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Internal Revenue Bulletin: 2013-43

October 21, 2013


Highlights of This Issue

These synopses are intended only as aids to the reader in identifying the subject matter covered. They may not be relied upon as authoritative interpretations.

INCOME TAX

Rev. Rul. 2013-21 Rev. Rul. 2013-21

Federal rates; adjusted federal rates; adjusted federal long-term rate and the long-term exempt rate. For purposes of sections 382, 642, 1274, 1288, and other sections of the Code, tables set forth the rates for October 2013.

T.D. 9636 T.D. 9636

These final regulations provide guidance on the application of sections 162(a) and 263(a) of the Code to amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. They also provide guidance under section 167 regarding accounting for and retirement of depreciable property, and under section 168 regarding accounting for property under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) other than general asset accounts. They do not finalize or remove the 2011 temporary regulations under section 168 regarding general asset accounts and disposition of property subject to section 168, which are addressed in a separate notice of proposed rulemaking on this subject (See REG-110732-13).

REG-110732-13 REG-110732-13

Regulations are proposed regarding dispositions of property subject to depreciation under section 168 of the Code. The proposed regulations also amend the general asset account regulations under section 1.168(i)-1 and the accounting for MACRS property regulations under section 1.168(i)-7. Comments are requested by November 18, 2013. A public hearing is scheduled for December 19, 2013.

Rev. Proc. 2013-34 Rev. Proc. 2013-34

This revenue procedure provides guidance for a requesting spouse seeking equitable relief from income tax liability under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) of the Code. Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is superseded.

ADMINISTRATIVE

Rev. Proc. 2013-34 Rev. Proc. 2013-34

This revenue procedure provides guidance for a requesting spouse seeking equitable relief from income tax liability under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) of the Code. Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is superseded.

Preface

The IRS Mission

Provide America’s taxpayers top-quality service by helping them understand and meet their tax responsibilities and enforce the law with integrity and fairness to all.

Introduction

The Internal Revenue Bulletin is the authoritative instrument of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for announcing official rulings and procedures of the Internal Revenue Service and for publishing Treasury Decisions, Executive Orders, Tax Conventions, legislation, court decisions, and other items of general interest. It is published weekly.

It is the policy of the Service to publish in the Bulletin all substantive rulings necessary to promote a uniform application of the tax laws, including all rulings that supersede, revoke, modify, or amend any of those previously published in the Bulletin. All published rulings apply retroactively unless otherwise indicated. Procedures relating solely to matters of internal management are not published; however, statements of internal practices and procedures that affect the rights and duties of taxpayers are published.

Revenue rulings represent the conclusions of the Service on the application of the law to the pivotal facts stated in the revenue ruling. In those based on positions taken in rulings to taxpayers or technical advice to Service field offices, identifying details and information of a confidential nature are deleted to prevent unwarranted invasions of privacy and to comply with statutory requirements.

Rulings and procedures reported in the Bulletin do not have the force and effect of Treasury Department Regulations, but they may be used as precedents. Unpublished rulings will not be relied on, used, or cited as precedents by Service personnel in the disposition of other cases. In applying published rulings and procedures, the effect of subsequent legislation, regulations, court decisions, rulings, and procedures must be considered, and Service personnel and others concerned are cautioned against reaching the same conclusions in other cases unless the facts and circumstances are substantially the same.

The Bulletin is divided into four parts as follows:

Part I.—1986 Code. This part includes rulings and decisions based on provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Part II.—Treaties and Tax Legislation. This part is divided into two subparts as follows: Subpart A, Tax Conventions and Other Related Items, and Subpart B, Legislation and Related Committee Reports.

Part III.—Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous. To the extent practicable, pertinent cross references to these subjects are contained in the other Parts and Subparts. Also included in this part are Bank Secrecy Act Administrative Rulings. Bank Secrecy Act Administrative Rulings are issued by the Department of the Treasury’s Office of the Assistant Secretary (Enforcement).

Part IV.—Items of General Interest. This part includes notices of proposed rulemakings, disbarment and suspension lists, and announcements.

The last Bulletin for each month includes a cumulative index for the matters published during the preceding months. These monthly indexes are cumulated on a semiannual basis, and are published in the last Bulletin of each semiannual period.

Part I. Rulings and Decisions Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

T.D. 9636

Guidance Regarding Deduction and Capitalization of Expenditures Related to Tangible Property

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY
Internal Revenue Service
26 CFR Parts 1 and 602

AGENCY:

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury.

ACTION:

Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

SUMMARY:

This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the application of sections 162(a) and 263(a) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) to amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. The final regulations clarify and expand the standards in the current regulations under sections 162(a) and 263(a). These final regulations replace and remove temporary regulations under sections 162(a) and 263(a) and withdraw proposed regulations that cross referenced the text of those temporary regulations. This document also contains final regulations under section 167 regarding accounting for and retirement of depreciable property and final regulations under section 168 regarding accounting for property under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) other than general asset accounts. The final regulations will affect all taxpayers that acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. These final regulations do not finalize or remove the 2011 temporary regulations under section 168 regarding general asset accounts and disposition of property subject to section 168, which are addressed in this issue of the Bulletin.

DATES:

Effective Date: These regulations are effective on September 19, 2013.

Applicability Date: In general, these final regulations apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. However, certain rules apply only to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. For dates of applicability of the final regulations, see §§1.162-3(j), 1.162-4(c), 1.162-11(b)(2), 1.165-2(d), 1.167(a)-4(b), 1.167(a)-7(f), 1.167(a)-8(h), 1.168(i)-7(e), 1.263(a)-1(h), 1.263(a)-2(j), 1.263(a)-3(r), 1.263(a)-6(c), 1.263A-1(l), and 1.1016-3(j).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Concerning §§1.162-3, 1.162-4, 1.162-11, 1.263(a)-1, 1.263(a)-2, 1.263(a)-3, and 1.263(a)-6, Merrill D. Feldstein or Alan S. Williams, Office of Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax and Accounting), (202) 622-4950 (not a toll-free call); Concerning §§1.165-2, 1.167(a)-4, 1.167(a)-7, 1.167(a)-8, 1.168(i)-7, 1.263A-1, and 1.1016-3, Kathleen Reed or Patrick Clinton, Office Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax and Accounting), (202) 622-4930 (not a toll-free call).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Paperwork Reduction Act

The collection of information contained in this final regulation has been reviewed and approved by the Office of Management and Budget in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)) under control number 1545-2248. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless the collection of information displays a valid control number assigned by the Office of Management and Budget.

The collection of information in this regulation is in §§1.263(a)-1(f)(5), 1.263(a)-3(h)(6), and 1.263(a)-3(n)(2). This information is required in order for a taxpayer to elect to use the de minimis safe harbor, to elect to use the safe harbor for small taxpayers, and to elect to capitalize repair and maintenance costs. This information will inform the IRS that the taxpayer is electing to use these provisions, which allows taxpayers to obtain beneficial treatment for the amounts that qualify for these elections. The collection of information is voluntary to obtain a benefit under the final regulations. The likely respondents are business or other for-profit institutions, and small businesses or organizations.

Estimated total annual reporting burden: 1,100,000 hours.

Estimated annual burden hours per respondent varies from .25 hours to .5 hours, depending on individual circumstances, with an estimated average of .275 hours.

Estimated number of respondents: 4,000,000.

Estimated frequency of responses: Annually.

Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their contents may become material in the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by section 6103.

Background

Section 263(a) provides that no deduction is allowed for (1) any amount paid out for new buildings or permanent improvements or betterments made to increase the value of any property or estate, or (2) any amount expended in restoring property or in making good the exhaustion thereof for which an allowance has been made. Final regulations previously issued under section 263(a) provided that capital expenditures included amounts paid or incurred to (1) add to the value, or substantially prolong the useful life, of property owned by the taxpayer, or (2) adapt the property to a new or different use. However, those regulations also provided that amounts paid or incurred for incidental repairs and maintenance of property within the meaning of section 162 and §1.162-4 of the Income Tax Regulations are not capital expenditures under §1.263(a)-1.

The determination of whether an expense may be deducted as a repair or must be capitalized generally requires an examination of all of a taxpayer’s particular facts and circumstances. Moreover, the subjective nature of the existing standards described above has resulted in considerable controversy between taxpayers and the IRS over many years.

In 2006, in an effort to reduce the controversy in this area, the IRS and the Treasury Department published in the Federal Register August 21, 2006 (71 FR 48590) proposed amendments to the regulations under section 263(a) relating to amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. The IRS and the Treasury Department received numerous written comments in response to these proposed regulations. After considering these comments and the statements at the public hearing, in 2008 the IRS and the Treasury Department withdrew the 2006 proposed regulations and proposed new regulations in the Federal Register March 10, 2008 (73 FR 12838). The IRS and the Treasury Department also received many written comments and held a public hearing on the 2008 proposed regulations. On December 27, 2011, the IRS and the Treasury Department published temporary regulations in the Federal Register regarding the deduction and capitalization of expenditures related to tangible property (TD 9564; 76 FR 81060), withdrew the 2008 proposed regulations, and published new proposed regulations that cross referenced the text of the 2011 temporary regulations. The 2011 temporary regulations initially applied to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. The IRS and the Treasury Department received numerous written comments in response to the 2011 temporary and proposed regulations and held a public hearing on May 9, 2012. After considering these comments and the statements at the public hearing, the IRS and the Treasury Department published Notice 2012-73 (2012-51 I.R.B. 713), on November 20, 2012, announcing that, to assist taxpayers in their transitions to the 2011 temporary regulations and final regulations, the IRS and the Treasury Department would change the applicability date of the 2011 temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, while permitting taxpayers to choose to apply the 2011 temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations. The Notice also alerted taxpayers that the IRS and the Treasury Department intended to publish final regulations in 2013 and expected the final regulations to apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, but that the final regulations would permit taxpayers to apply its provisions to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. On December 17, 2012, the Treasury Department and the IRS published technical amendments to TD 9564, which amended the applicability date of the 2011 temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, while permitting taxpayers to choose to apply the 2011 temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations. See Federal Register (77 FR 74583).

After considering all of the comments and the statements made at the public hearing on the 2011 temporary and proposed regulations, the IRS and the Treasury Department are removing the 2011 temporary regulations under sections 162, 165, 167, 263(a), 263A, 1016, and §1.168(i)-7 and are issuing final regulations. The IRS and the Treasury Department are also removing the 2011 proposed regulations and are issuing new proposed regulations regarding the disposition of property subject to section 168. The proposed regulations are set forth in this issue of the Bulletin.

Explanation of Provisions

I. Overview

Section 263(a) generally requires the capitalization of amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. Section 162 allows a deduction for all the ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business, including the costs of certain supplies, repairs, and maintenance. These final regulations provide a general framework for distinguishing capital expenditures from supplies, repairs, maintenance, and other deductible business expenses. The final regulations retain many of the provisions of the 2011 temporary and proposed regulations (2011 temporary regulations), which in many instances incorporated standards from case law and other existing authorities under sections 162 and 263(a). The final regulations also modify several sections of the 2011 temporary regulations in response to comments received and to clarify and simplify the rules while achieving results that are consistent with the case law. The final regulations adopt the same general format as the 2011 temporary regulations, where §1.162-3 provides rules for materials and supplies, §1.162-4 addresses repairs and maintenance, §1.263(a)-1 provides general rules for capital expenditures, §1.263(a)-2 provides rules for amounts paid for the acquisition or production of tangible property, and §1.263(a)-3 provides rules for amounts paid for the improvement of tangible property. However, the final regulations refine and simplify some of the rules contained in the 2011 temporary regulations and create a number of new safe harbors. For example, the final regulations adopt a revised and simplified de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) and extend the safe harbor for routine maintenance under §1.263(a)-3(i) to buildings. The final regulations also add a safe harbor for small taxpayers to the rules governing improvements to tangible property under §1.263(a)-3. In addition, the final regulations refine several of the criteria for defining betterments and restorations to tangible property.

In addition, these regulations finalize certain temporary regulations under section 167 regarding accounting for and retirement of depreciable property and section 168 regarding accounting for MACRS property, other than general asset accounts. However, these regulations do not finalize the rules under §1.168(i)-1T or §1.168(i)-8T addressing the definition of disposition for property subject to section 168. Instead, to address significant changes in this area, revised regulations under section 168 are being proposed concurrently with these final regulations (and appear in this issue of the Bulletin).

II. Materials and Supplies Under §1.162-3

Responding to generally favorable comments on the treatment of materials and supplies in the 2011 temporary regulations, the final regulations retain the framework and many of the rules set forth in the 2011 temporary regulations. In response to comments, however, the final regulations expand the definition of materials and supplies to include property that has an acquisition or production cost of $200 or less (increased from $100 or less), clarify application of the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts, and simplify the application of the de minimis safe harbor of §1.263(a)-1(f) to materials and supplies. The final regulations also define standby emergency spare parts and limit the application of the election to capitalize materials and supplies to only rotable, temporary, and standby emergency spare parts.

A. Definition of materials and supplies

Commenters requested that the dollar threshold for characterizing a unit of property as a material or supply be increased from property with an acquisition cost of $100 or less to property with an acquisition cost of $500 or $1,000. Specifically, commenters were concerned that the low $100 threshold would not capture many common supplies such as calculators and coffee makers. Balancing concerns over distortions to income that could result from increasing the acquisition cost to $500 (or more) with the need to include the typical materials and supplies ordinarily used by many taxpayers, the final regulations increase the $100 threshold to $200. In addition, the final regulations retain the language providing the IRS and the Treasury Department with the authority to change the amount of this threshold through published guidance.

Commenters also continued to question the effect of the 2011 temporary regulations on the treatment of standby emergency spare parts under Rev. Rul. 81-185 (1981-2 C.B. 59). To resolve questions in this area, the final regulations generally incorporate the definition of standby emergency spare parts provided in Rev. Rul. 81-185 into the definition of materials and supplies and provide that these parts are eligible for the optional election to capitalize certain materials and supplies provided in §1.162-3(d).

