Required minimum distributions (RMDs) are the minimum amounts you must withdraw from your retirement accounts each year. You generally must start taking withdrawals from your traditional IRA, SEP IRA, SIMPLE IRA, and retirement plan accounts when you reach age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022). Account owners in a workplace retirement plan (for example, 401(k) or profit-sharing plan) can delay taking their RMDs until the year they retire, unless they're a 5% owner of the business sponsoring the plan. Roth IRAs do not require withdrawals until after the death of the owner. Designated Roth accounts in a 401(k) or 403(b) plan are subject to the RMD rules for 2022 and 2023. However, for 2024 and later years, RMDs are no longer required from designated Roth accounts. You must still take RMDs from designated Roth accounts for 2023, including those with a required beginning date of April 1, 2024. You can withdraw more than the minimum required amount. Your withdrawals are included in taxable income except for any part that was already taxed (your basis) or that can be received tax-free (such as qualified distributions from designated Roth accounts). Beginning in 2023, the SECURE 2.0 Act raised the age that you must begin taking RMDs to age 73. If you reach age 72 in 2023, the required beginning date for your first RMD is April 1, 2025, for 2024. Notice 2023-23PDF permits financial institutions to notify IRA owners no later than April 28, 2023, that no RMD is required for 2023. If you reach age 73 in 2023, you were 72 in 2022 and subject to the age 72 RMD rule in effect for 2022. If you reach age 72 in 2022, Your first RMD is due by April 1, 2023, based on your account balance on December 31, 2021, and Your second RMD is due by December 31, 2023, based on your account balance on December 31, 2022. For defined contribution plan participants or IRA owners who die after December 31, 2019, (with a delayed effective date for certain collectively bargained plans), the entire balance of the deceased participant's account must be distributed within ten years. There's an exception for a surviving spouse, a child who has not reached the age of majority, a disabled or chronically ill person, or a person not more than ten years younger than the employee or IRA account owner. The new 10-year rule applies regardless of whether the participant dies before, on, or after the required beginning date. The required beginning date is the date an account owner must make take their first RMD. For more information on IRAs, including required withdrawals and beneficiaries, see: Retirement Topics – Beneficiary Publication 590-B, Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) Required Minimum Distribution Worksheets for IRAs Chart of required minimum distributions for IRA beneficiaries Publication 560, Retirement Plans for Small Business (SEP, SIMPLE and Qualified Plans) RMD Comparison Chart (IRAs vs. Defined Contribution Plans) The following frequently asked questions and answers provide general information and should not be cited as legal authority. Q1. What are Required Minimum Distributions? (updated March 14, 2023) Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) are minimum amounts that IRA and retirement plan account owners generally must withdraw annually starting with the year they reach age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022). Retirement plan account owners can delay taking their RMDs until the year in which they retire, unless they're a 5% owner of the business sponsoring the plan. Owners of traditional IRA, and SEP and SIMPLE IRA accounts must begin taking RMDs once the account holder is age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022), even if they're retired. Retirement plan participants and IRA owners, including owners of SEP IRAs and SIMPLE IRAs, are responsible for taking the correct amount of RMDs on time, every year from their accounts, and they may face stiff penalties for failure to take RMDs. When a retirement plan account owner or IRA owner dies before January 1, 2020, before their RMDs are required to begin, the entire amount of the owner's benefit generally must be distributed to the beneficiary who is an individual. within 5 years of the end of the year following the year of the owner's death, or over the life of the beneficiary starting by the end of the year following the year of the owner's death. For defined contribution plan participants, or IRA owners, who die after December 31, 2019, (with a delayed effective date for certain collectively bargained plans), the SECURE Act requires the entire balance of the participant's account be distributed within ten years. This 10-year rule has an exception for a surviving spouse, a child who has not reached the age of majority, a disabled or chronically ill person or a person not more than ten years younger than the employee or IRA account owner. The new 10-year rule applies regardless of whether the participant dies before, on, or after, the required beginning date. The required beginning date is the date an account owner must take their first RMD. See Publication 590-B, Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs), and Retirement Topics – Beneficiary for more information on when beneficiaries must start receiving RMDs. Q2. What types of retirement plans require minimum distributions? (updated March 14, 2023) The RMD rules apply to all employer sponsored retirement plans, including profit-sharing plans, 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, and 457(b) plans. The RMD rules also apply to traditional IRAs and IRA-based plans such as SEPs, SARSEPs, and SIMPLE IRAs. The RMD rules do not apply to Roth IRAs while the owner is alive. However, RMD rules do apply to the beneficiaries of Roth 401(k) accounts. Q3. When must I receive my required minimum distribution from my IRA? (updated March 14, 2023) You must take your first required minimum distribution for the year in which you reach age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022). However, you can delay taking the first RMD until April 1 of the following