.


If the instrument is $1,250 or more ($750 or more for payments received before 5/26/2007):
  • The penalty is 2 percent of the amount of the instrument


If the instrument is less than $1,250 (less than $750 for payments received before 5/26/2007), the penalty is the lesser of:
  • The penalty is 2 percent of the amount of the instrument

  • The penalty is 2 percent of the amount of the instrument

IRM 20.1.10.4
31X* IRC 6652(b) Penalty for failure to report tips imposed on an employee (who received the tips) equal to 50 percent of the employee’s portion of the FICA tax or Railroad Retirement tax applicable to the tip amount that was not reported at the time and in the manner required. IRM 20.1.10.3.2
32X* IRC 6663 Fraud penalty. Imposes a penalty of 75% of the portion of any underpayment of tax if the underpayment is attributable to fraud.

Note:

IRC 6663 applies to returns due after Dec. 31, 1989. For returns due prior to Jan. 1, 1990, the Fraud penalty was applicable under Repealed IRC 6653(b)

IRM 20.1.5.12
35X* Repealed IRC 6653(a) Negligence penalty assessed for return periods prior to January 1, 1990 at a rate of 5% of the underpayment of tax due to negligence.
For return periods after Dec. 31, 1989, Negligence is assessed under IRC 6662(b)(1) using PRN 680. See Exhibit 20.1.1-5.
IRM 20.1.5.7
* The penalty was assessed as the result of an examination or other compliance employee determination. These penalties should be abated only by the area responsible for assessing the penalty or by Appeals.
** See Penalty Reference Numbers in Exhibit 20.1.1-4 and Exhibit 20.1.1-5.

Exhibit 20.1.1-4 
Penalty Reference Numbers (500 Series)

Penalties assessed using the reference numbers 500 through 514 are assessed using the following computational formula: Only one penalty per information return can be assessed regardless of the number of failures associated with that return. Therefore, the computer paragraph associated with the respective reference number relates to the type of failure, not the way the penalty was computed. See IRM 20.1.7 for additional information.
PRN Code Section Penalty Description
  IRC 6721 Imposition of Penalty for Failure to Comply with Certain Information Reporting Requirements
PRNs 500–514 should only be used for returns and statements due after December 31, 1989.
    For returns required to be filed before Jan. 1, 2011, the applicable rates are:

Note:

The maximum penalty amount shown are for persons with gross annual receipts of more than $5 million. For those with gross annual receipts of $5 million or less, the maximum penalty amount is shown in (parenthesis)

  • $50 per failure/maximum $250,000 (max. $100,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • $15 per failure/maximum $75,000 (max. $25,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million) if a failure is corrected within 30 days, after the due date of the information return (i.e., the penalty will be decreased to $15 per failure).

  • $30 per failure/maximum $150,000 (max. $50,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million) if the failure is corrected more than 30 days after the due date of the return, but on or before August 1 of the filing year (i.e., the penalty will be decreased to $30 per failure).

    For returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, the applicable rates are:

Note:

The maximum penalty amount shown are for persons with gross annual receipts of more than $5 million. For those with gross annual receipts of $5 million or less, the maximum penalty amount is shown in (parenthesis)

  • $100 per failure/maximum $1.5 million (max. $500,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • $30 per failure/maximum $250,000 (max. $75,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million) if a failure is corrected within 30 days, after the due date of the information return (i.e., the penalty will be decreased to $30 per failure).

  • $60 per failure/maximum $500,000 (max. $200,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million) if the failure is corrected more than 30 days after the due date of the return, but on or before August 1 of the filing year (i.e., the penalty will be decreased to $60 per failure).

500 IRC 6721 Late Filing Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, Form 1099 (with any applicable suffix), Form W-2 G, Certain Gambling Winnings, or Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, that was not correctly and timely filed.
501 IRC 6721 Magnetic Media Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 (after the first 250 forms of each type) required by IRC 6011(e)(2)(A) not filed electronically (or by magnetic media before 12/2/2008).
502 IRC 6721 Missing or Incorrect TIN Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 submitted with missing or incorrect TINs
503 IRC 6721 Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 submitted in an improper format as provided for in the IRC, Treas. Regs, or SSA procedures.
504 IRC 6721 Late and Magnetic Media Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was not filed:
  • Correctly and timely, and

  • Electronically (or using magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (over 250 forms).

505 IRC 6721 Late and Missing or Incorrect TIN Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not correctly and timely filed, and

  • Submitted with a missing or incorrect TIN

506 IRC 6721 Late and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was not:
  • Correctly and timely filed, and

  • Submitted in an improper format as provided for in the IRC, Treas. Regs, or SSA procedures.

507 IRC 6721 Magnetic Media and Missing or Incorrect TIN Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not filed electronically (or using magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (over 250 forms), and

  • Filed with missing or incorrect TINs

508 IRC 6721 Magnetic Media and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was not:
  • Filed electronically (or using magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (over 250 returns), and

  • Submitted in the proper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

509 IRC 6721 Missing or Incorrect TIN and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was filed:
  • With a missing or incorrect TIN, and

  • In an improper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

510 IRC 6721 Late, Magnetic Media, and Missing or Incorrect TIN Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not correctly and timely filed,

  • Not filed electronically (or by magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (after the first 250 forms of each type) required by IRC 6011(e)(2)(A), and

  • filed with missing or incorrect TINs.

511 IRC 6721 Late, Magnetic Media, and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was not:
  • Correctly and timely filed,

  • Filed electronically (or by magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (after the first 250 forms of each type) required by IRC 6011(e)(2)(A), and

  • Submitted in the proper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

512 IRC 6721 Late, Missing or Incorrect TIN, and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not correctly and timely filed,

  • Filed with missing or incorrect TINs, and

  • Not submitted in the proper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

513 IRC 6721 Magnetic Media, Missing or Incorrect TIN, and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not filed electronically (or using magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (over 250 returns),

  • Filed with missing or incorrect TINs, and

  • Not submitted in the proper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

514 IRC 6721 Late, Magnetic Media, Missing or Incorrect TIN, and Improper Format Penalty
A penalty is charged for each Form 1098, Form 1099, Form W-2 G, or Form W-2 that was:
  • Not correctly and timely filed,

  • Not filed electronically (or using magnetic media before 12/2/2008) (over 250 returns),

  • Filed with missing or incorrect TINs, and

  • Not submitted in the proper format as provided for in either the IRC, Treas. Regs. or SSA procedures.

PRNs 549 and 550 are used by the CAWR Penalty Program

PRN Code Section Penalty Description
549 IRC 6721(e) Penalty in the Case of Intentional Disregard
A penalty is charged for each Form W-2 that was not filed as required by IRC 6051. The penalty is the greater of:
  • $100 ($250 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per missing Form W-2, or

  • 10% of the total wages that were required to be reported


See IRM 4.19.4.3.1.1.
550 IRC 6721(a) Late Filing Penalty
The penalty is assessed at $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) for each Form W-2 secured by CAWR.
See IRM 4.19.4.3.1.2.

The 500 series PRNs in this table are assessed with Form 8278.
Refer to and use the most current revision of Form 8278.

PRN Code Section Penalty Description
527
IMF
IRC 6652(c)(1)(D) Failure to Provide Public Inspection of Application as Required by IRC 6104(d). See IRM 20.1.8.2.1.1.
  • $20 per day for each day the failure continues.

  • No maximum penalty amount.

528
IMF
IRC 6652(c)(1)(C) Failure to Provide Public Inspection of Annual Returns and Reports as Required by IRC 6104(d) and IRC 527(j). See IRM 20.1.8.2.1.1.
  • $20 per day for each day the failure continues.

  • Maximum penalty is $10,000 per return or report.

537 IRC 6721(e) Failure to File Correct Information Returns Due to Intentional Disregard. See IRM 20.1.7.
  • $100 for returns required to be filed before Jan. 1, 2011, or

  • $250 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010

  • No maximum penalty amount.

543 IRC 6702(b) Penalty for specified frivolous submissions referenced in IRC 6702(b)(2). See IRM 20.1.10.10.2.
$5,000 per submission.
551 IRC 6720B Fraudulent identification of exempt use property. See IRM 20.1.10.14.
  • $10,000.

  • No maximum penalty.

