Roth 401(k), Roth IRA, and Pre-tax 401(k) Retirement Accounts Designated Roth 401(k) Roth IRA Pre-Tax 401(k) Contributions Designated Roth employee elective contributions are made with after-tax dollars. Roth IRA contributions are made with after-tax dollars. Traditional, pre-tax employee elective contributions are made with before-tax dollars. Income Limits No income limitation to participate. Income limits: 2022 – modified AGI married $214,000/single $144,000 2021 - modified AGI married $208,000/single $140,000 No income limitation to participate. Maximum Elective Contribution Aggregate* employee elective contributions limited to $20,500 in 2022; $19,500 in 2021 (plus an additional $6,500 in 2022 and 2021 for employees age 50 or over). Contribution limited to $6,000 plus an additional $1,000 for employees age 50 or over in 2021 and 2022. Same aggregate* limit as Designated Roth 401(k) Account Taxation of Withdrawals Withdrawals of contributions and earnings are not taxed provided it’s a qualified distribution – the account is held for at least 5 years and made: On account of disability, On or after death, or On or after attainment of age 59½. Same as Designated Roth 401(k) Account and can have a qualified distribution for a first time home purchase. Withdrawals of contributions and earnings are subject to Federal and most State income taxes. Required Distributions Distributions must begin no later than age 72 (age 70 ½ if reached age 70 ½ before January 1, 2020), unless still working and not a 5% owner. No requirement to start taking distributions while owner is alive. Same as Designated Roth 401(k) Account. * This limitation is by individual, rather than by plan. You can split your annual elective deferrals between designated Roth contributions and traditional pre-tax contributions, but your combined contributions can’t exceed the deferral limit - $20,500 in 2022; $19,500 in 2021 ($27,000 in 2022; $26,000 in 2021 if you're eligible for catch-up contributions).