B. Election to capitalize certain materials and supplies

The 2011 temporary regulations retained the rule from the 2008 proposed regulations permitting a taxpayer to elect to capitalize and depreciate amounts paid for certain materials and supplies. Several comments noted that the requirement to elect to capitalize certain material and supply costs continued to be inconsistent with prior IRS pronouncements that distinguished certain depreciable property from materials and supplies. See, for example, Rev. Rul. 2003-37 (2003-1 C.B. 717) (permitting taxpayers to treat certain rotable spare parts used in a service business as depreciable assets); Rev. Rul. 81-185 (1981-2 C.B. 59) (concluding that major standby emergency spare parts are depreciable property); Rev. Rul. 69-201 (1969-1 C.B. 60) (holding that standby replacement parts used in pit mining business are items for which depreciation is allowable); Rev. Rul. 69-200 (1969-1 C.B. 60) (holding that flight equipment rotable spare parts and assemblies are tangible property for which depreciation is allowable while expendable flight equipment spare parts are materials and supplies); Rev. Proc. 2007-48 (2007-2 C.B. 110) (providing a safe harbor method of accounting to treat certain rotable spare parts as depreciable assets). In addition, several comments noted that the rule under the 2011 temporary regulations could lead to problematic results, such as permitting a component acquired to improve a unit of tangible property owned by the taxpayer to be treated as an asset and depreciated over a recovery period different from the unit of tangible property intended to be improved.

To address these concerns, the final regulations retain the rule permitting a taxpayer to elect to capitalize and depreciate amounts paid for certain materials and supplies but provide that this rule is only applicable to rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare parts. By limiting the application of the rule to rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare parts, the final regulations resolve the potentially problematic results arising in the 2011 temporary regulations. And while the final rule modifies Rev. Rul. 2003-37, Rev. Rul. 81-185, Rev. Rul. 69-200, and Rev. Rul. 69-201 to the extent that the regulations characterize certain tangible properties addressed in these rulings as materials and supplies, the treatment is consistent with the holdings of the revenue rulings, which permit taxpayers to treat rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare parts as assets subject to the allowance for depreciation.

The final regulations also clarify the procedure for a taxpayer that wants to revoke the election to capitalize and depreciate certain materials and supplies. The taxpayer may revoke this election by filing a request for a letter ruling and obtaining the consent of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to revoke this election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith, and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. In deciding whether to grant such a request, the Commissioner anticipates applying standards similar to the standards under §301.9100-3 of this chapter for granting extensions of time for making regulatory elections.

Finally, one commenter requested that the rules governing materials and supplies be modified to address the cost of acquiring or producing rotable spare parts that a taxpayer leases to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer’s leasing business. This commenter requested that the final regulations clarify that these leased rotable spare parts are included in the definition of rotable and temporary spare parts and that a taxpayer may elect to capitalize and depreciate these leased rotable spare parts under the materials and supplies rules. Under the 2011 temporary regulations, the definition of rotable and temporary spare parts includes only components acquired to maintain, repair, or improve a unit of property owned, leased, or serviced by the taxpayer. This definition of rotable and temporary spare parts does not include components that the taxpayer leases to its customers and that are unrelated to other property owned, leased to other parties, or serviced by the taxpayer. The final regulations do not expand the definition of rotable and temporary spare parts to include leased rotable spare parts. The IRS and the Treasury Department believe that these parts are outside the scope of regulations governing materials and supplies.

C. Optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts

One commenter requested that the final regulations remove the requirement that the optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts, if elected, be used for all of a taxpayer’s rotable and temporary spare parts in the same trade or business. Recognizing that taxpayers may have pools of rotable or temporary parts that are treated differently for financial statement purposes, the final regulations modify this rule. The final regulations provide that a taxpayer that uses the optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts for Federal tax purposes must use the optional method for all of the pools of rotable and temporary spare parts used in the same trade or business for which the optional method is used for the taxpayer’s books and records. Thus, a taxpayer generally is not required to use the optional method for those pools of rotable or temporary spare parts for which it does not use the optional method in its books and records for the trade or business. However, if a taxpayer chooses to use the optional method for any pool of rotable or temporary spare parts for which the taxpayer does not use the optional method in its books and records for the trade or business, then the taxpayer must use the optional method for all its pools of rotable and temporary spare parts in that trade or business.

Commenters also requested that the optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts be treated as the default method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts, instead of treating rotable and temporary spare parts as used and consumed in the taxable year when disposed. Many taxpayers do not use the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts, and that method requires a degree of record keeping that would be overly burdensome for all taxpayers. Therefore, the final regulations do not adopt this suggestion and continue to generally treat rotable and temporary spare parts as materials and supplies that are used and consumed in the taxable year when disposed of by the taxpayer, unless the taxpayer chooses a different treatment under §1.162-3.

D. Materials and supplies under the de minimis safe harbor

There were numerous comments on the application of the de minimis rule provided in the 2011 temporary regulations to materials and supplies under §§1.162-3T(f) (election to apply de minimis rule to materials and supplies) and 1.263(a)-2T(g) (general de minimis rule) and the interaction between the two sections. In response to these comments, the final regulations more clearly coordinate the two provisions as addressed below in the discussion of the de minimis safe harbor.

E. Property treated as materials and supplies in published guidance

Several commenters questioned the effect of the 2011 temporary regulations on prior published guidance that permits taxpayers to treat certain property as materials and supplies. For example, Rev. Proc. 2002-12 (2002-1 C.B. 374) allows a taxpayer to treat smallwares as materials and supplies that are not incidental under §1.162-3. Similarly, Rev. Proc. 2002-28 (2002-1 C.B. 815) allows a qualifying small business taxpayer to treat certain inventoriable items in the same manner as materials and supplies that are not incidental under §1.162-3. The final regulations do not supersede, obsolete, or replace these revenue procedures to the extent they deem certain property to constitute materials and supplies under §1.162-3. This designated property continues to qualify as materials and supplies under the final regulations, because the definition of material and supplies includes property that is identified as materials and supplies in published guidance.

III. Repairs Under §1.162-4

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that amounts paid for repairs and maintenance to tangible property are deductible if the amounts paid are not required to be capitalized under §1.263(a)-3. The IRS and the Treasury Department received no comments on this regulation. The final regulations retain the rule from the 2011 temporary regulations. In addition, the final regulations add a cross reference to §1.263(a)-3(n), the new election to capitalize amounts paid for repair and maintenance consistent with the taxpayer’s books and records, discussed later in this preamble.

IV. De Minimis Safe Harbor Under §§1.263(a)-1(f) and 1.162-3(f)

A. De minimis safe harbor ceiling

The 2011 temporary regulations required a taxpayer to capitalize amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property, including the related transaction costs. However, §1.263(a)-2T(g) provided a de minimis exception permitting a taxpayer to deduct certain amounts paid for tangible property if the taxpayer had an applicable financial statement, had written accounting procedures for expensing amounts paid for such property under specified dollar amounts, and treated such amounts as expenses on its applicable financial statement. Under §1.263(a)-2T(g)(1)(iv), a taxpayer’s de minimis deduction for the taxable year was limited to a ceiling: the greater of (1) 0.1 percent of the taxpayer’s gross receipts for the taxable year as determined for Federal income tax purposes, or (2) 2 percent of the taxpayer’s total depreciation and amortization expense for the taxable year as determined on the taxpayer’s applicable financial statement.

The IRS and the Treasury Department received a significant number of comments addressing the de minimis safe harbor provided in §1.263(a)-2T(g). Nearly all comments raised concerns about the administrative burden the ceiling would place on taxpayers, noting that taxpayers would be required to keep detailed accounts of amounts that they generally do not track because such amounts are expensed under their financial accounting capitalization policies. Thus, while the ceiling itself could be calculated relatively simply, the financial accounting systems employed by most taxpayers would not allow them to easily determine which costs the de minimis rule applied to and, therefore, whether or not applicable costs exceeded the ceiling. Commenters also pointed out that the operation of the ceiling requirement did not allow taxpayers to anticipate when they had reached the gross receipts or depreciation limitation or to identify assets that would be excluded under the de minimis rule during a taxable year, because the ceiling amount could only be calculated after the end of a taxable year. Commenters also highlighted the complexities inherent in the application of the ceiling requirement for consolidated groups. In many cases, commenters suggested that the administrative burden imposed would outweigh any potential tax benefit. Many commenters suggested that this problem be resolved by removing the ceiling altogether and permitting taxpayers to deduct for Federal income tax purposes amounts properly expensed under their financial accounting policies.

The final regulations adopt commenters’ suggestions that the ceiling in the de minimis rule in the 2011 temporary regulations be eliminated and that amounts properly expensed under a taxpayer’s financial accounting policies be deductible for tax purposes. To both address taxpayers’ concerns and ensure that the de minimis safe harbor in the final regulations requires taxpayers to use a reasonable, consistent methodology that clearly reflects income for Federal income tax purposes, the ceiling in §1.263(a)-2T(g)(1)(iv) has been replaced with a new safe harbor determined at the invoice or item level and based on the policies that the taxpayer utilizes for its financial accounting books and records. A taxpayer with an applicable financial statement may rely on the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) of the final regulations only if the amount paid for property does not exceed $5,000 per invoice, or per item as substantiated by the invoice. The final regulations provide the IRS and the Treasury Department with the authority to change the safe harbor amount through published guidance.

Commenters also asked that the de minimis safe harbor be expanded to include not only amounts paid for property costing less than a certain dollar amount but also amounts paid for property having a useful life less than a certain period of time. The final regulations adopt this suggestion and provide that the de minimis safe harbor also applies to a financial accounting procedure that expenses amounts paid for property with an economic useful life of 12 months or less as long as the amount per invoice (or item) does not exceed $5,000. Such amounts are deductible under the de minimis rule whether this financial accounting procedure applies in isolation or in combination with a financial accounting procedure for expensing amounts paid for property that does not exceed a specified dollar amount. Under either procedure, if the cost exceeds $5,000 per invoice (or item), then the amounts paid for the property will not fall within the de minimis safe harbor. In addition, an anti-abuse rule is provided to aggregate costs that are improperly split among multiple invoices.

B. Taxpayers without an applicable financial statement

The 2011 temporary regulations did not provide a de minimis safe harbor for taxpayers without an applicable financial statement, but the preamble requested comments addressing alternatives that would provide the IRS and the Treasury Department with assurance that a taxpayer is using a reasonable, consistent methodology that clearly reflects income. One commenter suggested that the definition of applicable financial statement be expanded to include financial statements subject to a compliance review under the rules of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants’ (AICPA) Statement of Standards for Accounting and Review Services. Numerous comments also requested that the de minimis rule be generally expanded to taxpayers without an applicable financial statement.

The final regulations include a de minimis rule for taxpayers without an applicable financial statement. While careful consideration was given to the suggestion of relying on reviewed financial statements as defined in the AICPA’s Statement of Standards for Accounting and Review Services, the final regulations do not adopt this standard. While the AICPA standard for reviewed financial statements ensures that the taxpayer’s policies comply with the applicable financial accounting framework, the standard does not contemplate a review of the taxpayer’s internal control, fraud risk, or accounting records. Thus, the standard does not provide sufficient assurance to the IRS that such policies are being followed and, accordingly, that the taxpayer is using a reasonable, consistent methodology that clearly reflects its income. However, the final regulations do provide a de minimis safe harbor for taxpayers without an applicable financial statement if accounting procedures are in place to deduct amounts paid for property costing less than a specified dollar amount or amounts paid for property with an economic useful life of 12 months or less. The de minimis safe harbor for taxpayers without an applicable financial statement provides a reduced per invoice (or item) threshold because there is less assurance that the accounting procedures clearly reflect income. A taxpayer without an applicable financial statement may rely on the de minimis safe harbor only if the amount paid for property does not exceed $500 per invoice, or per item as substantiated by the invoice. If the cost exceeds $500 per invoice (or item), then no portion of the cost of the property will fall within the de minimis safe harbor. Similar to the safe harbor for a taxpayer with an applicable financial statement, this provision provides the IRS and the Treasury Department with the authority to change the safe harbor amount through published guidance. In addition, an anti-abuse rule is provided to aggregate costs that are improperly split among multiple invoices.

Finally, for both taxpayers with applicable financial statements and taxpayers without applicable financial statements, the de minimis safe harbor is not intended to prevent a taxpayer from reaching an agreement with its IRS examining agents that, as an administrative matter, based on risk analysis or materiality, the IRS examining agents will not review certain items. It is not intended that examining agents must now revise their materiality thresholds in accordance with the de minimis safe harbor limitations provided in the final regulation. Thus, if examining agents and a taxpayer agree that certain amounts in excess of the de minimis safe harbor limitations are not material or otherwise should not be subject to review, that agreement should be respected, notwithstanding the requirements of the de minimis safe harbor. However, a taxpayer that seeks a deduction for amounts in excess of the amount allowed by the safe harbor has the burden of showing that such treatment clearly reflects income.

C. Safe harbor election

Commenters asked whether the de minimis rule in the 2011 temporary regulations was mandatory or elective and, if mandatory, requested a change to make the safe harbor elective. The final regulations adopt these suggestions and provide that the de minimis rule is a safe harbor, elected annually by including a statement on the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return for the year elected. The final regulations provide that, if elected, the de minimis safe harbor must be applied to all amounts paid in the taxable year for tangible property that meet the requirements of the de minimis safe harbor, including amounts paid for materials and supplies that meet the requirements. In addition, the final regulations provide that a taxpayer may not revoke an election to use the de minimis safe harbor. An election to use the de minimis safe harbor may not be made through the filing of an application for change in accounting method.

D. Written accounting procedures

The 2011 temporary regulations required that to utilize the de minimis safe harbor, a taxpayer must have written accounting procedures in place at the beginning of the taxable year treating the amounts paid for property costing less than a certain dollar amount as an expense for financial accounting purposes. Commenters suggested that transition guidance be issued for taxpayers that did not have written accounting procedures in place at the beginning of 2012. Alternatively, one commenter suggested that taxpayers be allowed to make the drafting of a written accounting procedure retroactive to the beginning of 2012.