553 IRC 6693(a)(2)(B) Failure to File a Report Relating to Archer MSAs Required under IRC 220(h). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.1.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

554 IRC 6693(a)(2)(C) Failure to file a Report Relating to Health Savings Accounts Required under IRC 223(h). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.1.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

555 IRC 6693(a)(2)(D) Failure to File a Report Relating to Qualified Tuition Programs Required under IRC 529(d). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.1.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

556 IRC 6693(a)(2)(E) Failure to File a Report Relating to Coverdell Education Savings Accounts Required under IRC 530(h). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.1.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

557 IRC 6693(b)(1) Overstatement of Designated Nondeductible Contributions. See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.2.
  • $100 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

558 IRC 6693(b)(2) Failure to File a Form Relating to Nondeductible Contributions Required by IRC 408(o)(4). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.2.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

559 IRC 6716(a) Failure of the Executor to Make a Return Required under IRC 6018 Relating to Large Transfers at Death and Gifts. See IRM 20.1.11.13.1. Applies to Executors of estates of decedents who die between Jan. 1, 2010 and Dec. 31, 2010.
  • $10,000 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

560 IRC 6716(a) Failure to file information with respect to certain transfers at death and gifts - Failure to furnish information required by IRC 6018(b)(2) relating to certain transfers of gifts received by decedent within 3 years of death. See IRM 20.1.11.13.2. Applies to Executors of estates of decedents who die between Jan. 1, 2010 and Dec. 31, 2010.
  • $500 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

561 IRC 6716(b) Failure to furnish information required to be furnished to beneficiaries as required by IRC 6018(e) or IRC 6019(b). See IRM 20.1.11.13.3. Applies to estates of decedents who die between Jan. 1, 2010 and Dec. 31, 2010.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

562 IRC 6716(d) Penalty for any failure under IRC 6716(a) or IRC 6716(b) that is due to intentional disregard. See IRM 20.1.11.13.4. Applies to estates of decedents who die between Jan. 1, 2010 and Dec. 31, 2010.
  • 5% of the fair market value of the transferred property for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

563 IRC 6720C Penalty for Failure to Notify Health Plan of Cessation of Eligibility for COBRA Premium Assistance (for employees involuntarily terminated between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009). See IRM 20.1.10.15.
  • 110% of the premium reduction after termination of eligibility.

  • No maximum penalty.

564 IRC 6685 Willful Failure to Comply With the Public Disclosure Requirements of IRC 6104(d). The penalty is in addition to any Criminal Penalty imposed by IRC 7207. See IRM 20.1.8.2.3.
  • $5,000 per return or application.

  • No maximum penalty.

565 IRC 6676 Penalty for erroneous claim for refund or credit. Effective for claims filed or submitted after 5/25/2007. See IRM 20.1.5.14.

20% of the excessive amount of the claim.
566 IRC 6684 Liability of Tax Relating to Private Foundations and Certain other Tax-Exempt Organizations by Reason of a Willful and Flagrant Act or Failure to Act. See IRM 20.1.8.2.2.

100% of the tax liability.
567 IRC 6711 Failure by Tax-Exempt Organization to Disclose Availability of Information or Service from Federal Government. See IRM 20.1.8.2.5.
For any day on which a failure under IRC 6711(a) occurs, the penalty is the greater of:
  • $1,000, or

  • 50% of the aggregate cost of the offers or solicitations referred to in IRC 6711(a)(1).

  • No maximum penalty.

570 IRC 6689 Failure to File Notice of Redetermination of Foreign Tax Required by IRC 905(c). See IRM 20.1.9.19.
  • 5% of the deficiency per month, or fraction thereof.

  • Maximum penalty is 25% of the deficiency.

573 IRC 6693(c) Failure to Furnish Certain Information to Participants in SIMPLE IRA Plans Required by IRC 408(1)(2)(C). See IRM 20.1.8.3.9.3.
  • $50 for each day on which such failures continue.

  • No maximum penalty.

574 IRC 6653 Failure to pay stamp tax. See IRM 20.1.11.2.

50% of the total amount of the underpayment amount.
575 IRC 6674 Fraudulent Statement or Willful Failure to Furnish Statement to Employee as Required by IRC 6051 or IRC 6053(b). See IRM 20.1.10.7.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

578 IRC 6709(a) Negligence Penalty with Respect to Mortgage Credit Certificates. See IRM 20.1.10.13.1.

$1,000 per misstated certificate.
579 IRC 6709(b) Fraud Penalty with Respect to Mortgage Credit Certificates. See IRM 20.1.10.13.2.

$10,000 per misstated certificate attributable to fraud.
580 IRC 6709(c) Failure to Timely File Report Relating to a Mortgage Credit Certificate Required under IRC 25(g). See IRM 20.1.10.13.3.
  • $200 per failure.

  • Maximum penalty is $2,000.

581 IRC 6695A Substantial and Gross Valuation Misstatements Attributable to Incorrect Appraisals. See IRM 20.1.12.1. The penalty is the lesser of:
  • The greater of:
    10% of the understatement attributable to the misstatement, or
    $1,000, or

  • 125% of the gross income received by the appraiser from the preparation of the appraisal.

582 IRC 6697 Penalty to be imposed on a regulated investment company or a real estate investment trust which uses the deficiency dividend procedure of IRC 860, Deduction for deficiency dividends, to retain its qualified status. See IRM 20.1.10.9.

Note:

IRC 6697 has been repealed for tax years beginning after Dec. 22, 2010.

  • Equal to the interest charge paid by the trust on the deficiency dividend.

  • May not exceed 50% of the deficiency dividend deduction allowed by IRC 860(a).

587 IRC 6652(j) Failure to File Certification with Respect to Certain Residential Rental Projects as required by IRC 142(d)(7). See IRM 20.1.10.3.3.
  • $100 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

588 IRC 6652(k) Failure to Make Reports Required Under IRC 1202(d)(1)(C). See IRM 20.1.10.3.4.
For reports covering periods in 2 or more years, the penalty is multiplied by the number of years.
  • $50 for each failure.

  • If the failure is due to negligence or intentional disregard:
    $100 for each failure.

  • No maximum penalty.

589 IRC 6652(c)(2)(C)(ii) Failure to File Return for Split-Interest Trusts (as required under IRC 6034(a)) With Gross Income in Excess of $250,000. See IRM 20.1.8.2.1.2.
  • $100 for each day the failure continues.

  • Maximum penalty is $50,000 per return.

590 IRC 6652(a) Failure to File Information Returns with Respect to Certain Payments Aggregating Less than $10 as required under IRC 6042(a)(2) and IRC 6044(a)(2). See IRM 20.1.10.3.1.
  • $1 for each statement not filed.

  • Maximum penalty is $1,000 per calendar year.

591 IRC 6652(c)(1)(B)(ii) Failure to Comply with Notice of Demand by Manager of Organization. See IRM 20.1.8.2.1.1.
  • $10 for each day the failure continues after expiration of the time specified in the demand.

  • Maximum penalty is $5,000 per return.

592 IRC 6652(c)(2)(B) Failure to Comply with Notice of Demand by Manager of Exempt Organization or Trust. See IRM 20.1.8.2.1.2.
  • $10 for each day the failure continues after expiration of the time specified in the demand.

  • Maximum penalty is $5,000 per return.

593 IRC 9707 Failure to Pay Premium as Required by IRC 9704. See IRM 20.1.10.18.
  • $100 per day.

  • No maximum penalty amount.

595 Voluntary Disclosure Initiative Penalty - 5% Failure to timely notify the IRS of one or more various activities related to foreign bank accounts/entities and various sections of Titles 26 and 31 of the United States Code. See IRM 20.1.9.1.4.
  • 5% of the highest aggregate account/asset value in all foreign bank accounts/entities for the tax years covered by the voluntary disclosure.

  • Requires a closing agreement entered into by the taxpayer with the Commissioner of IRS.

596 Voluntary Disclosure Initiative Penalty - 20% Failure to timely notify the IRS of one or more various activities related to foreign bank accounts/entities and various sections of Titles 26 and 31 of the United States Code. See IRM 20.1.9.1.4.
  • 20% of the highest aggregate account/asset value in all foreign bank accounts/entities for the tax years covered by the voluntary disclosure.

  • Requires a closing agreement entered into by the taxpayer with the Commissioner of IRS.