year. If you reach age 72 in 2022, you must take your first RMD by April 1, 2023, and the second RMD by Dec. 31, 2023. If you reach age 72 in 2023, your first RMD for 2024 (the year you reach 73) is due by April 1, 2025. A different deadline may apply to RMDs from pre-1987 contributions to a 403(b) plan (see FAQ 5 below). Q4. How is the amount of the required minimum distribution calculated? Generally, a RMD is calculated for each account by dividing the prior December 31 balance of that IRA or retirement plan account by a life expectancy factor that the IRS publishes in Tables in Publication 590-B, Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs). Choose the life expectancy table to use based on your situation. Joint and Last Survivor Table II - use this table if the sole beneficiary of the account is your spouse and your spouse is more than 10 years younger than you. 2021 RMDsPDF 2022 RMDsPDF Uniform Lifetime Table III - use this if your spouse is not your sole beneficiary or your spouse is not more than 10 years younger 2021 RMDsPDF 2022 RMDsPDF Single Life Expectancy Table I - use this if you are a beneficiary of an account (an inherited IRA) 2021 RMDsPDF 2022 RMDsPDF See the worksheets to calculate required minimum distributions and the FAQ below for different rules that may apply to 403(b) plans. Q5. Can an account owner just take a RMD from one account instead of separately from each account? An IRA owner must calculate the RMD separately for each IRA they own, but can withdraw the total amount from one or more of the IRAs. Similarly, a 403(b) contract owner must calculate the RMD separately for each 403(b) contract they own, but can take the total amount from one or more of the 403(b) contracts. However, RMDs required from other types of retirement plans, such as 401(k) and 457(b) plans, must be taken separately from each of those plan accounts. Q6. Who calculates the amount of the RMD? (updated March 14, 2023) Although the IRA custodian or retirement plan administrator may calculate the RMD, the account owner is ultimately responsible for taking the correct RMD amount. Q7. Can an account owner withdraw more than the RMD? Yes. Q8. What happens if a person does not take a RMD by the required deadline? (updated March 14, 2023) If an account owner fails to withdraw the full amount of the RMD by the due date, the amount not withdrawn is subject to a 50% excise tax. SECURE 2.0 Act drops the excise tax rate to 25%; possibly 10% if the RMD is timely corrected within two years. The account owner should file Form 5329, Additional Taxes on Qualified Plans (Including IRAs) and Other Tax-Favored Accounts, with their federal tax return for the year in which the full amount of the RMD was required, but not taken. Q9. Can the penalty for not taking the full RMD be waived? Yes, the penalty may be waived if the account owner establishes that the shortfall in distributions was due to reasonable error and that reasonable steps are being taken to remedy the shortfall. In order to qualify for this relief, you must file Form 5329 and attach a letter of explanation. See the Instructions to Form 5329PDF. Q10. Can a distribution in excess of the RMD for one year be applied to the RMD for a future year? No. Q11. How are RMDs taxed? The account owner is taxed at their income tax rate on the amount of the withdrawn RMD. However, to the extent the RMD is a return of basis or is a qualified distribution from a Roth IRA, it is tax free. Q12. Can RMD amounts be rolled over into another tax-deferred account? No. Please refer to Publication 590-B, Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs), for additional information. Q13. Is an employer required to make plan contributions for an employee who has reached age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022) and is receiving required minimum distributions? (updated March 14, 2023) Yes, you must continue contributions for an employee, even if they are receiving RMDs. You must also give the employee the option to continue making salary deferrals in a plan that permits them. Otherwise, you will fail to follow the plan's terms which may cause your plan to lose its qualified status. You may correct this failure through the Employee Plans Compliance Resolution System (EPCRS). Q15. How are RMDs determined in a Defined Benefit Plan? (updated March 14, 2023) A defined benefit plan generally must make RMDs by distributing the participant's entire interest in periodic annuity payments as calculated by the plan's formula for: the participant's life, the joint lives of the participant and beneficiary, or a "period certain" (see Treas. Reg. §1.401(a)(9)-6, A-3). See also: RMD Comparison Chart (IRAs vs. Defined Contribution Plans) Publication 560, Retirement Plans for Small Business (SEP, SIMPLE, and Qualified Plans) Q16. What are the required minimum distribution requirements for pre-1987 contributions to a 403(b) plan? (updated March 14, 2023) If the 403(b) plan (including any 403(b) plan that received pre-1987 amounts in a direct transfer that complies with Treas. Reg. Section 1.403(b)-10(b)): has separately accounted and kept records for pre-1987 amounts, and is for the primary purpose of providing retirement benefits (see the incidental benefit rules in Treas. Reg. Section 1.401-1(b)(1)(I)), then the pre-1987 amounts (excluding any earnings or gains on such amounts): are not subject to the age 72 (73 if you reach age 72 after Dec. 31, 2022) RMD rules of IRC Section 401(a)(9), are not used in calculating age 70½ (or age 72 or 73) RMDs from the 403(b) plan, and don't need to be distributed from the plan until December 31 of the year in which a participant turns age 75 or, if later, April 1 of the calendar year immediately following the calendar year in which the participant retires. If the plan includes both pre-1987 and post 1987 amounts, for distributions of any amounts in excess of the age 70½ RMDs, the excess is considered to be from the pre-1987 amounts. If records are not kept for pre-1987 amounts, the entire account balance is subject to the age 70½ (or age 72 or 73) RMD rules of IRC section 401(a)(9).