The final regulations do not adopt these suggestions for transition relief. Although the publication of the 2011 temporary regulations late in the calendar year (December 27, 2011) likely prevented taxpayers without written accounting procedures at that time from implementing such procedures prior to the beginning of the 2012 taxable year, the provisions of the 2011 temporary regulations are elective for taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. In addition, the final regulations are not applicable until taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Therefore, taxpayers without written accounting procedures that choose to elect the de minimis safe harbor for their 2014 taxable years should have sufficient time to consider and draft appropriate procedures prior to the applicability date of the final regulations. Moreover, the de minimis safe harbor is intended to provide recordkeeping simplicity to taxpayers by allowing them to follow an established financial accounting policy for federal tax purposes, and allowing retroactive application is inconsistent with such purpose.

E. Application to consolidated group members

Several comments noted that the rule for use of a consolidated group’s applicable financial statement failed to consider situations in which taxpayers are included on a consolidated applicable financial statement but are not members in an underlying consolidated group for Federal income tax purposes. Comments requested that taxpayers in this situation be permitted to rely on the financial policies of the group that apply to them as well as the group’s consolidated applicable financial statement to satisfy the requirements of the de minimis rule. The final regulations adopt this suggestion and provide that if a taxpayer’s financial results are reported on the applicable financial statement for a group of entities, then the group’s applicable financial statement may be treated as the applicable financial statement of the taxpayer. Furthermore, in this situation, the written accounting procedures provided for the group and utilized for the group’s applicable financial statement may be treated as the written accounting procedures of the taxpayer.

F. Transaction and other additional costs

The preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations provided that the de minimis rule did not apply to amounts paid for labor and overhead incurred in repairing or improving property. Commenters pointed out that the preamble did not provide any policy reason for excluding labor and overhead costs from the de minimis rule and that the exclusion would require rules to allocate additional invoice costs, such as freight and installation costs, between tangible property costs and labor and overhead costs, requiring additional recordkeeping by taxpayers. Additionally, one commenter pointed out that the de minimis rule in the 2011 temporary regulations did not expressly provide for an exclusion of labor and overhead costs. Commenters requested that additional costs included on an invoice for tangible property be included within the scope of the de minimis rule.

The final regulations adopt the commenters’ suggestions, in part, and clarify the treatment under the de minimis safe harbor of transaction costs and other additional costs of acquiring and producing property subject to the safe harbor. To simplify the application of the de minimis rule to tangible property, the final regulations provide that a taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor is not required to include in the cost of the tangible property the additional costs of acquiring or producing such property if these costs are not included in the same invoice as the tangible property. However, the final regulations also provide that a taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor must include in the cost of such property all additional costs (for example, delivery fees, installation services, or similar costs) of acquiring or producing such property if these costs are included on the same invoice with the tangible property. If an invoice includes amounts paid for multiple tangible properties and the invoice includes additional invoice costs related to the multiple properties, then the taxpayer must allocate the additional invoice costs to each property using a reasonable method. The final regulations specify that a reasonable allocation method includes, but is not limited to, specific identification, a pro rata allocation, or a weighted average method based on each property’s relative cost. The final regulations also clarify that additional costs consist of the transaction costs (that is, the facilitative costs under §1.263(a)-2(f)) of acquiring or producing the property and the costs under §1.263(a)-2(d) for work performed prior to the date that the unit of tangible property is placed in service.

G. Materials and supplies

The IRS and Treasury Department received numerous comments on the application of the de minimis rule to materials and supplies under §1.162-3T of the 2011 temporary regulations. Under the 2011 temporary regulations, taxpayers were permitted to select materials and supplies to be expensed under the de minimis rule provided that these materials and supplies satisfied all requirements of the de minimis rule, including the ceiling. Many comments raised concerns about the administrative burdens associated with identifying and allocating materials and supplies between the de minimis rule and the general rules for materials and supplies in a manner that would not exceed the de minimis rule ceiling. In many cases, commenters suggested that the administrative burden imposed would outweigh any potential tax benefit. Thus, commenters requested revisions to the de minimis rule to reduce taxpayers’ administrative burden of complying with the 2011 temporary regulations.

To simplify application of the de minimis safe harbor, the final regulations require that the de minimis safe harbor be applied to all eligible materials and supplies (other than rotable, temporary, and standby emergency spare parts subject to the election to capitalize or rotable and temporary spare parts subject to the optional method of accounting for such parts) if the taxpayer elects the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f). Unlike the 2011 temporary regulations rule permitting taxpayers to select materials and supplies for application of the de minimis safe harbor, the requirement in the final regulations to apply the de minimis safe harbor, if elected, to all eligible materials and supplies simplifies the application of the de minimis rule and reduces the administrative burden on the IRS. Taxpayers that do not elect the de minimis safe harbor provided in the final regulations for the taxable year must treat their amounts paid for materials and supplies in accordance with the rules provided in §1.162-3.

H. Coordination with section 263A

Commenters asked for clarification on the interaction of the de minimis rule with section 263A. Several comments asked whether the application of the de minimis rule resulted in property with an unadjusted basis of zero, which would then be subject to section 263A, or, alternatively, whether section 263A required taxpayers to capitalize the cost of property subject to section 263A, regardless of whether the de minimis rule applied.

The final regulations clarify the interaction between the two provisions. The final regulations provide that amounts paid for tangible property eligible for the de minimis safe harbor may, nonetheless, be subject to capitalization under section 263A if the amounts paid for this tangible property comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of other property produced by the taxpayer or property acquired for resale.

In general, under section 263A, if property is held for future production, taxpayers must capitalize direct and indirect costs allocable to such property (for example, purchasing, storage, and handling costs), even though production has not begun. If property is not held for production, indirect costs incurred prior to the beginning of the production period must be allocated to the property and capitalized if, at the time the costs are incurred, it is reasonably likely that production will occur at some future date. Thus, for example, a manufacturer must capitalize the costs of storing and handling raw materials before the raw materials are committed to production. In addition, §1.263A-1T(e)(2)(i) provides that indirect material costs include the cost of materials that are not an integral part of specific property produced and the cost of materials that are consumed in the ordinary course of performing production or resale activities that cannot be identified or associated with particular units of property.

Therefore, if tangible property is acquired with the expectation of being used in the production of other property, and it is reasonably likely that production will occur at some future date, section 263A may apply to capitalize the cost of the property acquired. Thus, for example, if a taxpayer acquires a component part, the cost of which is otherwise eligible for the de minimis safe harbor, but the component part is installed, or expected to be installed in the future, in the taxpayer’s manufacturing equipment used to produce property for sale, under section 263A, the cost of the component part must be capitalized as an indirect cost of property produced by the taxpayer. On the other hand, if property is acquired without the expectation of being used in the production of property and the taxpayer elects and properly applies the de minimis rule to the amount paid for property in the taxable year, if expectations change in a subsequent taxable year and the property is actually used in production, then section 263A will not require capitalization of the cost of the property at the time the expectation changes or when the property is used in production.

I. Change in accounting procedures not change in method of accounting

Several commenters questioned whether a change in a taxpayer’s financial accounting procedures (for example, its financial accounting capitalization policy) is a change in method of accounting for de minimis expenses to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. The final regulations provide that the use of the de minimis safe harbor is a taxable year election and may not be made by the filing of an application for a change in method of accounting. Thus, if a taxpayer meets the requirements for the safe harbor, which requires, in part, having written accounting procedures in place at the beginning of the taxable year and treating amounts paid for property as an expense in accordance with those procedures, then a change in the procedures, by itself, is not a change in accounting method. For example, if a taxpayer’s written financial accounting capitalization policy at the beginning of 2014 states that amounts paid for property costing less than $200 will be treated as an expense, and the taxpayer changes its written policy as of the beginning of 2015 to treat amounts paid for property costing less that $500 as an expense, the taxpayer is not required to file an application for its 2015 taxable year to change its method of accounting for applying the de minimis safe harbor or determining amounts paid to acquire or produce tangible property under §1.263(a)-1(f).

V. Amounts Paid to Acquire or Produce Tangible Property Under §1.263(a)-2

Section 1.263(a)-2T of the 2011 temporary regulations provided rules for applying section 263(a) to amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property. In general, the final regulations retain the rules from the 2011 temporary regulations, including general requirements to capitalize amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property, requirements to capitalize amounts paid to defend or perfect title to real or personal property, and rules for determining the extent to which taxpayers must capitalize transaction costs related to the acquisition of property. In the final regulations, the de minimis safe harbor has been moved to §1.263(a)-1(f) to reflect its broader application to amounts paid for tangible property, including amounts paid for improvements and materials and supplies, except as otherwise provided under section 263A.

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that a taxpayer must, in general, capitalize amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition or production of real or personal property. To alleviate controversy between taxpayers and the IRS, the 2011 temporary regulations included a list of inherently facilitative amounts. In addition, the 2011 temporary regulations provided that costs relating to activities performed in the process of determining whether to acquire real property and which real property to acquire generally are deductible pre-decisional costs unless they are described in the regulations as inherently facilitative costs. The 2011 temporary regulations also provided that inherently facilitative amounts allocable to real or personal property are capital expenditures related to such property, even if such property is not eventually acquired or produced.

Commenters requested that the requirement to capitalize facilitative costs be removed as overbroad. Commenters also stated that it was inappropriate to provide a special rule that depends on the nature of the property acquired (real property or personal property) and inappropriate to require capitalization of inherently facilitative amounts allocable to property not acquired. Other commenters recommended that the list describing inherently facilitative amounts be revised to exclude activities that are dependent on the type of service provider (for example, a broker), rather than being based on a specific activity (for example, securing an appraisal). One commenter asked for clarification regarding the treatment of a broker’s commission if the commission was contingent on the buyer’s successful acquisition of real property but a portion of the broker’s activities were performed in investigating the acquisition.

The final regulations generally retain the 2011 temporary regulation rules addressing facilitative amounts. As in the 2011 temporary regulations, the final regulations include the special rule for the acquisition of real property providing that, except for amounts specifically identified as inherently facilitative, an amount paid by a taxpayer in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition of real property does not facilitate the acquisition if it relates to activities performed in the process of determining whether to acquire real property and which real property to acquire. The final regulations do not expand the deduction of such pre-decisional, investigatory costs to personal property because, unlike real property acquisitions, personal property acquisitions do not typically raise issues of whether the transaction costs should be characterized as deductible business expansion costs rather than costs to acquire a specific property. In addition, personal property acquisitions do not typically provide clear evidence establishing the timing of decisions. Thus, such a rule could generate significant controversy over unduly small amounts.

Moreover, the final regulations retain the list of inherently facilitative costs that generally must be capitalized as transaction costs. However, in response to comments, the final regulations clarify the meaning of finders’ fees and brokers’ commissions and provide a definition of contingency fees. The final regulations provide that for purposes of §1.263(a)-2, a contingency fee is an amount paid that is contingent on the successful closing of the acquisition of real or personal property. The final regulations also clarify that contingency fees facilitate the acquisition of the property ultimately acquired and are not allocable to real or personal property not acquired. Therefore, if a real estate broker’s commission is contingent on the successful closing of the acquisition of real property, the amount paid as the broker’s commission inherently facilitates the acquisition of the property acquired and, therefore, must be capitalized as part of the basis of such property. However, no portion of the broker’s contingency fee is allocable to real property that the taxpayer did not acquire. In addition, the final regulations retain the rule that inherently facilitative amounts allocable to real or personal property are capital expenditures related to such property, even if such property is not eventually acquired or produced. As discussed in the preamble to the 2008 proposed regulations, the IRS and the Treasury Department believe that this rule is consistent with established authorities. See, for example, Sibley, Lindsay & Curr Co. v. Commissioner, 15 T.C. 106 (1950), acq., 1951-1 C.B. 3. The final regulations also clarify that, except for contingency fees as discussed above, inherently facilitative amounts allocable to property not acquired may be allocated to those properties and recovered in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Code, including sections 165, 167, and 168.

VI. Amounts Paid to Improve Property Under §1.263(a)-3

A. Overview

Comments received with respect to the rules under the 2011 temporary regulations for determining whether an amount improves, betters, or restores property largely focused on the application of the rules to building property, the lack of a safe harbor for routine maintenance for building property, the standards to be applied in determining whether a betterment has occurred, the treatment of post-casualty expenditures under the restoration standards, and the standards to be applied in determining whether a replacement of a major component or substantial structural part has occurred.

The final regulations generally retain the rules of the 2011 temporary regulations for determining the unit of property and for determining whether there is an improvement to a unit of property. The final regulations also retain the simplifying conventions set out in the 2011 temporary regulations, including the routine maintenance safe harbor and the optional regulatory accounting method. In addition, in response to the comments, the final regulations modify the 2011 temporary regulations in several areas. The concerns raised by commenters and the relevant changes to the 2011 temporary regulations are discussed in this preamble.

B. Determining the unit of property

The 2011 temporary regulations generally defined the unit of property as consisting of all the components of property that are functionally interdependent, but provided special rules for determining the unit of property for buildings, plant property, and network assets. The 2011 temporary regulations also provided special rules for determining the units of property for condominiums, cooperatives, and leased property, and for the treatment of improvements (including leasehold improvements). The final regulations retain the unit of property rules contained in the 2011 temporary regulations.

The 2011 temporary regulations generally defined a building as a unit of property, but required the application of the improvement standards to the building structure and the enumerated building systems. A number of comments objected to the requirement that the taxpayer perform the improvement analysis at the building structure and system level. The comments stated that such treatment is inconsistent with the treatment of other complex property under the 2011 temporary regulations, is inconsistent with the treatment of building property under depreciation rules, and fails to take into account the relative importance of the various building systems. Several comments requested that the building, including its structural components, should be treated as the unit of property for applying the improvement rules to buildings. Other commenters pointed out that a functional interdependence standard, used in the 2011 temporary regulations for non-building property and applied by the courts and the IRS for determining when components of a single property are placed in service for cost recovery purposes, may be a more consistent general standard for identifying the relevant property upon which to apply the improvement analysis.