597 Voluntary Disclosure Initiative Penalty - 12.5% Failure to timely notify the IRS of one or more various activities related to foreign bank accounts/entities and various sections of Titles 26 and 31 of the United States Code. See IRM 20.1.9.1.4.
  • 12.5% of the highest aggregate account/asset value in all foreign bank accounts/entities for the tax years covered by the voluntary disclosure.

  • Requires a closing agreement entered into by the taxpayer with the Commissioner of IRS.

598 Voluntary Disclosure Initiative Penalty - 25% Failure to timely notify the IRS of one or more various activities related to foreign bank accounts/entities and various sections of Titles 26 and 31 of the United States Code. See IRM 20.1.9.1.4.
  • 25% of the highest aggregate account/asset value in all foreign bank accounts/entities for the tax years covered by the voluntary disclosure.

  • Requires a closing agreement entered into by the taxpayer with the Commissioner of IRS.

PRN 599 identifies a systemically-assessed penalty under IRC 6038 for a late filed Form 5471, Information Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations. Manual assessment of a penalty under IRC 6038 is made with PRN 623. See IRM 21.8.2.21 for additional information.

Exhibit 20.1.1-5 
Penalty Reference Numbers (600 Series)

Penalty Reference Numbers marked with an asterisk "*" identify penalties assessed with Form 8278.

Caution:

Refer to and use the most current revision of Form 8278.

PRN Statute Penalty Description
600* IRC 6721 Failure to File Correct Information Returns
This reference number should only be used for returns and statements due after December 31, 1989.

For returns required to be filed before Jan. 1, 2011, the applicable rates are:

Note:

The maximum penalty amount shown are for persons with gross annual receipts of more than $5 million. For those with gross annual receipts of $5 million or less, the maximum penalty amount is shown in (parenthesis)

  • $50 per failure/maximum $250,000 (max. $100,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • $15 per failure/maximum $75,000 (max. $25,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million). If a failure is corrected within 30 days, after the due date of the information return, the penalty will be decreased to $15 per failure.

  • $30 per failure/maximum $150,000 (max. $50,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million). If the failure is corrected more than 30 days after the due date of the return, but on or before August 1st of the filing year, the penalty will be decreased to $30 per failure.



For returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, the applicable rates are:

Note:

The maximum penalty amount shown are for persons with gross annual receipts of more than $5 million. For those with gross annual receipts of $5 million or less, the maximum penalty amount is shown in (parenthesis)

  • $100 per failure/maximum $1.5 million (max. $500,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • $30 per failure/maximum $250,000 (max. $75,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million). If a failure is corrected within 30 days, after the due date of the information return, the penalty will be decreased to $30 per failure.

  • $60 per failure/maximum $500,000 (max. $200,000 if gross receipts ≤ $5 million). If the failure is corrected more than 30 days after the due date of the return, but on or before August 2nd of the filing year, the penalty will be decreased to $60 per failure.


For other circumstances that may apply, see IRM 20.1.7
603* IRC 6038C Failure of Foreign Corporation Engaged in a U.S. Business to Furnish Information or Maintain Records
See IRM 20.1.9.8.
  • Initial penalty is $10,000 for each taxable year.

  • If the information is not received within 90 days from notification, a continuation penalty of $10,000 is charged for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues. No maximum penalty amount (assess with PRN 619).

604* IRC 6652(f) Failure of Foreign Person to File Return Regarding Direct Investment in U.S. Real Property Interests
See IRM 20.1.9.12.
  • The penalty applies to returns required under IRC 6039C.

  • $25 per day. Maximum is the lesser of $25,000, or 5% of the aggregate fair market value of the real property investments.

605* IRC 6686 Failure to File Returns or Supply Information by DISC or Former FSC
See IRM 20.1.9.17.
  • $100 for each failure to supply information to shareholders on Schedule K. Maximum $25,000 per calendar year.

  • $1,000 for each failure to file Form 1120-DISC, Domestic International Sales Corporation Return, Form 1120-IC DISC, Interest Charge Domestic International Sales - Corporation Return or Form 1120-FSC, U.S. Income Tax Return of a Foreign Sales Corporation.

606 IRC 6695A Substantial and Gross Valuation Misstatements Attributable to Incorrect Appraisals

Note:

Effective Jan. 2010, PRN 581 is used for IRC 6695A penalty assessments.


The penalty is the lesser of:
  • The greater of:
    •10% of the underpayment attributable to the misstatement, or
    •$1,000, or

  • 125% of the gross income received by the appraiser from the preparation of the appraisal.

607* IRC 6721(a) Failure to File Information Returns or Registration Statements by Due Date

Caution:

Use of PRN 607 is limited to employees of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) Program.


See PRN 600 above for an explanation of the applicable penalty rates.
609* IRC 6721(a) Failure to Comply with Certain Information Reporting Requirements - Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business

Caution:

Use of PRN 609 is limited to employees of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) Program. All others use PRN 651

See PRN 651 for an explanation and the applicable penalty rates.
611* IRC 6652(c)(3)(A) Failure to File a Disclosure Required of Tax-exempt Entity
  • $100 per failure per day.

  • $50,000 maximum for any 1 disclosure.

612* IRC 6722 Failure to Furnish Correct Payee Statement
For returns required to be filed after December 31, 1989, a penalty will be imposed for each failure to:
  1. Furnish a payee statement on or before the due date to the person to whom the statement must be furnished,

  2. Furnish all information required, and

  3. Furnish correct information.

Note:

Only one penalty per statement, regardless of the number of failures per statement.



For returns due on or after Jan. 1, 2011, the maximum penalty rate depends on whether the entity is a Large Business (LB) (gross receipts >$5 million) or Small Business (SB) (gross receipts ≤$5 million). The penalty rates, depending on the number of days late/incorrect, are:
  • $30 per return if not more than 30 days late. Maximum $75,000 (SB) or $250,000 (LB).

  • $60 per return if more than 30 days late, but before Aug 1st. Maximum $200,000 (SB) or $500,000 (LB).

  • $100 per return if filed after Aug. 1st. Maximum $500,000 (SB) or $1.5 million (LB).



For returns due on or before Dec. 31, 2010, the penalty rate for all businesses is:
  • $50 per return, regardless of the number of days late.

  • $100,000 maximum penalty.


For failures that are due to intentional disregard:
  • $250 per return ($100 for returns due on or before Dec. 31, 2010).

  • No maximum penalty. No reduction in penalty rate.

613* IRC 6679 Failure to File Returns, Etc., With Respect to Foreign Corporations or Foreign Partnerships
See IRM 20.1.9.15.
  • Form 5471, Schedule O, Organization or Reorganization of Foreign Corporation and Acquisitions and Dispositions of its Stock

  • Form 8865, Schedule P, Acquisitions, Dispositions, and Changes of Interests in a Foreign Partnership.

See IRC 6046 and IRC 6046A.
  • The initial penalty is assessed at $10,000 per failure.

  • If failure continues for more than 90 days after notification, penalty is increased by $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues. Maximum additional penalty up to $50,000 (assess with PRN 619).

614* IRC 6714 Failure to Meet Disclosure Requirements Applicable to Quid Pro Quo Contributions as required by IRC 6115
  • $10 per contribution.

  • Maximum penalty is $5,000 for a particular fundraising event or mailing.

616* IRC 6682 False Information with Respect to Withholding
See IRM 20.1.10.8.
  • False information on Form W-4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate, and/or Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification.

  • $500 for each false statement (Form W-4/Form W-9).

618 IRC 6672 Failure to Collect and Pay Over Tax, or an Attempt to Evade or Defeat Tax
See IRM 20.1.10.5.
  • Trust Fund Recovery Program. The penalty is assessed against responsible corporate officers.

  • 100% of the tax required to be collected, accounted for, and paid over.

619* IRC 6679(a)(2)
IRC 6677
IRC 6038(b)(2)
IRC 6038A(d)(2)
IRC 6038C
Failure to File Returns with Respect to Foreign Corporations or Foreign Partnerships - Continuation Penalty for Failure to Provide Information After 90-Day Period
See IRM 20.1.9.

Note:

The initial penalty is assessed with PRN 603, 613, 623, 625, 659, or 660.

  • The penalty is assessed at $10,000 per 30-day period (or fraction thereof).

  • No maximum penalty for IRC 6038A(d)(2) and IRC 6038C.

  • $50,000 maximum continuation penalty for IRC 6038(b)(2).

