These frequently asked questions and answers are provided for general information only and should not be cited as any type of legal authority. They are designed to provide the user with information required to respond to general inquiries. Due to the uniqueness and complexities of Federal tax law, it is imperative to ensure a full understanding of the specific question presented, and to perform the requisite research to ensure a correct response is provided.
What is a cafeteria plan?
A cafeteria plan is a separate written plan maintained by an employer for employees that meets the specific requirements of and regulations of section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code. It provides participants an opportunity to receive certain benefits on a pretax basis. Participants in a cafeteria plan must be permitted to choose among at least one taxable benefit (such as cash) and one qualified benefit.
A qualified benefit is a benefit that does not defer compensation and is excludable from an employee’s gross income under a specific provision of the Code, without being subject to the principles of constructive receipt. Qualified benefits include the following:
- Accident and health benefits (but not Archer medical savings accounts or long-term care insurance)
- Adoption assistance
- Dependent care assistance
- Group-term life insurance coverage
- Health savings accounts, including distributions to pay long-term care services
The written plan must specifically describe all benefits and establish rules for eligibility and elections.
A section 125 plan is the only means by which an employer can offer employees a choice between taxable and nontaxable benefits without the choice causing the benefits to become taxable. A plan offering only a choice between taxable benefits is not a section 125 plan.
Who may receive benefits under a cafeteria plan?
The plan may make benefits available to employees, their spouses and dependents. It may also include coverage of former employees, but cannot exist primarily for them. See the questions below for treatment of benefits made available to individuals who are not spouses or dependents of the employee.
Is there a filing requirement for a cafeteria plan?
Generally, no. If you only have a cafeteria plan, you are not required to file Form 5500 or Schedule F. However, if you have a welfare benefit plan, you may be required under Department of Labor regulations to file a return for that plan. Please see the Form 5500 Instructions or contact the U.S. Department of Labor for more information. Assistance is also available from our Customer Account Services office.
How does a cafeteria plan work?
Employer contributions to the cafeteria plan are usually made pursuant to salary reduction agreements between the employer and the employee in which the employee agrees to contribute a portion of his or her salary on a pre-tax basis to pay for the qualified benefits. Salary reduction contributions are not actually or constructively received by the participant. Therefore, those contributions are not considered wages for federal income tax purposes. In addition, those sums generally are not subject to FICA and FUTA. See Sections 3121(a)(5)(G) and 3306(b)(5)(G) of the Internal Revenue Code.
The above discussion provides only the most basic rules governing a cafeteria plan. For a complete understanding of the rules, see the Proposed Regulations under Code section 125.
What is a flexible spending arrangement?
A flexible spending arrangement (FSA) is a form of cafeteria plan benefit, funded by salary reduction, that reimburses employees for expenses incurred for certain qualified benefits. An FSA may be offered for dependent care assistance, adoption assistance, and medical care reimbursements. The benefits are subject to an annual maximum and are subject to an annual “use-or-lose” rule. The maximum amount of reimbursement which is reasonably available to a participant for such coverage must be less than 500 percent of the value of the coverage. In the case of an insured plan, the maximum amount reasonably available must be determined on the basis of the underlying coverage. An FSA cannot provide a cumulative benefit to the employee beyond the plan year.
A town has a cafeteria plan (section 125 plan), which offers dependent care assistance. The benefits received by an employee exceed $5,000. How is this benefit reported on Form W-2?
An employee can generally exclude from gross income up to $5,000 of benefits received under a dependent care assistance program each year. The limit is reduced to $2,500 for married employees filing separate returns. The exclusion cannot be more than the earned income of either the employee or the employee’s spouse. The total dependent care benefits the employer paid to the employee or incurred on the employee’s behalf (including amounts from a section 125 plan) should be reported in Box 10 of Form W-2. Any amount over $5,000 should be included in Boxes 1, 3, and 5, as “wages,” “social security wages” and “Medicare wages.” See Publication 535 and Publication 15-A for additional information.
What remuneration under a cafeteria plan is not subject to FICA, FUTA, Medicare tax or income tax withholding?
Generally, qualified benefits under a cafeteria plan are not subject to FICA, FUTA, Medicare tax, or income tax withholding. However, group-term life insurance that exceeds $50,000 of coverage is subject to social security and Medicare taxes, but not FUTA tax or income tax withholding, even when provided as a qualified benefit in a cafeteria plan. Adoption assistance benefits provided in a cafeteria plan are subject to social security, Medicare, and FUTA taxes, but not income tax withholding. If an employee elects to receive cash instead of any qualified benefit, it is treated as wages subject to all employment taxes. For more information, see Publication 535, Chapter 5 or Publication 15-A .
Can a cafeteria plan make advance reimbursements for medical expenses?
No. Employees can only be reimbursed for allowable, documented expenses incurred during the plan year, after the expenses have been substantiated.
A town has a cafeteria plan which offers health care benefits to domestic partners. Does a domestic partner and his or her child qualify to be covered under the health plan?
Cafeteria plans can offer health insurance to employees, their spouses and their dependents. The domestic partner and dependents in this case may not be participants in a cafeteria plan because they are not employees, but the plan may provide benefits to them. For example, a domestic partner may not be given the opportunity to select or purchase benefits offered by the plan, but the domestic partner may benefit from the employee’s selection of family medical insurance coverage or of coverage under a dependent care assistance program.