Like plant property, buildings are complex properties composed of numerous component parts that perform discrete and major functions or operations. Unlike plant property, however, where the discrete and major functions or operations are not consistent from plant to plant, the discrete and major functions or operations performed from building to building are frequently similar. The building system definitions set forth in the 2011 temporary regulations are based on well understood costing standards that have been routinely applied to buildings for many years for valuations, cost accounting, and financial reporting. To help ensure that the improvement standards are applied equitably and consistently across building property, the final regulations continue to apply the improvement rules to both the building structure and the defined building systems. To the extent the particular facts and circumstances of a subset of buildings used in one or more industries present unique challenges to application of the building structure or building system definitions, taxpayers are encouraged to request guidance under the Industry Issue Resolution (IIR) procedures.

C. Unit of property for leasehold improvements

The 2011 temporary regulations provide rules for determining the unit of property for leased property and for determining the unit of property for leasehold improvements. The IRS and the Treasury Department received no written comments on these rules, and the final regulations retain the rules from the 2011 temporary regulations, with some clarifications. Under the rule in the 2011 temporary regulations, a question could arise regarding the property to be analyzed for determining whether an improvement to a lessee improvement constitutes an improvement to the lessee’s property. In this context, the 2011 temporary regulations suggested that the taxpayer must determine whether there has been an improvement to the lessee improvement by itself, rather than by applying the improvement standards to the general unit of property rules for leased buildings or for leased property other than buildings. The final regulations clarify that for purposes of determining whether an amount paid by a lessee constitutes a leasehold improvement, the unit of property and the improvement rules are applied in accordance with the rules for leased buildings (or leased portions of building) under §1.263(a)-3(e)(2)(v) or for leased property other than buildings under §1.263(a)-3(e)(3)(iv). Thus, for example, if a lessee pays an amount for work on an addition that it previously made to a leased building, the taxpayer determines whether the work performed constitutes an improvement to the entire leased building structure, not merely to the addition. The final regulations also clarify that when a lessee or lessor improvement is comprised of a building erected on leased property, then the unit of property for the building and the application of the improvement rules are determined under the provisions for buildings, rather than under the provisions for leased buildings.

D. Special rules for determining improvement costs

1. Costs incurred during an improvement

The 2011 temporary regulations did not prescribe rules related to the “plan of rehabilitation” doctrine as traditionally described in the case law. The judicially-created plan of rehabilitation doctrine provides that a taxpayer must capitalize otherwise deductible repair or maintenance costs if they are incurred as part of a general plan of rehabilitation, modernization, and improvement to the property. See, for example, Moss v. Commissioner, 831 F.2d 833 (9th Cir. 1987); United States v. Wehrli, 400 F.2d 686 (10th Cir. 1968); Norwest Corp. v. Commissioner, 108 T.C. 265 (1997). The 2011 temporary regulations did not restate the plan of rehabilitation doctrine but, rather, used the language of the section 263A rule providing that a taxpayer must capitalize both the direct costs of an improvement as well as the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the improvement. The 2011 temporary regulations also included an exception to this provision for an individual residence, which permitted an individual taxpayer to capitalize repair and maintenance costs incurred at the time of a substantial residential remodel.

The final regulations retain the rules from the 2011 temporary regulations and continue to provide that indirect costs, such as repair and maintenance costs, that do not directly benefit and that are not incurred by reason of an improvement are not required to be capitalized under section 263(a), regardless of whether they are incurred at the same time as an improvement. In addition, in response to comments requesting examples of the application of this standard, the final regulations add this analysis to several examples. By providing a standard based on the section 263A language, the final regulations set out a clear rule for determining when otherwise deductible indirect costs must be capitalized as part of an improvement to property and obsolete the plan of rehabilitation doctrine to the extent that the court-created doctrine provides different standards.

2. Removal Costs

The 2011 temporary regulations did not provide a separate rule for the treatment of removal costs. Rather, the 2011 temporary regulations addressed component removal costs as an example of a type of indirect cost that must be capitalized if the removal costs directly benefit or are incurred by reason of an improvement. The preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations stated that the costs of removing a component of a unit of property should be analyzed in the same manner as any other indirect cost (such as a repair cost) incurred during a repair or an improvement to property. Therefore, the preamble concluded, if the cost of removing a component of a unit of property directly benefitted or was incurred by reason of an improvement to the unit of property, the cost must be capitalized. The preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations also noted that the 2011 temporary regulations were not intended to affect the holding of Rev. Rul. 2000-7 (2000-1 C.B. 712) as it applied to the cost of removing an entire unit of property. Under Rev. Rul. 2000-7, a taxpayer is not required to capitalize the cost of removing a retired depreciable asset under section 263(a) or section 263A, even when the retirement and removal occur in connection with the installation of a replacement asset. Rev. Rul. 2000-7 reasoned that the costs of removing a depreciable asset generally have been allocable to the removed asset and, thus, generally have been deductible when the asset is retired. See §§1.165-3(b); 1.167(a)-1(c); 1.167(a)-11(d)(3)(x); Rev. Rul. 74-455 (1974-2 C.B. 63); Rev. Rul. 75-150 (1975-1 C.B. 73).

Commenters acknowledged the preamble language but observed that the 2011 temporary regulations did not explicitly state that the costs incurred to remove an entire unit of property are not required to be capitalized, even when incurred in connection with the installation of a replacement asset. Commenters requested that the final regulations include this explicit conclusion. Commenters also asked whether the principles of Rev. Rul. 2000-7 would apply to allow the deduction of removal costs when the taxpayer disposes of a component of a unit of property and the taxpayer takes into account the adjusted basis of the component in realizing loss. Commenters also questioned whether a taxpayer would be required to capitalize component removal costs if these costs were an indirect cost of a restoration (for example, the replacement of a component when the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component) rather than a betterment to the underlying unit of property.

The final regulations provide a specific rule clarifying the treatment of removal costs in these contexts. The final regulations state that if a taxpayer disposes of a depreciable asset (including a partial disposition under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e)(2)(ix) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d) September 19, 2013)) for Federal tax purposes and has taken into account the adjusted basis of the asset or component of the asset in realizing gain or loss, the costs of removing the asset or component are not required to be capitalized under section 263(a). The final regulations also provide that if a taxpayer disposes of a component of a unit of property and the disposal is not a disposition for Federal tax purposes, then the taxpayer must deduct or capitalize the costs of removing the component based on whether the removal costs directly benefit or are incurred by reason of a repair to the unit of property or an improvement to the unit of property. In addition, the final regulations provide several examples illustrating these principles.

E. Safe harbor for small taxpayers

The 2011 temporary regulations did not provide any special rules for small taxpayers to assist them in applying the general rules for improvements to buildings. One commenter stated that small taxpayers generally do not have the administrative means or sufficient documentation or information to apply the improvement rules to their building structures and systems as required under the 2011 temporary regulations. Therefore, the commenter requested that an annual dollar threshold, such as $10,000, be established for buildings with an initial cost of $1,000,000 or less and that taxpayers be permitted to deduct annual amounts spent on the building if they did not exceed the threshold amount. In response to this request, the final regulations include a safe harbor election for building property held by taxpayers with gross receipts of $10,000,000 or less (“a qualifying small taxpayer”). The final regulations permit a qualifying small taxpayer to elect to not apply the improvement rules to an eligible building property if the total amount paid during the taxable year for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the eligible building does not exceed the lesser of $10,000 or 2 percent of the unadjusted basis of the building. Eligible building property includes a building unit of property that is owned or leased by the qualifying taxpayer, provided the unadjusted basis of the building unit of property is $1,000,000 or less. The final regulations provide the IRS and the Treasury Department with the authority to adjust the amounts of the safe harbor and gross receipts limitations through published guidance. The final regulations provide simple rules for determining the unadjusted basis of both owned and leased building units of property. In this situation, the final regulations also eliminate the need to separately analyze the building structure and the building systems, as required elsewhere in the improvement rules in the final regulations.

Under the safe harbor for small taxpayers, a taxpayer includes amounts not capitalized under the de minimis safe harbor election of §1.263(a)-1(f) and under the routine maintenance safe harbor for buildings (discussed later in this preamble) to determine the annual amount paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the building. If the amount paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on a building unit of property exceeds the safe harbor threshold for a taxable year, then the safe harbor is not applicable to any amounts spent during the taxable year. In that case, the taxpayer must apply the general rules for determining improvements, including the routine maintenance safe harbor for buildings. The taxpayer may also elect to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts qualifying under the de minimis safe harbor, regardless of the application of the safe harbor for small taxpayers.

The safe harbor for building property held small taxpayers may be elected annually on a building-by-building basis by including a statement on the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return, including extensions, for the year the costs are incurred for the building. Amounts paid by the taxpayer to which the taxpayer properly applies and elects the safe harbor are not treated as improvements to the building under §1.263(a)-3 and may be deducted under §1.162-1 or §1.212-1, as applicable, in the taxable year that the amounts are paid or incurred, provided the amounts otherwise qualify for deduction under those sections. A taxpayer may not revoke an election to apply the safe harbor for small taxpayers.

F. Safe harbor for routine maintenance

1. Buildings

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that the costs of performing certain routine maintenance activities for property other than a building or the structural components of a building are not required to be capitalized as an improvement. Under the routine maintenance safe harbor, an amount paid was deemed not to improve a unit of property if it was for the recurring activities that a taxpayer (or a lessor) expected to perform as a result of the taxpayer’s (or the lessee’s) use of the unit of property to keep the unit of property in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. The 2011 temporary regulations provided that the activities are routine only if, at the time the unit of property was placed in service, the taxpayer reasonably expected to perform the activities more than once during the period prescribed under sections 168(g)(2) and 168(g)(3) (the Alternative Depreciation System class life), regardless of whether the property was depreciated under the Alternative Depreciation System. The preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations explained that the routine maintenance safe harbor did not apply to building property, because the long class life for such property (40 years under section 168(g)(2)) arguably could allow major remodeling or restoration projects to be deducted under the safe harbor, regardless of the nature or extent of the work involved, and that deducting such costs would be inconsistent with case law. The 2011 temporary regulations provided several factors for taxpayers to consider in determining whether a taxpayer is performing routine maintenance, including the recurring nature of the activity, industry practice, manufacturers’ recommendations, the taxpayer’s experience, and the taxpayer’s treatment of the activity on its applicable financial statement.

Comments on the routine maintenance safe harbor generally requested that the safe harbor be extended to building property. One commenter stated that because the improvement standards under the 2011 temporary regulations must now be applied to the building structure and each building system separately, these components are more analogous to section 1245 property, which qualifies for the routine maintenance safe harbor. Commenters suggested that using a period shorter than a building’s class life, such as 20 years, could alleviate the IRS and the Treasury Department’s concern that the cost of true improvements would not be properly capitalized if the safe harbor were extended to buildings. Another commenter argued that the distinction between building property and non-building property for purposes of the safe harbor is arbitrary because, in many respects, retail buildings are similar to other complex property, such as aircraft, which are not excluded from the safe harbor.

In response to these comments, the final regulations contain a safe harbor for routine maintenance for buildings. The inclusion of a routine maintenance safe harbor for buildings is expected to alleviate some of the difficulties that could arise in applying the improvement standards for certain restorations to building structures and building systems. To balance commenters’ suggestions of using a shorter period, such as 20 years, with the concerns expressed in the preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations, the final regulations use 10 years as the period of time in which a taxpayer must reasonably expect to perform the relevant activities more than once. While periods longer than 10 years were considered, the use of a period much longer than 10 years would, contrary to current authority, permit the costs of many major remodeling and restoration projects to be deducted under the safe harbor, regardless of the nature or extent of the work involved.

2. Other Changes

The final regulations make several additional changes and clarifications to the safe harbor for routine maintenance, which are applicable to both buildings and other property. First, the regulations confirm that routine maintenance can be performed any time during the life of the property provided that the activities qualify as routine under the regulation. Second, for purposes of determining whether a taxpayer is performing routine maintenance, the final regulations remove the taxpayer’s treatment of the activity on its applicable financial statement from the factors to be considered. Taxpayers may have several different reasons for capitalizing maintenance activities on their applicable financial statements, and such treatment may not be indicative of whether the activities are routine. Third, the final regulations clarify the applicability of the routine maintenance safe harbor by adding three items to the list of exceptions from the routine maintenance safe harbor: (1) amounts paid for a betterment to a unit of property, (2) amounts paid to adapt a unit of property to a new or different use, and (3) amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, or improvement of network assets. The first two exceptions were included in the general rule for the safe harbor in the 2011 temporary regulations, but were not clearly stated as exceptions. The exception for network assets was added because of the difficulty in defining the unit of property for network assets and the preference for resolving issues involving network assets through the IIR program. Finally, the exception relating to amounts paid for property for which a taxpayer has taken a basis adjustment resulting from a casualty loss is slightly modified to be consistent with the revised casualty loss restoration rule, which is discussed in this preamble.

3. Reasonable Expectation that Activities Will be Performed More than Once

A taxpayer’s reasonable expectation of whether it will perform qualifying maintenance activities more than once during the relevant period will be determined at the time the unit of property (or building structure or system, as applicable) is placed in service. The final regulations modify the safe harbor for routine maintenance by adding that a taxpayer’s expectation will not be deemed unreasonable merely because the taxpayer does not actually perform the maintenance a second time during the relevant period, provided that the taxpayer can otherwise substantiate that its expectation was reasonable at the time the property was placed in service. Thus, for a unit of property previously placed in service, whether the maintenance is actually performed more than once during the relevant period is not controlling for assessing the reasonableness of a taxpayer’s original expectation. However, if a similar or identical unit of property is placed in service in a future tax year, the taxpayer’s experience with the original property may be taken into account as a factor in assessing whether the taxpayer reasonably expects to perform the activities more than once during the relevant period for the similar or identical unit of property. The taxpayer’s actual experience, therefore, may be used in assessing the reasonableness of the taxpayer’s expectation of the frequency of restoration or replacement at the time a new unit of property is placed in service, but hindsight should not be used to invalidate a taxpayer’s reasonable expectation as established at the time the unit of property was first placed in service when subsequent events do not conform to the taxpayer’s reasonable expectation.