  • For IRC 6677, maximum penalty cannot exceed gross reportable amount.

621* IRC 6723 Failure to Comply with Other Information Reporting Requirements
For returns and statements required to be filed after December 31, 1989
  1. A penalty of $50 per failure:
    To comply timely with specified information reporting requirements, or
    To include correct information.

  2. The maximum penalty is $100,000 per year.

623* IRC 6038 Failure to Furnish Information with Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations
See IRM 20.1.9.3
Failure to File Form 5471, and/or Form 8865, Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Partnerships
  • Initial penalty is $10,000 per annual accounting period plus FTC reduction.

  • If failure continues for more than 90 days after notification, penalty is increased by $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues. Maximum additional penalty up to $50,000 (assess with PRN 619).

624* IRC 6695 Other Assessable Penalties with Respect to the Preparation of Income Tax Returns for Other Persons
Any failure by the preparer to:
  1. Furnish a copy of the return to the taxpayer - IRC 6695(a)

  2. Sign the return - IRC 6695(b)

  3. Furnish the preparer's identifying number - IRC 6695(c)

  4. Retain a copy, return or list, as required by IRC 6107(b) - IRC 6695(d)

  5. File a correct information return or other requirement of IRC 6060 - IRC 6695(e)



These penalties are assessed at $50 per failure, not to exceed:
  • $25,000 per calendar year for IRC 6695(a), IRC 6695(b)), and IRC 6695(c)

  • $25,000 per return period for IRC 6695(d)I and IRC 6695(e)

625* IRC 6038A Information with Respect to Certain Foreign owned Corporations
Failure to furnish information or maintain records as required by IRC 6038A(a) and IRC 6038A(b). Form 5472, Information Return of a Foreign Owned Corporation.
See IRM 20.1.9.5
  • Initial penalty is $10,000 for each taxable year with respect to which the failure occurs.

  • If the failure continues for more than 90 days after notice of failure mailed, an additional $10,000 is imposed for each 30-day period during which the failure continues after the expiration of the original 90 day period (assess with PRN 619).

626* IRC 6695(f) Negotiation of Check by tax return preparer
  • Endorses or otherwise negotiates a refund check (with respect to income tax) issued to a taxpayer.

  • $100 per failure.

627* IRC 6695(g) Failure by Preparer To Be Diligent in Determining Eligibility for EIC
  • $100 per failure.

628* IRC 6700 Promoting Abusive Tax Shelters
See IRM 20.1.6.12.
  • The penalty is the lesser of $1,000 or 100% of gross income derived (or to be derived) from such activity between 1/1/1990 and 10/22/2004.

  • For such activities after 10/22/2004, the penalty is the lesser of $1,000 or 100% of gross income derived (or to be derived). In the case of a statement described in IRC 6700(a)(2)(A), the penalty is 50% of gross income derived (or to be derived).

629* IRC 6652(c)(3)(B)(ii) Failure by Entity or Manager to Comply with Written Demand to File a Disclosure Required Under IRC 6033(a)(2).
  • $100 for each day the failure continues after the date specified in the demand.

  • Maximum penalty is $10,000 with respect to any 1 disclosure.

630* IRC 6720 Donee's Failure to Issue Acknowledgement on Used Vehicle Donation As Required by IRC 170(f)(12).

Multiple calculations. See IRC 6720(1) and IRC 6720(2) for calculations.
631* IRC 6701 Penalties for Aiding and Abetting Understatement of Tax Liability.
Aiding and abetting - Preparer

The penalty is assessed for each document that relates to the tax liability of:
  • Individual - at $1,000, or

  • Corporate - at $10,000

632* IRC 6705 Failure by a Broker to Provide Notice to Payors
See IRM 20.1.10.11.

$500 for each failure.
633* IRC 6713 Disclosure or Use of Information by Preparers of Returns
  • $250 per disclosure or use

  • Maximum of $10,000 per calendar year

634* IRC 6707 Failure to Furnish Information Regarding Reportable Transactions Required by IRC 6111(a)
See IRC 6707A(c) for definitions of reportable and listed transactions.
  1. For reportable transactions, the penalty for returns due after 10/22/2004 is $50,000 per failure.

  2. For listed transactions, the penalty for returns due after 10/22/2004 is the greater of:

    • $200,000, or

    • 50% of the gross income derived relating to the listed transaction. In the case of an intentional failure or act, 75% of the gross income derived

635* IRC 6651(f) Fraudulent Failure to File (attributable to tax shown on a return)
See IRM 20.1.2.2.7.5 for additional information.
  • 15% per month (14 1/2% per month for any month in which the Failure to Pay penalty also applies), up to 5 months.

  • Maximum penalty is 75% (72 1/2% if Failure to Pay penalty also applies for all 5 months).

636* IRC 6708 Failure to Maintain Lists of Investors/Advisees in Potentially Abusive Tax Shelters Required by IRC 6112(a)
  • $10,000 per day, from the 21st day after the list is requested, until a complete list is provided to IRS.

  • No maximum penalty amount.

637* IRC 6721(a) or IRC 6722(a) Failures for Returns Relating to Higher Education Tuition and Related Expenses as required by IRC 6050S (Form 1098–E, Student Loan Interest Statement).
  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure to file return - IRC 6721(a)(1).
    Maximum $250,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure to furnish correct payee statement - IRC 6722(a).
    Maximum $100,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million).

638* IRC 6721 Failures related to Form 8027, Employer’s Annual Information Return of Tip Income and Allocated Tips, as required by IRC 6053.
  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure.
    Maximum $250,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • In the case of intentional disregard (IRC 6721(e)), the penalty is the greater of $100 ($250 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure, or 10% of the aggregate amount of items required to be reported.

639* IRC 6704(b) Failure to Keep Records Necessary to Meet Reporting Requirements Under IRC 6047(d).
  • $50 per calendar year, multiplied by the number of failures.

  • Maximum penalty for any person for any calendar year is $50,000.

643* IRC 6673(a) Sanctions and Costs Awarded by Courts
See IRM 20.1.10.6.1.
  • Tax Court determined that the proceedings before it have been instituted by the taxpayer primarily for delay, etc.

  • Court awarded sanctions, penalties, or costs not to exceed $25,000

644* IRC 6673(b) Sanctions and Costs Awarded by Courts (IRC 7433)
See IRM 20.1.10.6.2.
  • A Court (other than the Tax Court) determination that the taxpayer filed frivolous suit against the United States.

  • Court awarded sanctions, penalties, or costs not to exceed $10,000

645* IRC 6694(a) Understatement of Taxpayer’s Liability by Tax Return Preparer
The penalty is assessed against a tax return preparer. The penalty is based on an understatement of liability due to an unreasonable position that the tax return preparer knew (or should have known) was unreasonable. No maximum penalty amount.
  1. For income tax returns or claims prepared on or prior to May 25, 2007, the penalty is $250 per return or claim.

  2. For tax returns or claims prepared after May 25, 2007, the penalty is the greater of:

    • $1,000, or

    • 50% of the income derived, or to be derived, per return or claim

647* IRC 6710 Failure to Disclose that Contributions are Nondeductible as required by IRC 6113
  • $1,000 for each day the failure occurs. Maximum penalty is $10,000 per calendar year.

  • If the failure is due to intentional disregard, the penalty for each day the failure occurs is the greater of $1,000 or 50% of the aggregate cost of the solicitations. The $10,000 limitation does not apply if the failure is due to intentional disregard.

648* IRC 6707A Failure to Include Reportable Transaction Information with Return (Form 8886, Reportable Transaction Disclosure Statement)
See IRM 20.1.6.
For each failure to include information with respect to a reportable transaction, the penalty is 75 percent of the decrease in tax shown on the return as a result of the reportable transaction with the following maximum and minimum penalty amounts:
  1. For listed transactions (see IRC 6707A(c)(2)), the maximum penalty is:

    • $100,000 in the case of a natural person, or

    • $200,000 for all other taxpayers.

