An installment sale is a sale of property where you will receive at least one payment after the tax year in which the sale occurs. You are required to report gain on an installment sale under the installment method unless you "elect out" on or before the due date for filing your tax return (including extensions) for the year of the sale. You may elect out by reporting all the gain as income in the year of the sale on Form 4797 (PDF), Sales of Business Property, or on Form 1040, Schedule D (PDF), Capital Gains and Losses, and Form 8949 (PDF), Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets. Installment method rules do not apply to sales that result in a loss. You cannot use the installment method to report gain from the sale of inventory or stocks and securities traded on an established securities market. You must report any portion of the gain from the sale of depreciable assets that is ordinary income under the depreciation recapture rules in the year of the sale.
Your total gain on an installment method sale is generally the amount by which the selling price of the property you sold exceeds your adjusted basis in that property. The selling price includes the money and the fair market value of property you received for the sale of the property, any selling expenses paid by the buyer, and existing debt encumbering the property that the buyer pays, assumes or takes subject to.
Under the installment method, you include in income each year only part of the gain you receive, or are considered to have received. Use Form 6252 (PDF), Installment Sale Income, to report an installment sale in the year the sale occurs and for each year you receive an installment payment. You will need to file Form 1040 (PDF), U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, and may need to attach Form 4797 (PDF) and Form 1040, Schedule D (PDF).
You report interest on an installment sale as ordinary income in the same manner as any other interest income. If the installment sales contract does not provide for adequate stated interest, part of the stated principal may be recharacterized as "imputed" interest or as interest under the original issue discount rules, even if you have a loss. You must use the applicable federal rate (AFR) to figure the unstated interest on the sale. The rates are published monthly in the Index of Applicable Federal Rates (AFR) Rulings on IRS.gov.
For additional information, refer to Publication 537, Installment Sales.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: May 28, 2015