4. Amounts Not Qualifying for the Routine Maintenance Safe Harbor

The final regulations clarify that amounts incurred for activities falling outside the routine maintenance safe harbor are not necessarily expenditures required to be capitalized under §1.263(a)-3. Amounts incurred for activities that do not meet the routine maintenance safe harbor are subject to analysis under the general rules for improvements.

G. Betterments

1. Overview

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that an amount paid results in a betterment, and accordingly, an improvement, if it (1) ameliorates a material condition or defect that existed prior to the acquisition of the property or arose during the production of the property; (2) results in a material addition to the unit of property (including a physical enlargement, expansion, or extension); or (3) results in a material increase in the capacity, productivity, efficiency, strength, or quality of the unit of property or its output. As applied to buildings, an amount results in a betterment to the building if it results in a betterment to the building structure or any of the building systems.

The final regulations retain the provisions of the 2011 temporary regulations related to betterments with several refinements. Specifically, the final regulations reorganize and clarify the types of activities that constitute betterments to property. Also, the final regulations no longer phrase the betterment test in terms of amounts that result in a betterment. Rather, the final regulations provide that a taxpayer must capitalize amounts that are reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of a unit of property or that are for a material addition to a unit of property. Elimination of the “results in” standard should reduce controversy for expenditures that span more than one tax year or when the outcome of the expenditure is uncertain when the expenditure is made.

2. Amelioration of Material Condition or Defect

Commenters requested that certain examples be clarified to distinguish more clearly between circumstances that require capitalization of amounts paid to ameliorate a material condition or defect and circumstances that do not require capitalization. One commenter requested that the final regulations include a rule that would provide for an allocation of expenditures between pre- and post-acquisition periods based on facts and circumstances if an expenditure both ameliorates a pre-existing condition and ameliorates normal wear and tear that results from the taxpayer’s use of the property. With respect to whether amounts paid to ameliorate conditions are betterments, other comments reiterated suggestions provided in response to the 2008 proposed regulations, as described in the preamble to the 2011 temporary regulations.

The final regulations do not adopt the comments with respect to expenditures to ameliorate pre-existing conditions or defects. The facts and circumstances rule provided in the final regulations is consistent with established case law and represents an administrable standard for determining whether an improvement has occurred.

3. Material Addition or Increase in Productivity, Efficiency, Strength, Quality, or Output

Many commenters requested that the final regulations provide explanations and quantitative bright lines for determining the materiality of an addition to a unit of property or an increase in capacity, productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of a unit of property. Additionally, commenters requested more explanation of terms such as productivity, quality, and output, and how such standards should be applied across a variety of different types of tangible property.

These suggestions were extensively considered, but the final regulations do not adopt the suggestions to establish quantitative bright lines. Quantitative bright lines, although objective, would produce inconsistent results given the broad array of factual settings where the betterment rules apply. Instead, the final regulations continue to rely on qualitative factors to provide fair and equitable treatment for all taxpayers in determining whether a particular cost constitutes a betterment.

The final regulations clarify, however, that not every single quantitative or qualitative factor listed in the betterment standard applies to every type of property. Whether any single factor applies to a particular unit of property depends on the nature of the property. For example, while amounts paid for work performed on an office building or a retail building may clearly comprise a physical enlargement or increase the capacity, efficiency, strength, or quality of such building under certain facts, it is unclear how to measure whether work performed on an office building or retail building increases the productivity or output of such buildings, as those terms are generally understood. Thus, the productivity and output factors would not generally apply to buildings. On the other hand, it is appropriate to evaluate many items of manufacturing equipment in terms of output or productivity as well as size, capacity, efficiency, strength, and quality. Accordingly, the final regulations clarify that the applicability of each quantitative and qualitative factor depends on the nature of the unit of property, and if an addition or increase in a particular factor cannot be measured in the context of a specific type of property, then the factor is not relevant in determining whether there has been a betterment to the property.

4. Application of Betterment Rule

Several commenters questioned the betterment rule in the 2011 temporary regulations that requires consideration of all facts and circumstances, including the treatment of the expenditures on a taxpayer’s applicable financial statement. One commenter questioned whether the treatment of an expenditure on a taxpayer’s applicable financial statement should be relevant in determining whether an amount paid results in a betterment and suggested removal of this factor from the facts and circumstances test provided in the 2011 temporary regulations. The IRS and the Treasury Department recognize that taxpayers may apply different standards for capitalizing amounts on their applicable financial statements and such standards may not be controlling for whether the activities are betterments for Federal tax purposes. Thus, the final regulations remove the taxpayer’s treatment of the expenditure on its financial statement as a factor to be considered in performing a betterment analysis under the final regulations. In addition, the final regulations omit the reference to the taxpayer’s facts and circumstances in determining whether amounts are paid for a betterment to the taxpayer’s property. The IRS and the Treasury Department believe that an analysis of a taxpayer’s particular facts and circumstances is implicit in the application of all the final regulations governing improvements and need not be specifically provided in the application of the betterment rules.

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that, when an expenditure is necessitated by a particular event, the determination of whether an expenditure is for the betterment of a unit of property is made by comparing the condition of the property immediately after the expenditure with the condition of the property immediately prior to the event necessitating the expenditure. The IRS and the Treasury Department received comments requesting that the final regulations clarify the application of the appropriate comparison rule for determining whether an expenditure is for a betterment of a unit of property. The final regulations retain this general rule but clarify that the rule applies when the event necessitating the expenditure is either normal wear and tear or damage to the unit of property during the taxpayer’s use of the property. Thus, the final regulations clarify that the appropriate comparison rule focuses on events affecting the condition of the property and not on business decisions made by taxpayers. In addition, the final regulations confirm that the rule does not apply to wear, tear, or damage that occurs prior to the taxpayer’s acquisition or use of the property. In these situations, the amelioration of a material condition or defect rule may apply.

5. Retail Store Refresh or Remodels

A substantial number of comments were received with respect to the betterment examples in the 2011 temporary regulations that address retail store refresh or remodel projects, requesting the addition of quantitative bright lines and the inclusion of additional detail in the examples.

As discussed previously in this preamble, the final regulations do not adopt the suggestions to provide quantitative bright lines in applying the betterment rules. However, the final regulations include additional detail in a number of the examples, including the examples related to building refresh or remodels, illustrating distinctions between betterments and maintenance activities when a taxpayer undertakes multiple simultaneous activities on a building. To the extent the rules in the final regulations present situations that might be addressed through the IIR program, taxpayers may pursue additional guidance through the IIR process.

H. Restorations

1. Overview

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that an amount is paid to restore, and therefore improve, a unit of property if it meets one of six tests: (1) it is for the replacement of a component of a unit of property and the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component (other than a casualty loss under §1.165-7); (2) it is for the replacement of a component of a unit of property and the taxpayer has properly taken into account the adjusted basis of the component in realizing gain or loss resulting from the sale or exchange of the component; (3) it is for the repair of damage to a unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly taken a basis adjustment as a result of a casualty loss under section 165, or relating to a casualty event described in section 165 (“casualty loss rule”); (4) it returns the unit of property to its ordinarily efficient operating condition if the property has deteriorated to a state of disrepair and is no longer functional for its intended use; (5) it results in the rebuilding of the unit of property to a like-new condition after the end of its class life; or (6) it is for the replacement of a major component or a substantial structural part of the unit of property (“major component rule”).

The IRS and the Treasury Department received a number of comments regarding the 2011 temporary regulations restoration rules. The final regulations generally retain the restoration standards set forth in the 2011 temporary regulations but revise both the major component rule and the casualty loss rule in response to comments.

2. Replacement of a Major Component or Substantial Structural Part

a. Definition of major component and substantial structural part

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that an amount paid for the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of a unit of property is an amount paid to restore (and, therefore, improve) the unit of property. The determination of whether a component or part was “major” or “substantial” depended on the facts and circumstances, including both qualitative and quantitative factors.

Commenters expressed concern that the lack of a bright-line test or additional definitions would result in uncertainty and disputes in applying the restoration rules contained in the 2011 temporary regulations. Several commenters stated that the standards provided in the 2011 temporary regulations were too subjective, and numerous commenters requested that the final regulations reintroduce a bright-line definition of what constitutes a major component or substantial structural part for purposes of applying the restoration standards, particularly with regard to buildings. Several commenters suggested that a fixed percentage of a building should be defined as the major component. In addition, commenters asked for clarifying guidance or more examples, arguing that the major component test of the 2011 temporary regulations uses broad, undefined, and subjective terms.

The final regulations retain the substantive rules of the 2011 temporary regulations, but clarify the definition of major component, and, more significantly, add a new definition for major components and substantial structural parts of buildings. Although the IRS and the Treasury Department considered several bright-line tests, none were found to fairly, equitably, and in a readily implementable manner distinguish between expenditures that constitute restorations and expenditures that constitute deductible repairs or maintenance consistent with the case law and administrative rulings in the area.

In many cases, particularly with regard to buildings, establishing a clear threshold, such as 30 percent of a defined amount, would be unworkable. Largely due to the complex nature of the property involved and the fact that units of property include assets placed in service in multiple taxable years, applying a fixed percentage to a building structure or a building system in a way that creates a consistent and equitable result proved exceedingly intricate and complex, thereby failing to achieve the simplifying objective of a bright line test. The final regulations, therefore, do not adopt any of the bright-line tests suggested.

b. General rule for major component and substantial structural part

To provide additional guidance for determining what constitutes a major component or substantial structural part, the final regulations clarify the distinction between a major component and a substantial structural part. Specifically, the final regulations separate “major component,” which focuses on the function of the component in the unit of property, from “substantial structural part,” which focuses on the size of the replacement component in relation to the unit of property. The final regulations define a major component as a part or combination of parts that performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the unit of property. The final regulations define a substantial structural part as a part or combination of parts that comprises a large portion of the physical structure of the unit of property.

In response to comments, the final regulations retain, but also clarify, the exception to the major component rule. The 2011 temporary regulations provided that the replacement of a minor component, even though such component might affect the function of the unit of property, generally would not, by itself, constitute a major component. The exception was meant to apply to relatively minor components, such as a switch, which generally performs a discrete function (turning property on and off) and is critical to the operation of a unit of property (that is, property will not run without it). To provide additional clarification regarding this exception, the final regulations clarify that an incidental component of a unit of property, even though such component performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the unit of property, generally will not, by itself, constitute a major component.

c. Major component and substantial structural part of buildings

The final regulations address the request for additional clarity regarding the definition of major component for buildings by adding a new definition for major components and substantial structural parts of buildings. In the case of buildings, the final regulations provide that an amount is for the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part if the replacement includes a part or combination of parts that (1) comprises a major component or a significant portion of a major component of the building structure or any building system, or (2) comprises a large portion of the physical structure of the building structure or any building system.

While the definition of major component for buildings introduces an additional level of analysis (a significant portion of a major component) that must be applied in determining whether an amount spent on a building constitutes a restoration, the rule provides an analytical framework and reaches conclusions that are generally consistent with the case law. Therefore, in practice this framework should be readily applicable for amounts spent on buildings. In combination with the addition of a routine maintenance safe harbor for buildings, the modifications to the section 168 disposition regulations, the safe harbor for small taxpayers, and the addition and revision of many examples, the revised definition of major component for buildings should relieve much of the controversy in determining whether the replacement of a major component or a substantial structural part of a unit of property is an amount paid to restore a building.

3. Casualty Loss Rule

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that an amount is paid to restore a unit of property if it is for the repair of damage to the unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly taken a basis adjustment as a result of a casualty loss under section 165, or relating to a casualty event described in section 165 (“casualty loss rule”). Capitalization of restoration costs is required under the casualty loss rule, even when the amounts paid for the repair exceed the adjusted basis remaining in the property and regardless of whether the amounts may otherwise qualify as repair costs. The 2011 temporary regulations recognized a taxpayer’s ability to deduct a casualty loss under section 165 or, to the extent eligible, to deduct the repair expense associated with the casualty damage. But the 2011 temporary regulations did not permit a taxpayer to deduct both amounts arising from the same event in the same taxable year.

Commenters requested that the final regulations eliminate the casualty loss rule. Commenters argued that recognition of a casualty loss under section 165 is irrelevant in determining whether the costs to restore the damage resulting from a casualty should be capitalized, and the 2011 temporary regulations should not deny one tax benefit (the ability to deduct repair costs) based on a taxpayer’s realization of another tax benefit (the ability to deduct a casualty loss). Similarly, commenters argued that the Code allows both a casualty loss and a repair deduction, and the IRS and the Treasury Department had not offered any justification for denying a deduction for the cost to repair damaged property only because the taxpayer has taken a casualty loss deduction. Commenters argued that the 2011 temporary regulations penalize taxpayers that have suffered a casualty as a result of property damage. Commenters suggested that the casualty loss rule in the 2011 temporary regulations results in similarly situated taxpayers being treated differently, based on whether an asset has adjusted basis at the time of a casualty event. As an alternative to eliminating the casualty loss rule, commenters requested that the final regulations allow a taxpayer to elect to forego recognizing the casualty loss and making a corresponding adjustment to basis to avoid application of the casualty loss rule.

The casualty loss rule in 2011 temporary regulations was based on the capitalization rule provided in section 263(a)(2), which states that no deduction shall be allowed for any amount expended in restoring property or in making good the exhaustion thereof for which an allowance is or has been made. When property has been damaged in a casualty and a loss for such property has been claimed, amounts paid to replace the damaged property are incurred to restore property for which an allowance has been made. Thus, under section 263(a)(2), when the basis in replaced property has been recovered by the taxpayer, capitalization of the replacement property is appropriate.