  2. For any other reportable transaction (see IRC 6707A(c)(1)), the maximum penalty is:

    • $10,000 in the case of a natural person, or

    • $50,000 for all other taxpayers

  3. The minimum penalty for both listed and any other reportable transaction is:

    • $5,000 in the case of a natural person, or

    • $10,000 for all other taxpayers

649* IRC 6652(l) Failure by Corporation to file returns required by IRC 6043(c) (Form 8806, Information Return for Acquisition of Control or Substantial Change in Capital Structure)
See IRM 20.1.10.3.5
  • $500 per day per failure

  • Maximum $100,000

650* IRC 6694(b) Willful or Reckless Understatement of Taxpayer’s Liability by Tax Return Preparer.
The penalty is assessed if any part of the understatement is due to willful or reckless conduct or intentional disregard of the rules or regulations in preparing the return or claim for refund. The penalty is reduced by any amount of penalty paid under IRC 6694(a).
No maximum penalty amount.
  1. For income tax returns or claims prepared on or before May 25, 2007, the penalty is $1,000 per return or claim.

  2. For tax returns or claims prepared after May 25, 2007, the penalty is the greater of:

    • $5,000, or

    • 50% of the income derived, or to be derived, per return or claim

651* IRC 6721(a) Failure to Comply with Certain Information Reporting Requirements - Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business.
The penalty is assessed for each Form 8300 not timely and/or correctly filed as required by IRC 6050I.
  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure

  • Maximum $250,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million) per year

652* IRC 6721(e)(2)(C) Intentional Disregard of the Failure to comply with Certain Information Reporting Requirements - Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business.

Note:

This reference number is used to assess the intentional disregard penalty when Form 8300 is not timely and/or correctly filed.


The penalty is assessed at the greater of:
  • $25,000, or

  • The amount of cash received in such transaction, to the extent the cash does not exceed $100,000.


The $250,000 ($1.5 million/$500,000 for returns due after Dec. 31, 2010) yearly limitation under IRC 6721 shall not apply.
653* IRC 6722(a) Failure to Furnish Correct Statements Required by IRC 6050I(e) - Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business.
  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per statement not timely furnished or containing incorrect or incomplete information.

  • The maximum penalty shall not exceed $100,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million) per year.

654* IRC 6722(e) Intentional Disregard of the Requirement to Furnish a Correct Payee Statement Required by IRC 6050I(e) - Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business.
  1. The intentional disregard penalty is the greater of:

    • $100 ($250 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010), or

    • 10 percent of the amount required to be reported correctly on the statement

  2. The $100,000 ($1.5 million/$500,000 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) yearly limitation does not apply.

655* IRC 6717(a) Penalty for Refusal to Permit Entry or Examination Allowed by IRC 4083(d)(1)
See IRM 20.1.11.7.2.
  • A penalty of $1,000 for each refusal to admit entry or to permit examination.

  • A penalty of $1,000 for each refusal to admit entry or to permit examination if the refusal is related to any place where taxable fuel is stored or produced.

656* IRC 6715 Dyed Fuel Sold For Use or Used in Taxable Use, Etc.
See IRM 20.1.11.5.
Generally, the penalty is assessed on any dyed fuel (nontaxable use) that is sold, used, or held for sale or use, for a taxable use.
  1. 1st offense, the penalty is the greater of:

    • $1,000, or

    • $10 for each gallon of dyed fuel involved

  2. Subsequent violations, the penalty is the greater of:

    • $1,000 multiplied by the number of prior violations, or

    • $10 for each gallon of dyed fuel involved

657* IRC 6718 Failure to Display Tax Registration on Vessels
See IRM 20.1.11.7.4.
The penalty is assessed on any vessel required to display proof of registration as required by IRC 4101(a)(3) and fails to do so. The penalty is:
  • $500 per vessel for the initial one month failure to display.

  • For multiple monthly violations: $500, plus the amount derived by multiplying $500 times the number of monthly penalties previously imposed.

658* IRC 6652(c)(2)(A) Failure to File Information Return Required by IRC 6034 (relating to returns by certain trusts) or IRC 6043(b) (relating to terminations, etc., of exempt organizations)
  • $10 per day per return

  • Maximum penalty is $5,000 per return

659* IRC 6677 Failure to File Information With Respect to Certain Foreign Trusts as required by IRC 6048 - Form 3520, Annual Return to Report Transactions With Foreign Trusts and Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts
See IRM 20.1.9.13.
  1. Initial penalty is 35% of gross reportable amount.

    Note:

    For notices and returns due after 12/31/2009, the initial penalty is the greater of 35% of the gross reportable amount, or $10,000.

  2. If failure continues for more than 90 days after notice, $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues after the expiration of the 90-day period ( assess with PRN 619

  3. Total penalty cannot exceed gross reportable amount.

660* IRC 6677(b) Form 3520-AAnnual Return of Foreign Trust With a U.S. Owner - IRC 6048(b)
See IRM 20.1.9.14.
  1. Initial penalty is 5% of gross reportable amount.

    Note:

    For notices and returns due after 12/31/2009, the initial penalty is the greater of 5% of the gross reportable amount, or $10,000.

  2. If failure continues for more than 90 days after notice, $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues after the expiration of the 90-day period ( assess with PRN 619).

  3. Total penalty cannot exceed gross reportable amount.

661* IRC 6675 Excessive Claims with Respect to the Use of Certain Fuels - Per IRC 6416(a)(4), IRC 6420, IRC 6421, or IRC 6427
See IRM 20.1.11.4.
The penalty is the greater of:
  • Two times the excessive amount, or

  • $10

662*
(BMF)
IRC 527(j)(1) Failure to Make Required Disclosure of Expenditures and Contributions (Form 8872, Political Organization Report of Contributions and Expenditures).
  • 35% of amount relating to failure.

  • Also see IRC 6652(c).

663*
(BMF)
IRC 6652(c)(1)(A) Failures Related to Annual Returns Required by IRC 6033(a)(1) (Exempt Organizations) and IRC 6012(a)(6) (Political Organizations)
  1. For organizations with gross receipts of $1,000,000 or less, the penalty is:

    • $20 per day during which such failure continues

    • Maximum penalty is the lesser of $10,000 or 5% of the gross receipts

  2. For organizations with gross receipts of more than $1,000,000, the penalty is:

    • $100 per day during which such failure continues

    • Maximum penalty is $50,000

664* IRC 6712 Failure to Disclose Treaty-Based Return Position as required by IRC 6114
See IRM 20.1.9.20.
  • $10,000 per failure for C corporations

  • $1,000 per failure for all other taxpayers

665* IRC 6715A Tampering With, or Failing to Maintain Security Requirements, for Mechanical Dye Injection Systems
See IRM 20.1.11.6.
  1. For IRC 6715A(a)(1) (Tampering), the penalty is the greater of:

    • $25,000, or

    • $10 for each gallon of fuel involved

  2. For IRC 6715A(a)(2) (Failure to Maintain Security Requirements), the penalty is:

    • $1,000 per failure, and

    • $1,000 per day for failing to correct the violation for each day after which such violation was discovered or such person should have reasonably known of such violation

666* IRC 6702(a) Frivolous Return

Caution:

Only PRN 666 assesses IRC 6702(a) after 1/24/2005


See IRM 20.1.10.10.1.
The penalty is assessed per frivolous document. On a Married Filing Joint frivolous return, the penalty is assessed on each spouse. The penalty is:
  • $500 per document for filings and submissions prior to Mar. 17, 2007.

  • $5,000 per document for filings and submissions after Mar. 16, 2007.

667* IRC 6725 Failure to Report Information Under IRC 4101 (failure to report a vessel/facility)
See IRM 20.1.11.7.7.

$10,000 per failure.
668* IRC 6039F(c) Failure to File Form 3520, Annual Return to Report Transactions With Foreign Trusts and Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts, to Report Receipt of Foreign Gifts
See IRM 20.1.9.10.
  • 5% of the amount of the foreign gift for each month the failure continues

  • Maximum penalty cannot exceed 25% of the amount of the gift

669*
(IMF)
IRC 6688 Failure to File Form 8898, Statement for Individuals Who Begin or End Bona Fide Residence in a U.S. Possession, Regarding Residence in a US Possession as Required by IRC 937(c)
See IRM 20.1.9.18.

$1,000 per failure.
670* IRC 6719 Failure to Register or Reregister as Required by IRC 4101
See IRM 20.1.11.7.5.
  • $10,000 for each initial failure, and

  • $1,000 for each day thereafter the failure continues

671*
(IMF)
IRC 6039G Failure to File Form 8854, Initial and Annual Expatriation Information Statement, regarding Expatriate/Residency Report
See IRM 20.1.9.11.

$10,000 per failure.
672* IRC 6721 Failures in Regard to Information Returns Relating to Taxable Mergers and Acquisitions as Required by IRC 6043A
  • $50 ($100 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure. Maximum $250,000 (for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010, $1.5 million for persons with gross annual receipts > $5 million, or $500,000 for persons with gross annual receipts ≤ $5 million).

  • In the case of intentional disregard, $100 ($250 for returns required to be filed after Dec. 31, 2010) per failure.

673* IRC 6720A Resale of Certain Adulterated Diesel Fuels
See IRM 20.1.11.7.6.

$10,000 for each transfer, sale, or holding out for resale.
674* IRC 6723 Failure to Provide Notice of Partnership Exchange as required by IRC 6050K
  • A penalty of $50 is imposed for each failure to comply timely with specified information reporting requirements.

  • The maximum penalty for failure to comply with all specified information reporting requirements is $100,000 per year.

676* IRC 6038B Notice of Certain Transfers to Foreign Persons (Failure to File Form 926, Return by a U.S. Transferor of Property to a Foreign Corporation) (Failure to File Form 8865, Schedule O, Transfer of Property to a Foreign Partnership)
See IRM 20.1.9.7.
  • 10% of the fair market value of the property transferred at the time of exchange.

  • Maximum $100,000.

  • No maximum if failure is due to intentional disregard.

678* IRC 6706(a) Failure to Show Information on Debt Instrument Required by IRC 1275(c)(1) (reported on Form 8281, Information Return for Publicly Offered Original Issue Discount Instruments)
See IRM 20.1.10.12.1.

$50 for each instrument to which a failure exists.
678* IRC 6706(b) Failure to Furnish Information to Secretary Required by IRC 1275(c)(2) (reported on Form 8281, Information Return for Publicly Offered Original Issue Discount Instruments)
See IRM 20.1.10.12.3.
  • 1% of the aggregate issue price of debt instrument amount.

  • Maximum $50,000.

679*
(IMF)
IRC 6039E Failure by Passport and Immigration Applicants to Provide Information Concerning Residence Status
See IRM 20.1.9.21.

$500 for each failure to provide the required information.
680 IRC 6662 Accuracy-related Penalties
  • For IRC 6662(c) through IRC 6662(g), the penalty is 20% of the underpayment

  • For IRC 6662(h) (Gross Valuation Misstatements), the penalty is:
    40% of the underpayment

681 IRC 6662A Accuracy-related Penalty on Understatements with Respect to Reportable Transactions
  • 20% of reportable transaction understatement.

  • 30% for nondisclosed listed or other avoidance transactions.

684 IRC 7519(f)(4) Required Payments for Entities Electing Not to Have Required Taxable Year (IRC 444 Elections)
See IRM 20.1.10.17.
  • The penalty is assessed for failing to make a timely election payment

  • The penalty is assessed at 10 percent of the underpaid amount and is assessed on MFT 15 with TC 246

686 IRC 6651(f) Increase in Penalty for Fraudulent Failure to File (attributable to a deficiency)
See IRM 20.1.2.2.7.5 and IRM 25.1.7.
  • 15 percent per month, maximum of 5 months.

  • Not to exceed 75 percent of the total tax.

687 IRC 6676 Penalty for erroneous claim for refund or credit

Caution:

PRN 687 is used for Married Filing Joint assessments only. All others use PRN 565

  • 20% of the excessive amount of the claim.

  • Assessed with Form 3870, Request for Adjustment. Refer to Servicewide Penalties' Home Page for additional information.

Note:

688 identifies failure by a large partnership (more than 100 partners) to file electronically. The penalty is assessed systemically with Transaction Code (TC) 246. See IRM 21.7.4.4.2.8.1, Large Partnership Penalty for Failing to File Electronically, for additional information.


Note:

689 is NOT a Penalty Reference Number. It is used by TEGE for sanction assessments pertaining to closing agreements. See IRM 4.5.2.3.1.29(19), Credit and Tax Computation Adjustment (Item 15), for additional information.

Exhibit 20.1.1-6 
Penalty Reference Numbers (700 Series)

PRN Statute Description
700 IRC 6038D(d)(1) Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets
See IRM 20.1.9.22.
  • Initial penalty is $10,000 for each taxable year.

  • If the information is not received within 90 days from notification, a continuation penalty of $10,000 is charged for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues ( assess with PRN 710).

710 IRC 6038D(d)(2) Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets - Increase in penalty where the failure continues after notification
See IRM 20.1.9.22.4.
  • If the information is not received within 90 days from notification, a continuation penalty of $10,000 is charged for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) the failure continues.

    • Maximum penalty is $50,000.

Exhibit 20.1.1-7 
Table of Abbreviations and Acronyms

ABBREVIATIONS DEFINITION
23C Assessment Date
ACDS Appeals Centralized Database System
ACH Automated Clearing House
ACR Audit Change Report
ADEPT Automated Deposit of Electronic Payments for Taxes
ADP Automatic Data Processing
AGI Adjusted Gross Income
AICPA American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
AIMS Audit Information Management System
AMS Accounts Management Services (formerly DI - Desktop Integration)
AO Appeals Officer
AOC Advice of Credit
ASED Assessment Statute Expiration Date
ASFR Automated Substitute for Return
ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (Dept. of Justice) (also see TTB)
BMF Business Master File
BWH Backup Withholding
CPS Case Processing Support
CAF Centralized Authorization File
CADE Customer Account Data Engine
CARE Customer Assistance, Relationships and Education
CAWR Combined Annual Wage Reporting
CBAF Commercial Bank Address File
CC Command Code
CCD Chief Compliance Division
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CI Criminal Investigation
CIS Correspondence Imaging System
CP Computer Paragraph
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPM Civil Penalty Module
CRS Communication Replacement System
CSED Collection Statute Expiration Date
CY Calendar Year
CVPN Civil Penalty Name Line
ECC-DET Enterprise Computing Center - Detroit
ECC-MEM Enterprise Computing Center - Memphis
ECC-MTB Enterprise Computing Center - Martinsburg
EFT Electronic Funds Transfer
EFTPS Electronic Federal Tax Payment System
DLN Document Locator Number
DP Data Processing
EFC Electronic Filing Coordinators
EFP Electronic Filing Program
EIN Employer Identification Number
EMIS Enforcement Management Information System
EPMF Employee Plans Master File
EQTRAS Examination Quality Trends Analysis System
ERTA Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
ES Estimated Tax
ETA Electronic Tax Administration
ETE Employment Tax Examiner
FFA Fiduciary FTD Avoidance
FICA Federal Insurance Contributions Act
FIFO First-In-First-Out Inventory Method
FIT Federal Income Tax
FFTF Fraudulent Failure to File
FMS Financial Management Service
FRB Federal Reserve Bank
FRCS Federal Reserve Communication System
FTD Failure to Deposit (also, Federal Tax Deposit)
FTD POC Federal Tax Deposit Point of Contact (previously referred to as FTD Interagency Coordinator)
FTF Failure to File
FTP Failure to Pay
FUTA Federal Unemployment Tax Act
FY Fiscal Year
GBP Good Block Proof
IAC Interest Abatement Coordinator
IDRS Integrated Data Retrieval System
IDTCA Interest and Dividend Tax Compliance Act of 1983
IEP International Enforcement Program
IMF Individual Master File
IMPACT Improved Penalty Administration and Compliance Tax Act of 1989
IRA Individual Retirement Account
IRAF Individual Retirement Account File
IRC Internal Revenue Code
IRM Internal Revenue Manual
IR Regs Internal Revenue Regulations
IRS Internal Revenue Service
IRS NO. Abstract Number
LIFO Last-In-First-Out Inventory Method
LMQAS Line Management Quality Assurance System
MARS Manual Accounting Replacement System
MCR Master Control Records
MF Master File
MFT Master File Tax
MICRORAR Revenue Agent Report-Computer Generated
MSN Microfilm Serial Number
NASACT National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers, and Treasurers
NMF Non-Master File
OBRA Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
OCR Optical Character Recognition
ODC Ozone Depleting Chemicals
OPI Office of Penalties and Interest
In Nov. 2006, OPI was split into the Office of Servicewide Penalties and the Office of Servicewide Interest
OSP Office of Servicewide Penalties
PAS Program Analysis System
PCC Penalty Computation Code
PFN Partnership Prefiling Notification
PIC Penalty Indicator Code
PIL Preparer’s Inventory Listing
PINEX Penalty and Interest Notice Explanations
PMF Payer Master File
PNL Prefiling Notification Letter
PNP Presumptive Negligence Penalty
POA Power of Attorney
PRC Penalty Reason Code
PRN Penalty Reference Number
PSC Penalty Screening Committee
PVL Preparer’s Volume Listing
QAS Quality Assurance Staff
QR Quality Review
RAR Revenue Agent Report
RC Reason Code
RCA Reasonable Cause Assistant
RDD Return Due Date
RFC Regulated Futures Contract
REMIC Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit
ROFT/ROFTL Record of Federal Tax/Record of Federal Tax Liability (deposit liability schedule)
RONT Record of Net Tax Liability—Form 720, Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return
RRTA Railroad Retirement Tax Act
RSED Refund Statute Expiration Date
RURT Railroad Unemployment Repayment Tax
SCCF Service Center Control File
SIC Schedule Indicator Code
SFR Substitute for Return
SRTP Statement on Responsibilities in Tax Practice
SSA Social Security Administration
SSN Social Security Number
STAUP Command code which stops collection activity
TAMRA Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988
TAO Taxpayer Assistance Order
TC Transaction Code
TDA Taxpayer Delinquent Account
TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf
TECS Treasury Enforcement Communication System
TEFRA Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (1982)
TE/GE Tax Exempt/Government Entities
TIF Taxpayer Information File
TIN Taxpayer Identification Number
TLN Transmittal Locator Number
TP Taxpayer
TRA’86 Tax Reform Act of 1986
TTB Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
TT&L Treasury Tax and Loan Account
TY Tax Year
UPC Unpostable Code
URB Underreporter Branch (Service Centers)