Recognizing that such a rule can provide harsh results for a taxpayer with valuable property with low adjusted basis that is destroyed in a casualty event, considerable consideration was given to the suggestion that the regulations provide an election to forgo a casualty loss deduction. Ultimately, however, it was concluded that the IRS and the Treasury Department do not have the authority to permit taxpayers to electively avoid the basis adjustment requirement imposed by section 1016(a). Section 1016(a) states that “a proper adjustment in respect of the property shall in all cases be made for . . . losses, or other items, properly chargeable to capital account . . ..” Therefore, even if a taxpayer could choose to forgo claiming a loss for property damage under section 165, section 1016 requires an adjustment to the basis of the property because a loss properly could be claimed.

In response to commenters’ suggestions, the final regulations revise the casualty loss rule to permit a deduction, where otherwise permissible, for amounts spent in excess of the adjusted basis of the property damaged in a casualty event. Thus, a taxpayer is still required to capitalize amounts paid to restore damage to property for which the taxpayer has properly recorded a basis adjustment, but the costs required to be capitalized under the casualty loss rule are limited to the excess of (1) the taxpayer’s basis adjustments resulting from the casualty event, over (2) the amount paid for restoration of damage to the unit of property that also constitutes a restoration under the other criteria of §1.263(a)-3(k)(1) (excluding the casualty loss rule). Casualty-related expenditures in excess of this limitation are not treated as restoration costs under §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(iii) and may be properly deducted if they otherwise constitute ordinary and necessary business expenses (for example, repair and maintenance expenses) under section 162. The final regulations contain several examples illustrating the casualty loss rule, including one example that demonstrates the operation of the new limitation on amounts required to be capitalized.

4. Salvage Value Exception

Under the 2011 temporary regulations, a restoration includes amounts paid for the replacement of a component of a unit of property when the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component (other than a casualty loss under §1.165-7) and for the replacement of a component of a unit of property when the taxpayer has properly taken into account the adjusted basis of the component in realizing gain or loss resulting from the sale or exchange of the component. In response to comments, the final regulations retain these rules but provide an exception for property that cannot be depreciated to an adjusted basis of zero due to the application of salvage value (for example, property placed in service before 1981, and post-1980 assets that do not qualify for the Accelerated Cost Recovery System of former section 168 (ACRS) or MACRS). When a loss is properly deducted or the adjusted basis of the component is realized from a sale or exchange, and the amount of loss or basis adjustment is attributable only to the remaining salvage value (the amount a taxpayer is expected to receive in cash or trade-in allowance upon disposition of an asset at the end of its useful life) as computed for Federal income tax purposes, a taxpayer is not required to treat amounts paid for the replacement of the component as a restoration under §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i) or (k)(1)(ii). Amounts subject to this exception must be evaluated under other provisions of the regulations to determine if the amounts are paid to improve tangible property.

5. Rebuild to Like-New Condition

The 2011 temporary regulations provided that a unit of property is rebuilt to a like-new condition if it is brought to the status of new, rebuilt, remanufactured, or similar status under the terms of any federal regulatory guideline or the manufacturer’s original specifications. Commenters asked for clarification on whether comprehensive maintenance programs, conducted according to manufacturer’s original specifications, constitute rebuilding a unit of property to like-new condition. The final regulations adopt the standard provided in the 2011 temporary regulations but clarify that generally a comprehensive maintenance program, even though substantial, does not return a unit of property to like-new condition.

I. Adaptation to a new or different use

The 2011 temporary regulations required a taxpayer to capitalize amounts paid to adapt a unit of property to a new or different use (that is, a use inconsistent with the taxpayer’s intended ordinary use at the time the property was originally placed in service by the taxpayer). As applied to buildings, the new or different use standard is applied separately to the building structure and its building systems. Commenters requested clarification of the adaptation rules and additional examples. Commenters also asked that, for specific industries, the regulations provide that changes to facilities in response to a change in product mix, a reallocation of floor space, the need to rebrand, or the introduction of a new product line do not constitute a new or different use.

The final regulations retain the substantive rules of the 2011 temporary regulations but add additional examples to illustrate the rules. The final regulations provide that if an amount adapts the unit of property in a manner inconsistent with the taxpayer’s intended ordinary use of the property when placed in service, the amount must be capitalized as an adaptation of the unit of property to a new or different use. In response to comments, two new examples address circumstances in which part of a retail building unit of property is converted to provide new services or products. However, providing tailored guidance for specific industries or specific types of property (for example, retail sales facilities) is not appropriate for broadly applicable guidance. Specific industry guidance is better addressed through the IIR program.

VII. Optional Regulatory Accounting Method

The 2011 temporary regulations provided an optional regulatory method, which permitted certain regulated taxpayers to follow the method of accounting they used for regulatory accounting purposes in determining whether an amount paid improves property. For purposes of the optional method, a taxpayer in a regulated industry is a taxpayer subject to the regulatory accounting rules of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), or the Surface Transportation Board (STB). A taxpayer that uses the regulatory accounting method does not apply the rules under sections 162, 212, or 263(a) in determining whether amounts paid to repair, maintain, or improve property are capital expenditures or deductible expenses. Section 263A continues to apply to costs required to be capitalized to property produced by the taxpayer or to property acquired for resale.

The IRS and the Treasury Department received no comments on this methodology, and the final regulations retain the rule from the 2011 temporary regulations, with one modification. The final regulations modify the description of the regulatory accounting method to clarify that, for purposes of determining whether an amount is for a capital expenditure, an eligible taxpayer must apply the method of accounting that it is required to follow by FERC, FCC, or STB (whichever is applicable).

VIII. Election to Capitalize Repair and Maintenance Costs

The 2011 temporary regulations did not contain an election for taxpayers to capitalize expenditures made with respect to tangible property that would otherwise be deductible under these regulations. Commenters requested that, to reduce uncertainty in applying subjective standards and to reduce administrative burden, the final regulations include an election to capitalize repair and maintenance expenditures as improvements if the taxpayer treats such costs as capital expenditures for financial accounting purposes. In response to these comments as well as in recognition of the significant administrative burden reduction achieved by permitting a taxpayer to follow for Federal income tax purposes the capitalization policies used for its books and records, the final regulations permit a taxpayer to elect to treat amounts paid during the taxable year for repair and maintenance to tangible property as amounts paid to improve that property and as an asset subject to the allowance for depreciation, as long as the taxpayer incurs the amounts in carrying on a trade or business and the taxpayer treats the amounts as capital expenditures on its books and records used for regularly computing income. Under the final regulations, a taxpayer that elects this treatment must apply the election to all amounts paid for repair and maintenance to tangible property that it treats as capital expenditures on its books and records in that taxable year. A taxpayer making the election must begin to depreciate the cost of such improvements when the improvements are placed in service by the taxpayer under the applicable provisions of the Code and regulations. The election is made by attaching a statement to the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year in which the improvement is placed in service. Once made, the election may not be revoked.

A taxpayer that capitalizes repair and maintenance costs under the election is still eligible to apply the de minimis safe harbor, the safe harbor for small taxpayers, and the routine maintenance safe harbor to repair and maintenance costs that are not treated as capital expenditures on its books and records.

IX. Applicability Dates

The final regulations generally apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. However, certain provisions of the final regulations only apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. For example, the de minimis safe harbor election under §1.263(a)-1(f) only applies to amounts paid or incurred for tangible property after January 1, 2014, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Alternatively, a taxpayer may generally choose to apply the final regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. For taxpayers choosing this early application, certain provisions of the final regulations only apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. For example, for these taxpayers, the de minimis safe harbor election only applies to amounts paid or incurred for tangible property after January 1, 2012, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

For taxpayers choosing to apply the final regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, or where applicable, to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, the final regulations provide transition relief for taxpayers that did not make the certain elections (for example, the election to apply the de minimis safe harbor or the election to apply the safe harbor for small taxpayers) on their timely filed original Federal tax return for their 2012 or 2013 taxable year (the applicable taxable year). Specifically, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013, a taxpayer is permitted to make these elections by filing an amended Federal tax return (including any applicable statements) for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.

Finally, a taxpayer may also choose to apply the 2011 temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014. For taxpayers choosing to apply the temporary regulations to these taxable years, certain provisions of the temporary regulations only apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

X. Change in Method of Accounting

The IRS and the Treasury Department received several comments regarding the procedures that a taxpayer should utilize to change its method of accounting to comply with the regulations. Several commenters favored the use of a cut-off method, primarily for reasons of administrative convenience. However, other commenters asserted that any change in method of accounting must include a section 481(a) adjustment.

The final regulations provide that, except as otherwise stated, a change to comply with the final regulations is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in the final regulations must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method. In general, a taxpayer seeking a change in method of accounting to comply with these regulations must take into account a full adjustment under section 481(a).

The imposition of a section 481(a) adjustment for a change in method of accounting to conform to the final regulations provides for a uniform and consistent rule for all taxpayers and ultimately reduces the administrative burdens on taxpayers and the IRS in enforcing the requirements of section 263(a). Although the IRS and the Treasury Department recognize that requiring a section 481(a) adjustment may place a burden on taxpayers to calculate reasonable adjustments, taxpayers have shown a willingness and ability to make these calculations in requesting method changes after the publication of the 2008 proposed regulations and after the publication of the 2011 temporary regulations. In addition, taxpayers and the IRS routinely reach agreements on calculation methodologies and amounts.

Separate procedures will be provided under which taxpayers may obtain automatic consent for a taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, to change to a method of accounting provided in the final regulations. Although a taxpayer seeking a change in method of accounting to comply with these regulations generally must take into account a full adjustment under section 481(a), it is anticipated that for the specific situation where a taxpayer seeks to change to a method of accounting that is applicable only to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, a limited section 481(a) adjustment will apply, taking into account only amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, or at a taxpayer’s option, amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

Special Analyses

It has been determined that this Treasury decision is not a significant regulatory action as defined in Executive Order 12866, as supplemented by Executive Order 13563. Therefore, a regulatory assessment is not required. It also has been determined that section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 5) does not apply to these regulations.

Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6), it is hereby certified that these final regulations will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This regulation affects all small business taxpayers. While a collection of information is required by this regulation in §§1.263(a)-1(f)(5), 1.263(a)-2(h)(6), and 1.263(a)-3(n), this collection will not have a significant economic impact on small entities. This information is required for a taxpayer to elect to use the de minimis safe harbor, to elect a safe harbor for determining the treatment of amounts related to buildings owned or leased by small taxpayers, and to elect to capitalize certain repair and maintenance costs. These elections were provided in the regulations in response to comment letters submitted on behalf of small business taxpayers requesting that these types of provisions be added to the regulations to assist small businesses. All of these elections are voluntary, beneficial, and were designed to simplify the application of sections 162 and 263(a) to small taxpayers. The provisions require a taxpayer to file a statement with the taxpayer’s timely filed original tax return to inform the IRS that the taxpayer is electing to use these provisions. The estimated time to prepare a statement should not exceed 15 minutes, and the filing of the statement allows the taxpayer to receive the beneficial treatment for the amounts that qualify for the statement. Based on these facts, a regulatory flexibility analysis under Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6) is not required. Pursuant to section 7805(f) of the Code, this regulation was submitted to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on its impact on small business.

Statement of Availability for IRS Documents

For copies of recently issued revenue procedures, revenue rulings, notices, and other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or Cumulative Bulletin, please visit the IRS website at http://www.irs.gov.

Adoption of Amendments to the Regulations

Accordingly, 26 CFR parts 1 and 602 are amended as follows:

PART 1—INCOME TAXES

Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to read in part as follows:

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805 * * *

Par. 2. Section 1.162-3 is revised to read as follows:

§1.162-3 Materials and supplies.

(a) In general—(1) Non-incidental materials and supplies. Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, amounts paid to acquire or produce materials and supplies (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) are deductible in the taxable year in which the materials and supplies are first used in the taxpayer’s operations or are consumed in the taxpayer’s operations.

(2) Incidental materials and supplies. Amounts paid to acquire or produce incidental materials and supplies (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) that are carried on hand and for which no record of consumption is kept or of which physical inventories at the beginning and end of the taxable year are not taken, are deductible in the taxable year in which these amounts are paid, provided taxable income is clearly reflected.

(3) Use or consumption of rotable and temporary spare parts. Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, rotable and temporary spare parts (defined under paragraph (c)(2) of this section) are first used in the taxpayer’s operations or are consumed in the taxpayer’s operations in the taxable year in which the taxpayer disposes of the parts.

(b) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of any amount that is specifically provided for under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) or regulations other than section 162(a) or section 212 and the regulations under those sections. For example, see §1.263(a)-3, which requires taxpayers to capitalize amounts paid to improve tangible property and section 263A and the regulations under section 263A, which require taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs, including the cost of materials and supplies, of property produced by the taxpayer and property acquired for resale. See also §1.471-1, which requires taxpayers to include in inventory certain materials and supplies.

(c) Definitions—(1) Materials and supplies. For purposes of this section, materials and supplies means tangible property that is used or consumed in the taxpayer’s operations that is not inventory and that—

(i) Is a component acquired to maintain, repair, or improve a unit of tangible property (as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)) owned, leased, or serviced by the taxpayer and that is not acquired as part of any single unit of tangible property;

(ii) Consists of fuel, lubricants, water, and similar items, reasonably expected to be consumed in 12 months or less, beginning when used in the taxpayer’s operations;

(iii) Is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e) that has an economic useful life of 12 months or less, beginning when the property is used or consumed in the taxpayer’s operations;

(iv) Is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e) that has an acquisition cost or production cost (as determined under section 263A) of $200 or less (or other amount as identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter); or

(v) Is identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) as materials and supplies for which treatment is permitted under this section.

(2) Rotable and temporary spare parts. For purposes of this section, rotable spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are acquired for installation on a unit of property, removable from that unit of property, generally repaired or improved, and either reinstalled on the same or other property or stored for later installation. Temporary spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are used temporarily until a new or repaired part can be installed and then are removed and stored for later installation.