Exhibit 20.1.1-8 
Dictionary of Key Terms

TERMS DEFINITION
23C DATE The date an assessment is made. Assessment is accomplished when the assessment officer schedules the liability and signs the assessment register (Form 23C, Assessment Certificate, Summary Record of Assessments).
ABATEMENT A reduction in the assessment of tax, penalty, or interest when it is determined the assessment is incorrect, or when the taxpayer should be relieved of a liability, e.g., penalty abatement for reasonable cause.
ABSTRACT NUMBER A three-digit number that references a specific type of excise tax. The abstract number will correspond exactly with the IRS number shown on the excise tax form, Form 720. See IRM 20.1.4.10.1.
ABSTRACTS Reports that identify the specific type of tax collected, corresponding to the proper appropriation account set by Congressional Act or Public Law.
ACCOUNT A record of a taxpayer’s assessments, abatements and credits.
ACCRUALS The increase of interest and penalty amounts amassed from the date a penalty or interest assessment is posted to an account (23C Date) to the date the amounts are paid.
ADVANCE PAYMENT The payment made for an anticipated deficiency prior to the actual assessment.
ADVICE OF CREDIT (AOC) The transmittal, on Treasury Form 2284, Federal Tax Deposit Advice of Credit Treasury Tax and Loan Account, of federal taxes paid to a depositary bank. See IRM 20.1.4.
ANNUAL ACCOUNTING PERIOD A 12-consecutive month period (calendar or fiscal year) adopted by the taxpayer for maintaining books and records.
ASSERT Determine that tax, penalty, or interest applies to a taxpayer account.
ASSESS Formal entry of tax debt including penalty, and/or interest that has been determined to be due and collectable by IRS.
ASSESSMENT A bookkeeping entry, recording the amount of tax, penalties, and/or interest charged to a taxpayer’s account.
ASSESSMENT DATE The date Form 23C is executed by the assessment officer.
AUDIT TRAIL Data used to track case activity to follow the development of an issue from the time it is raised to the time it is resolved.
AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT A subsequent adjustment to an account which follows automatically from the previous adjustment.
BALANCE DUE The amount of tax, penalty, interest or other receivables that remain unpaid on a taxpayer’s account.
BLOCK Returns or documents that have been grouped together for processing and filing purposes. Blocks consist of one hundred or fewer documents.
BUSINESS MASTER FILE (BMF) The files maintained by the IRS which include business transactions and accounts. These include employment taxes, income taxes on businesses, use taxes, wagering taxes, and excise taxes.
BURDEN OF PROOF The necessity of affirmatively proving a fact or facts in dispute on an issue.
CALENDAR YEAR A 12-consecutive month period beginning with January 1.
CHARITABLE DEDUCTION PROPERTY A taxpayer’s contribution of real or personal property to a charity for which a deduction can be claimed under IRC 170.
CLAIM—FORMAL A request from the taxpayer on the proper form, such as Form 843, Claim For Refund and Request for Abatement, Form 1040X, Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, or Form 1120X,Amended U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return, asking that a liability previously assessed be reduced.
CLAIM—INFORMAL A written request, other than on the proper form, signed by the taxpayer, requesting changes to obtain a correct and accurate reflection of his/her tax liability.
COMMAND CODE (CC) A five or six character code used to access IDRS.
COMMERCIAL BANK ADDRESS FILE (CBAF) A computer listing of all authorized depositories within each service center’s processing area.
COMPUTER PARAGRAPH NOTICE (CP) A computer generated message relating to a taxpayer’s account.
CONTACT PERSONNEL Any IRS employee who has direct contact with the taxpayer either on the telephone, in person, or by mail.
CYCLE One week’s processing at the service center and Martinsburg Computing Center (ECC-MTB).
DEBIT BALANCE The amount by which the balance due exceeds the total amount of credits.
DELINQUENT RETURN A return which is filed after the prescribed due date (determined with regard to any valid extension of time).
DISCLOSURE See IRC 6103 and IRC 6664(c).
DISHONORED CHECK A taxpayer’s check or money order that a financial institution does not accept for payment. See IRM 20.1.10.
DOCUMENT CODE
(Doc Code)
The Code which identifies the specific type of return or document that was filed or processed. See Document 6209 section 2.2.
DOCUMENT LOCATOR NUMBER (DLN) A 14-digit identification number assigned to every return/document and entered into the ADP system that affects a taxpayer account.
DOCUMENT REGISTER A numerical listing of each item in a block of returns or documents. The document register serves as a transmittal for each block of remittance returns.
DUE DATE Date by which a return must be filed or a payment or deposit made.
DUMMY MODULE A tax module created on IDRS in order to record information when the true tax module is not present.
ECONOMIC SUBSTANCE DOCTRINE As defined in IRC 7701(o)(5)(A), means the common law doctrine under which tax benefits under subtitle A (Income Taxes) with respect to a transaction are not allowable if the transaction does not have economic substance or lacks a business purpose.
EMPLOYEE PLANS MASTER FILE (EPMF) The files maintained by the IRS which include transactions on Employee Plan accounts.
EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (EIN) A unique nine-digit number used to identify a taxpayer’s business account in a NN–NNNNNNN format.
ENTITY AREA The portion of an input document or tax return that contains the name, address, account number, tax period and other entity data.
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK (FRB) One of 12 banks of the Federal Reserve system which verifies and classifies federal tax deposits (FTD) monies collected within its geographic jurisdiction.
FEDERAL TAX DEPOSIT POINT OF CONTACT (FTD POC) The designated employee in the FTD unit of the SC Accounting Operation who is a liaison between IRS, FRB, commercial banks and reporting agents (previously referred to as the FTD Interagency Coordinator).
FIDUCIARY FTD AVOIDANCE (FFA) The penalty chargeable to third party fiduciaries who do not submit their trusts’ estimated tax payments on magnetic tape through the FTD system.
FILE LOCATION CODE (FLC) The first two digits of the DLN used to identify the campus or district office that initiated a transaction. See Document 6209, section 4.3 for a complete list of FLCs.
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE (FMS) The federal agency responsible for the government’s cash management program.
FISCAL YEAR An accounting period of 12 consecutive months other than a calendar year.
FOREIGN-CONTROLLED CORPORATION A domestic corporation engaged in U.S. business and controlled by a foreign person.
FRAUD The intentional commission of an act or acts for the specific purpose of evading a tax believed to be owing.
FREEZE CODE A condition on an account which prohibits any further action being taken.
FRIVOLOUS Clearly lacking in substance, or clearly insufficient as a matter of law.
GENERATED DATA Information produced as a result of input to, or update of, IDRS or Master File.
HARDSHIP See Undue Hardship.
INDIVIDUAL MASTER FILE (IMF) The files maintained by the IRS which include transactions on individual tax accounts.
INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT FILE (IRAF) The files maintained by the IRS which include transactions on individual retirement accounts.
INTEGRATED DATA RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (IDRS) A computer system capable of retrieving or updating stored information which works in conjunction with the Master File records of a taxpayer’s account.
INDIVIDUAL TAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (ITIN) A taxpayer identifying number issued by the IRS to an alien individual who is ineligible to receive an SSN for the purpose of reporting tax related information.
JULIAN DATE The numeric day of the year starting with 001 on January 1 and continuing sequentially to 365 (or 366).
LEVY An administrative means of collecting taxes by seizure of the taxpayer’s property and rights to property to satisfy delinquent taxes.
MASTER FILE TAX (MFT) CODE A two-digit code that identifies the type of return filed and the tax class. See Document 6209, section 2.2 for a complete listing of MFTs.
MICROFILM SERIAL NUMBER (MSN) A ten-digit locator number printed across each FTD and AOC processed through the optical character recognition (OCR) equipment as each service center. The MSN is used to identify and/or locate individual FTD coupons.
NON-MASTER FILE The files maintained by the IRS which include transactions on tax accounts not included on the Master File.
NORMAL (LEGAL) DUE DATE The date the statute requires the filing of the return. If the normal or extended due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the return is considered timely if it is filed on the next succeeding day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
OFFER-IN-COMPROMISE An agreement resolving a taxpayer’s account where it has been determined that there is either doubt as to collectibility, doubt as to liability, or both.
ORAL EVIDENCE Non-written information received from the taxpayer, authorized representative or other third party, providing additional facts for requesting penalty relief. See IRM 20.1.1.3.1 for additional information on acceptable oral evidence.
PENALTY A sanction primarily used to promote voluntary compliance of the tax laws.
PENALTY COMPUTATION CODE (PCC) A three-digit code which is used to denote the reasons why, or methods by which, a FTD penalty was charged.
PENALTY PERIOD The time for which a penalty is applicable.
PENALTY REASON CODE A three-digit code, entered in the 4th position Reason Code field, which is used to denote the reason for penalty removal or reduction. See Exhibit 20.1.1-2.
PENDING TRANSACTION A transaction entered into IDRS which has not yet posted to the Master File. Pending transactions will affect the IDRS account balance, but will not change the Master File account balance.
PERIOD ENDING The ending year and month of the period covered by a tax return.
PINEX An IDRS computer program used to produce penalty and interest explanations for taxpayers.
POSTASSESSMENT APPEAL An appeal of tax, penalty and/or interest made by the taxpayer after the tax and/or penalty has been assessed.
PREPAID CREDITS Payments of tax, such as withholding, estimated payments, etc., made prior to the due date of the return.
PRESCRIBED DUE DATE The due date designated for filing a return, including any extension of time for filing.
PRESUMPTIVE DUE DATE The due date designated for filing a return, not taking into account any extensions.
REASON CODE A three-digit code used when adjusting an account to denote which item on the tax return is affected by the adjustment. Document 6209 Section 8.16.
REASONABLE BASIS As defined by Treas. Reg. 1.6662–3(b)(3), "Reasonable basis is a relatively high standard of tax reporting, that is, significantly higher than not frivolous or not patently improper. The reasonable basis standard is not satisfied by a return position that is merely a colorable claim...."
REASONABLE CAUSE ASSISTANT (RCA) See IRM 20.1.1.3.6.
REBATE A credit, refund or other repayment where too much tax was paid.
RECEIVED DATE:
  • Timely filed return - The original or extended due date of the return.