(3) Standby emergency spare parts. Standby emergency spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are—

(i) Acquired when particular machinery or equipment is acquired (or later acquired and set aside for use in particular machinery or equipment);

(ii) Set aside for use as replacements to avoid substantial operational time loss caused by emergencies due to particular machinery or equipment failure;

(iii) Located at or near the site of the installed related machinery or equipment so as to be readily available when needed;

(iv) Directly related to the particular machinery or piece of equipment they serve;

(v) Normally expensive;

(vi) Only available on special order and not readily available from a vendor or manufacturer;

(vii) Not subject to normal periodic replacement;

(viii) Not interchangeable in other machines or equipment;

(x) Not acquired in quantity (generally only one is on hand for each piece of machinery or equipment); and

(xi) Not repaired and reused.

(4) Economic useful life—(i) General rule. The economic useful life of a unit of property is not necessarily the useful life inherent in the property but is the period over which the property may reasonably be expected to be useful to the taxpayer or, if the taxpayer is engaged in a trade or business or an activity for the production of income, the period over which the property may reasonably be expected to be useful to the taxpayer in its trade or business or for the production of income, as applicable. See §1.167(a)-1(b) for the factors to be considered in determining this period.

(ii) Taxpayers with an applicable financial statement. For taxpayers with an applicable financial statement (as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section), the economic useful life of a unit of property, solely for the purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (c)(4) of this section, is the useful life initially used by the taxpayer for purposes of determining depreciation in its applicable financial statement, regardless of any salvage value of the property. If a taxpayer does not have an applicable financial statement for the taxable year in which a unit of property was originally acquired or produced, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. Further, if a taxpayer treats amounts paid for a unit of property as an expense in its applicable financial statement on a basis other than the useful life of the property or if a taxpayer does not depreciate the unit of property on its applicable financial statement, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. For example, if a taxpayer has a policy of treating as an expense on its applicable financial statement amounts paid for a unit of property costing less than a certain dollar amount, notwithstanding that the unit of property has a useful life of more than one year, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section.

(iii) Definition of applicable financial statement. The taxpayer’s applicable financial statement is the taxpayer’s financial statement listed in paragraphs (c)(4)(iii)(A) through (C) of this section that has the highest priority (including within paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(B) of this section). The financial statements are, in descending priority—

(A) A financial statement required to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (the 10-K or the Annual Statement to Shareholders);

(B) A certified audited financial statement that is accompanied by the report of an independent certified public accountant (or in the case of a foreign entity, by the report of a similarly qualified independent professional), that is used for—

(1) Credit purposes;

(2) Reporting to shareholders, partners, or similar persons; or

(3) Any other substantial non-tax purpose; or

(C) A financial statement (other than a tax return) required to be provided to the federal or a state government or any federal or state agency (other than the SEC or the Internal Revenue Service).

(5) Amount paid. For purposes of this section, in the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, the terms amount paid and payment mean a liability incurred (within the meaning of §1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred.

(6) Produce. For purposes of this section, produce means construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, create, raise, or grow. This definition is intended to have the same meaning as the definition used for purposes of section 263A(g)(1) and §1.263A-2(a)(1)(i), except that improvements are excluded from the definition in this paragraph (c)(6) and are separately defined and addressed in §1.263(a)-3. Amounts paid to produce materials and supplies are subject to section 263A.

(d) Election to capitalize and depreciate certain materials and supplies—(1) In general. A taxpayer may elect to treat as a capital expenditure and to treat as an asset subject to the allowance for depreciation the cost of any rotable spare part, temporary spare part, or standby emergency spare part as defined in paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section. Except as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, an election made under this paragraph (d) applies to amounts paid during the taxable year to acquire or produce any rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part to which paragraph (a) of this section would apply (but for the election under this paragraph (d)). Any property for which this election is made shall not be treated as a material or a supply.

(2) Exceptions. A taxpayer may not elect to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section any amount paid to acquire or produce a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part defined in paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section if—

(i) The rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part is intended to be used as a component of a unit of property under paragraph (c)(1)(iii), (iv), or (v) of this section;

(ii) The rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part is intended to be used as a component of a property described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) and the taxpayer cannot or has not elected to capitalize and depreciate that property under this paragraph (d); or

(iii) The amount is paid to acquire or produce a rotable or temporary spare part and the taxpayer uses the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) to of this section.

(3) Manner of electing. A taxpayer makes the election under paragraph (d) of this section by capitalizing the amounts paid to acquire or produce a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part in the taxable year the amounts are paid and by beginning to recover the costs when the asset is placed in service by the taxpayer for the purposes of determining depreciation under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations. See §1.263(a)-2 for the treatment of amounts paid to acquire or produce real or personal tangible property. A taxpayer must make this election in its timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year the asset is placed in service by the taxpayer for purposes of determining depreciation. See §§301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or partnership, and not by the shareholders or partners. A taxpayer may make an election for each rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part that qualifies for the election under this paragraph (d). A taxpayer may revoke an election made under this paragraph (d) with respect to a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. See generally §301.9100-3 of this chapter. The manner of electing and revoking the election to capitalize under this paragraph (d) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter). An election may not be made or revoked through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to make the late election or to revoke the election, by filing an amended Federal tax return.

(e) Optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts—(1) In general. This paragraph (e) provides an optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts (the optional method for rotable parts). A taxpayer may use the optional method for rotable parts, instead of the general rule under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to account for its rotable and temporary spare parts as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. A taxpayer that uses the optional method for rotable parts must use this method for all of its pools of rotable and temporary spare parts used in the same trade or business and for which it uses this method for its books and records. If a taxpayer uses the optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts for pools of rotable or temporary spare parts for which the taxpayer does not use the optional method for its book and records, then the taxpayer must use the optional method for all its pools of rotable spare parts in the same trade or business. The optional method for rotable parts is a method of accounting under section 446(a). Under the optional method for rotable parts, the taxpayer must apply the rules in this paragraph (e) to each rotable or temporary spare part (part) upon the taxpayer’s initial installation, removal, repair, maintenance or improvement, reinstallation, and disposal of each part.

(2) Description of optional method for rotable parts—(i) Initial installation. The taxpayer must deduct the amount paid to acquire or produce the part in the taxable year that the part is first installed on a unit of property for use in the taxpayer’s operations.

(ii) Removal from unit of property. In each taxable year in which the part is removed from a unit of property to which it was initially or subsequently installed, the taxpayer must—

(A) Include in gross income the fair market value of the part; and

(B) Include in the basis of the part the fair market value of the part included in income under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and the amount paid to remove the part from the unit of property.

(iii) Repair, maintenance, or improvement of part. The taxpayer may not currently deduct and must include in the basis of the part any amounts paid to maintain, repair, or improve the part in the taxable year these amounts are paid.

(iv) Reinstallation of part. The taxpayer must deduct the amounts paid to reinstall the part and those amounts included in the basis of the part under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(B) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section, to the extent that those amounts have not been previously deducted under this paragraph (e)(2)(iv), in the taxable year that the part is reinstalled on a unit of property.

(v) Disposal of the part. The taxpayer must deduct the amounts included in the basis of the part under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(B) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section, to the extent that those amounts have not been previously deducted under paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section, in the taxable year in which the part is disposed of by the taxpayer.

(f) Application of de minimis safe harbor. If a taxpayer elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the production or acquisition of tangible property, then the taxpayer must apply the de minimis safe harbor to amounts paid for all materials and supplies that meet the requirements of §1.263(a)-1(f), except for those materials and supplies that the taxpayer elects to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section or for which the taxpayer properly uses the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) of this section. If the taxpayer properly applies the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for materials and supplies, then these amounts are not treated as amounts paid for materials and supplies under this section. See §1.263(a)-1(f)(5) for the time and manner of electing the de minimis safe harbor and §1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv) for the treatment of safe harbor amounts.

(g) Sale or disposition of materials and supplies. Upon sale or other disposition, materials and supplies as defined in this section are not treated as a capital asset under section 1221 or as property used in the trade or business under section 1231. Any asset for which the taxpayer makes the election to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section shall not be treated as a material or supply, and the recognition and character of the gain or loss for such depreciable asset are determined under other applicable provisions of the Code.

(h) Examples. The rules of this section are illustrated by the following examples, in which it is assumed, unless otherwise stated, that the property is not an incidental material or supply, that the taxpayer computes its income on a calendar year basis, that the taxpayer does not make the election to apply paragraph (d) of this section, or use the method of accounting described in paragraph (e) of this section, and that the taxpayer has not elected to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f). The following examples illustrate only the application of this section and, unless otherwise stated, do not address the treatment under other provisions of the Code (for example, section 263A).

Example 1. Non-rotable components. A owns a fleet of aircraft that it operates in its business. In Year 1, A purchases a stock of spare parts, which it uses to maintain and repair its aircraft. A keeps a record of consumption of these spare parts. In Year 2, A uses the spare parts for the repair and maintenance of one of its aircraft. Assume each aircraft is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and that spare parts are not rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Assume these repair and maintenance activities do not improve the aircraft under §1.263(a)-3. These parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because they are components acquired and used to maintain and repair A’s aircraft. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that A paid for the spare parts in Year 1 are deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which the spare parts are first used to repair and maintain the aircraft.

Example 2. Rotable spare parts; disposal method. B operates a fleet of specialized vehicles that it uses in its service business. Assume that each vehicle is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). At the time that it acquires a new type of vehicle, B also acquires a substantial number of rotable spare parts that it will keep on hand to quickly replace similar parts in B’s vehicles as those parts break down or wear out. These rotable parts are removable from the vehicles and are repaired so that they can be reinstalled on the same or similar vehicles. In Year 1, B acquires several vehicles and a number of rotable spare parts to be used as replacement parts in these vehicles. In Year 2, B repairs several vehicles by using these rotable spare parts to replace worn or damaged parts. In Year 3, B removes these rotable spare parts from its vehicles, repairs the parts, and reinstalls them on other similar vehicles. In Year 5, B can no longer use the rotable parts it acquired in Year 1 and disposes of them as scrap. Assume that B does not improve any of the rotable spare parts under §1.263(a)-3. Under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the rotable spare parts acquired in Year 1 are materials and supplies. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, rotable spare parts are generally used or consumed in the taxable year in which the taxpayer disposes of the parts. Therefore, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that B paid for the rotable spare parts in Year 1 are deductible in Year 5, the taxable year in which B disposes of the parts.

Example 3. Rotable spare parts; application of optional method of accounting. C operates a fleet of specialized vehicles that it uses in its service business. Assume that each vehicle is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). At the time that it acquires a new type of vehicle, C also acquires a substantial number of rotable spare parts that it will keep on hand to replace similar parts in C’s vehicles as those parts break down or wear out. These rotable parts are removable from the vehicles and are repaired so that they can be reinstalled on the same or similar vehicles. C uses the optional method of accounting for all its rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) of this section. In Year 1, C acquires several vehicles and a number of rotable spare parts (the “Year 1 rotable parts”) to be used as replacement parts in these vehicles. In Year 2, C repairs several vehicles and uses the Year 1 rotable parts to replace worn or damaged parts. In Year 3, C pays amounts to remove these Year 1 rotable parts from its vehicles. In Year 4, C pays amounts to maintain, repair, or improve the Year 1 rotable parts. In Year 5, C pays amounts to reinstall the Year 1 rotable parts on other similar vehicles. In Year 8, C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from these vehicles and stores these parts for possible later use. In Year 9, C disposes of the Year 1 rotable parts. Under paragraph (e) of this section, C must deduct the amounts paid to acquire and install the Year 1 rotable parts in Year 2, the taxable year in which the rotable parts are first installed by C in C’s vehicles. In Year 3, when C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from its vehicles, C must include in its gross income the fair market value of each part. Also, in Year 3, C must include in the basis of each Year 1 rotable part the fair market value of the rotable part and the amount paid to remove the rotable part from the vehicle. In Year 4, C must include in the basis of each Year 1 rotable part the amounts paid to maintain, repair, or improve each rotable part. In Year 5, the year that C reinstalls the Year 1 rotable parts (as repaired or improved) in other vehicles, C must deduct the reinstallation costs and the amounts previously included in the basis of each part. In Year 8, the year that C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from the vehicles, C must include in income the fair market value of each rotable part removed. In addition, in Year 8, C must include in the basis of each part the fair market value of that part and the amount paid to remove each rotable part from the vehicle. In Year 9, the year that C disposes of the Year 1 rotable parts, C may deduct the amounts remaining in the basis of each rotable part.

Example 4. Rotable part acquired as part of a single unit of property; not material or supply. D operates a fleet of aircraft. In Year 1, D acquires a new aircraft, which includes two new aircraft engines. The aircraft costs $500,000 and has an economic useful life of more than 12 months, beginning when it is placed in service. In Year 5, after the aircraft is operated for several years in D’s business, D removes the engines from the aircraft, repairs or improves the engines, and either reinstalls the engines on a similar aircraft or stores the engines for later reinstallation. Assume the aircraft purchased in Year 1, including its two engines, is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). Because the engines were acquired as part of the aircraft, a single unit of property, the engines are not materials or supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section nor rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Accordingly, D may not apply the rules of this section to the aircraft engines upon the original acquisition of the aircraft nor after the removal of the engines from the aircraft for use in the same or similar aircraft. Rather, D must apply the rules under §§1.263(a)-2 and 1.263(a)-3 to the aircraft, including its engines, to determine the treatment of amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve the unit of property.

Example 5. Consumable property. E operates a fleet of aircraft that carries freight for its customers. E has several storage tanks on its premises, which hold jet fuel for its aircraft. Assume that once the jet fuel is placed in E’s aircraft, the jet fuel is reasonably expected to be consumed within 12 months or less. On December 31, Year 1, E purchases a two-year supply of jet fuel. In Year 2, E uses a portion of the jet fuel purchased on December 31, Year 1, to fuel the aircraft used in its business. The jet fuel that E purchased in Year 1 is a material or supply under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section because it is reasonably expected to be consumed within 12 months or less from the time it is placed in E’s aircraft. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, E may deduct in Year 2 the amounts paid for the portion of jet fuel used in the operation of E’s aircraft in Year 2.