  • Late filed return - The IRS received date stamped on the face of the return.

REFILE DLN A new DLN assigned to a return or other document after an audit or tax adjustment has been completed. The tax return and related documents are filed under this refile DLN.
REFUND Money returned to the taxpayer as a result of overpayment of a tax liability.
REMITTANCE AMOUNT The amount of money received in payment of a liability. This remittance may be by check, money order, cashier’s check, cash, credit card, or EFTPS.
SECURED DELINQUENT RETURN A return secured after a taxpayer has been contacted by the Service but prior to an assessment made under Substitute for Return procedures.
SEIZED PROPERTY Property of the taxpayer over which the Service has exercised actual or constructive dominion and control for the purpose of satisfying outstanding tax liabilities.
SERVICE CENTER CONTROL FILE (SCCF) A magnetic tape control system record the receipt of returns/documents, to trace their progress through the processing system and finally to verify that all items have been completed. The SCCF systems maintain separate totals for revenue receipts and other items.
SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER A unique nine-digit number used to identify an individual taxpayer account, in NNN-NN-NNNN format issued by the Social Security Administration.
SOURCE DOCUMENT Backup documentation used by Service personnel to explain an adjustment to a taxpayer’s account; for example, taxpayer correspondence.
STATUS CODE A two-digit numeric code indicating the Master File and/or IDRS status of a tax module.
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS A set of rules specifying the period in which actions may occur, or within which rights may be enforced.
SUBSEQUENT PAYMENT A payment received for an account that has been assessed and for which the taxpayer has been billed.
SUBSTANTIAL AUTHORITY The objective determination that a position taken by a taxpayer is supportable.
SUBSTITUTE FOR RETURN (SFR) A return prepared on behalf of a taxpayer by the Service pursuant to IRC 6020(b). The return is prepared when it has been determined that a taxpayer is liable for filing the tax return but has failed to do so upon due notice from the Service.
SUPERSEDING RETURN An amended return filed on or before the return due date. It is filed on an original return form, not an amended return form.
TAX CLASS A one-digit code which identifies the type of tax involved in a transaction.
TAX MODULE A record of one account for one taxpayer covering one type of tax for one tax period.
TAX PERIOD The period of time for which a return is filed.
TAXPAYER ADVOCATE SERVICE (TAS) An independent organization within the IRS whose employees assist taxpayers who are experiencing economic harm, who are seeking help in resolving tax problems that have not been resolved through normal channels, or who believe that an IRS system or procedure is not working as it should.
TAXPAYER DELINQUENT ACCOUNT (TDA) An internal computer notice indicating the taxpayer has not responded to prior balance due notices or paid a balance due.
TAXPAYER IDENTIFYING NUMBER (TIN) A nine-digit number assigned to taxpayers for identification purposes. Depending on the nature of the taxpayer, the TIN is either an Employer Identification Number (EIN), a Social Security Number (SSN), an Adoption Taxpayer Identification Number (ATIN), or an Individual TIN (ITIN).
TAXPAYER INFORMATION FILE (TIF) The IDRS file which contains entity and module information.
TIMELY FILED A return or document which was filed by the taxpayer and received by the Service within specified time frames. A return is timely filed if postmarked by the original or extended due date, IRC 7502. Also see Rev. Rul. 73-133 and IRM 20.1.2.1.1.
TOLERANCE The allowable deviation from standard in order to facilitate administration of a program. A tolerance can take the form of a dollar amount or a time volumetric allowance.
TRANSACTION CODE (TC) Three-digit code that identifies a specific action on a taxpayer’s account. Document 6209, IRS Processing Codes and Information, Section 8.2, contains a complete listing of TCs.
UNDERPAYMENT In general, the amount by which any tax imposed exceeds the tax shown by the taxpayer on the return, plus amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) before the return was filed in excess of any rebate.
UNDERSTATEMENT In general, the excess of the amount of the tax required to be shown on the return over the amount of the tax imposed which is shown on the return (reduced by any rebate). See Treas. Reg. 1.6662–4(b)(2) for additional information.
UNDUE HARDSHIP In general, an economic condition that is so severe that the taxpayer is, or would be financially debilitated if the tax or deficiency was paid. See IRM 20.1.1.3.3.3, Undue Hardship.
VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE Taxpayers who freely obey the tax laws. Compliance is defined in the IRC as:
  1. Filing accurate and complete returns on time,

  2. Paying amounts due, and

  3. Reporting information required.

WAIVER A waiver is a limited form of penalty relief.
WILLFUL NEGLECT Conscious, intentional failure to comply with the provisions of the IRC, or reckless indifference to such provisions.

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