Example 6. Unit of property that costs $200 or less. F operates a business that rents out a variety of small individual items to customers (rental items). F maintains a supply of rental items on hand. In Year 1, F purchases a large quantity of rental items to use in its rental business. Assume that each rental item is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and costs $200 or less. In Year 2, F begins using all the rental items purchased in Year 1 by providing them to customers of its rental business. F does not sell or exchange these items on established retail markets at any time after the items are used in the rental business. The rental items are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that F paid for the rental items in Year 1 are deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which the rental items are first used in F’s business.

Example 7. Unit of property that costs $200 or less. G provides billing services to its customers. In Year 1, G pays amounts to purchase 50 scanners to be used by its employees. Assume each scanner is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and costs less than $200. In Year 1, G’s employees begin using 35 of the scanners, and F stores the remaining 15 scanners for use in a later taxable year. The scanners are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts G paid for 35 of the scanners are deductible in Year 1, the taxable year in which G first uses each of those scanners. The amounts that G paid for each of the remaining 15 scanners are deductible in the taxable year in which each machine is first used in G’s business.

Example 8. Materials and supplies that cost less than $200; de minimis safe harbor. Assume the same facts as in Example 7 except that G’s scanners qualify for the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f), and G properly elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid in Year 1. G must apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the scanners, rather than treat these amounts as costs of materials and supplies under this section. In accordance with §1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv), G may deduct the amounts paid for all 50 scanners under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid.

Example 9. Unit of property that costs $200 or less; bulk purchase. H provides consulting services to its customers. In Year 1, H pays $500 to purchase one box of 10 toner cartridges to use as needed for H’s printers. Assume each toner cartridge is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). In Year 1, H’s employees place 8 of the toner cartridges in printers in H’s office, and store the remaining 2 cartridges for use in a later taxable year. The toner cartridges are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section because even though purchased in one box costing more than $200, the allocable cost of each unit of property equals $50. Therefore, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the $400 paid by H for 8 of the cartridges is deductible in Year 1, the taxable year in which H first uses each of those cartridges. The amounts paid by H for each of the remaining 2 cartridges ($50 each) are deductible in the taxable year in which each cartridge is first used in H’s business.

Example 10. Materials and supplies used in improvements; coordination with §1.263(a)-3. J owns various machines that are used in its business. Assume that each machine is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). In Year 1, J purchases a supply of spare parts for its machines. J acquired the parts to use in the repair or maintenance of the machines under §1.162-4 or in the improvement of the machines under §1.263(a)-3. The spare parts are not rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. In Year 2, J uses all of these spare parts in an activity that improves a machine under §1.263(a)-3. Under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the spare parts purchased by J in Year 1 are materials and supplies. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the spare parts are otherwise deductible as materials and supplies in Year 2, the taxable year in which J uses those parts. However, because these materials and supplies are used to improve J’s machine, J is required to capitalize the amounts paid for those spare parts under §1.263(a)-3.

Example 11. Cost of producing materials and supplies; coordination with section 263A. K is a manufacturer that produces liquid waste as part of its operations. K determines that its current liquid waste disposal process is inadequate. To remedy the problem, in Year 1, K constructs a leaching pit to provide a draining area for the liquid waste. Assume the leaching pit is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and has an economic useful life of 12 months or less, starting on the date that K begins to use the leaching pit as a draining area. At the end of this period, K’s factory will be connected to the local sewer system. In Year 2, K starts using the leaching pit in its operations. The amounts paid to construct the leaching pit (including the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced under section 263A) are amounts paid for a material or supply under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. However, the amounts paid to construct the leaching pit may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of property produced by K.

Example 12. Costs of acquiring materials and supplies for production of property; coordination with section 263A. In Year 1, L purchases jigs, dies, molds, and patterns for use in the manufacture of L’s products. Assume each jig, die, mold, and pattern is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). The economic useful life of each jig, die, mold, and pattern is 12 months or less, beginning when each item is used in the manufacturing process. The jigs, dies, molds, and patterns are not components acquired to maintain, repair, or improve any of L’s equipment under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. L begins using the jigs, dies, molds and patterns in Year 2 to manufacture its products. These items are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the items are otherwise deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which L first uses those items. However, the amounts paid for these materials and supplies may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of property produced by L.

Example 13. Election to capitalize and depreciate. M is in the mining business. M acquires certain temporary spare parts, which it keeps on hand to avoid operational time loss in the event it must make temporary repairs to a unit of property that is subject to depreciation. These parts are not used to improve property under §1.263(a)-3(d). These temporary spare parts are used until a new or repaired part can be installed and then are removed and stored for later temporary installation. M does not use the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts in paragraph (e) of this section for any of its rotable or temporary spare parts. The temporary spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(3) of this section, the amounts paid for the temporary spare parts are deductible in the taxable year in which they are disposed of by M. However, because it is unlikely that the temporary spare parts will be disposed of in the near future, M would prefer to treat the amounts paid for the spare parts as capital expenditures subject to depreciation. M may elect under paragraph (d) of this section to treat the cost of each temporary spare part as a capital expenditure and as an asset subject to an allowance for depreciation. M makes this election by capitalizing the amounts paid for each spare part in the taxable year that M acquires the spare parts and by beginning to recover the costs of each part on its timely filed Federal tax return for the taxable year in which the part is placed in service for purposes of determining depreciation under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations. See §1.263(a)-2(g) for the treatment of capital expenditures.

Example 14. Election to apply de minimis safe harbor. (i) N provides consulting services to its customers. In Year 1, N pays amounts to purchase 50 laptop computers. Each laptop computer is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e), costs $400, and has an economic useful life of more than 12 months. Also in Year 1, N purchases 50 office chairs to be used by its employees. Each office chair is a unit of property that costs $100. N has an applicable financial statement (as defined in §1.263(a)-1(f)(4)) and N has a written accounting policy at the beginning Year 1 to expense amounts paid for units of property costing $500 or less. N treats amounts paid for property costing $500 or less as an expense on its applicable financial statement in Year 1.

(ii) The laptop computers are not materials or supplies under paragraph (c) of this section. Therefore, the amounts N pays for the computers must generally be capitalized under §1.263(a)-2(d) as amounts paid for the acquisition of tangible property. The office chairs are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Thus, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the office chairs are deductible in the taxable year in which they are first used in N’s business. However, under paragraph (f) of this section, if N properly elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid in Year 1, then N must apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the computers and the office chairs, rather than treat the office chairs as the costs of materials and supplies under §1.162-3. Under the de minimis safe harbor, N may not capitalize the amounts paid for the computers under §1.263(a)-2 nor treat the office chairs as materials and supplies under §1.162-3. Instead, in accordance with §1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv), under §1.162-1, N may deduct the amounts paid for the computers and the office chairs in the taxable year paid.

(i) Accounting method changes. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method.

(j) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section generally applies to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. However, a taxpayer may apply paragraph (e) of this section (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this section, §1.162-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section—(i) In general. Except for paragraph (e) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to apply this section to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (e) of this section (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(ii) Transition rule for election to capitalize materials and supplies on 2012 and 2013 returns. If under paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to make the election to capitalize and depreciate certain materials and supplies under paragraph (d) of this section for its taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing an amended Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. Except for section 1.162-3T(e), a taxpayer may choose to apply §1.162-3T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to amounts paid or incurred (to acquire or produce property) in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014. A taxpayer may choose to apply section 1.162-3T(e) (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.162-3T [Removed]

Par. 3. Section 1.162-3T is removed.

Par. 4. Section 1.162-4 is revised to read as follows:

§1.162-4 Repairs.

(a) In general. A taxpayer may deduct amounts paid for repairs and maintenance to tangible property if the amounts paid are not otherwise required to be capitalized. For the election to capitalize amounts paid for repair and maintenance consistent with the taxpayer’s books and records, see §1.263(a)-3(n).

(b) Accounting method changes. A change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method.

(c) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section, §1.162-4 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.162-4T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060), December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.162-4T [Removed]

Par. 5. Section 1.162-4T is removed.

Par. 6. Section 1.162-11 is amended by:

1. Revising paragraph (b).

2. Removing paragraphs (c) and (d).

The revision reads as follows:

§1.162-11 Rentals.

* * * * *

(b) Improvements by lessee on lessor’s property—(1) In general. The cost to a taxpayer of erecting buildings or making permanent improvements on property of which the taxpayer is a lessee is a capital expenditure. For the rules regarding improvements to leased property when the improvements are tangible property, see §1.263(a)-3(f). For the rules regarding depreciation or amortization deductions for leasehold improvements, see §1.167(a)-4.

(2) Effective/applicability date—(i) In general. This paragraph (b) applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(ii) and (b)(2)(iii) of this section, §1.162-11(b) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(ii) Early application of this paragraph. A taxpayer may choose to apply this paragraph (b) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(iii) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.162-11T(b) as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.162-11T [Removed]

Par. 7. Section 1.162-11T is removed.

Par. 8. Section 1.165-2 is amended by:

1. Revising paragraphs (c) and (d).

2. Removing paragraph (e).

The revisions read as follows:

§1.165-2 Obsolescence of nondepreciable property.

* * * * *

(c) Cross references. For the allowance under section 165(a) of losses arising from the permanent withdrawal of depreciable property from use in the trade or business or in the production of income, see §1.167(a)-8, §1.168(i)-1, §1.168(i)-1T, §1.168(i)-8T, Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1 (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 (September 19, 2013), as applicable. For provisions respecting the obsolescence of depreciable property for which depreciation is determined under section 167 (but not under section 168, section 1400I, section 1400L(c), section 168 prior to its amendment by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514 (100 Stat. 2121 (1986)), or under an additional first year depreciation deduction provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 168(k) through (n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d))), see §1.167(a)-9. For the allowance of casualty losses, see §1.165-7.

(d) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, §1.165-2 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of §1.165-2(c). A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (c) of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.165-2T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.165-2T [Removed]

Par. 9. Section 1.165-2T is removed.

Par. 10. Section 1.167(a)-4 is revised to read as follows:

§1.167(a)-4 Leased property.

(a) In general. Capital expenditures made by either a lessee or lessor for the erection of a building or for other permanent improvements on leased property are recovered by the lessee or lessor under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) applicable to the cost recovery of the building or improvements, if subject to depreciation or amortization, without regard to the period of the lease. For example, if the building or improvement is property to which section 168 applies, the lessee or lessor determines the depreciation deduction for the building or improvement under section 168. See section 168(i)(8)(A). If the improvement is property to which section 167 or section 197 applies, the lessee or lessor determines the depreciation or amortization deduction for the improvement under section 167 or section 197, as applicable.

(b) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section, this section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(2) Application of this section to leasehold improvements placed in service after December 31, 1986, in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014. For leasehold improvements placed in service after December 31, 1986, in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014, a taxpayer may—

(i) Apply the provisions of this section; or

(ii) Depreciate any leasehold improvement to which section 168 applies under the provisions of section 168 and depreciate or amortize any leasehold improvement to which section 168 does not apply under the provisions of the Code that are applicable to the cost recovery of that leasehold improvement, without regard to the period of the lease.

(3) Application of this section to leasehold improvements placed in service before January 1, 1987. Section 1.167(a)-4 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to leasehold improvements placed in service before January 1, 1987.

(4) Change in method of accounting. Except as provided in §1.446-1(e)(2)(ii)(d)(3)(i), a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending on or after December 30, 2003, is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. Except as provided in §1.446-1(e)(2)(ii)(d)(3)(i), a taxpayer also may treat a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending before December 30, 2003, as a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply.

§1.167(a)-4T [Removed]

Par. 11. Section 1.167(a)-4T is removed.

Par. 12. Section 1.167(a)-7 is amended by:

1. Revising paragraphs (e) and (f).

2. Removing paragraph (g).

The revisions read as follows:

§1.167(a)-7 Accounting for depreciable property.

* * * * *

(e) Applicability. Paragraphs (a), (b), and (d) of this section apply to property for which depreciation is determined under section 167 (but not under section 168, section 1400I, section 1400L(c), section 168 prior to its amendment by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514 (100 Stat. 2121 (1986)), or under an additional first year depreciation deduction provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 168(k) through (n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d))). Paragraph (c) of this section does not apply to general asset accounts as provided by section 168(i)(4), §1.168(i)-1, §1.168(i)-1T and Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1 (September 19, 2013).

(f) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (f)(2) and (f)(3) of this section, §1.167(a)-7 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of §1.167(a)-7(e). A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (e) of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.167(a)-7T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.167(a)-7T [Removed]

Par. 13. Section 1.167(a)-7T is removed.

Par. 14. Section 1.167(a)-8 is amended by:

1. Revising paragraphs (g) and (h).

2. Removing paragraph (i).

The revisions read as follows:

§1.167(a)-8 Retirements.

* * * * *

(g) Applicability. This section applies to property for which depreciation is determined under section 167 (but not under section 168, section 1400I, section 1400L(c), section 168 prior to its amendment by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514 (100 Stat. 2121(1986)), or under an additional first year depreciation deduction provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 168(k) through (n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d))).

(h) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (h)(2) and (h)(3) of this section, §1.167(a)-8 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of §1.167(a)-8(g). A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (g) of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.167(a)-8T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.167(a)-8T [Removed]

Par. 15. Section 1.167(a)-8T is removed.

Par. 16. Section 1.168(i)-7 is added to read as follows:

§1.168(i)-7 Accounting for MACRS property.

(a) In general. A taxpayer may account for MACRS property (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(2)) by treating each individual asset as an account (a “single asset account” or an “item account”) or by combining two or more assets in a single account (a “multiple asset account” or a “pool”). A taxpayer may establish as many accounts for MACRS property as the taxpayer wants. This section does not apply to assets included in general asset accounts. For rules applicable to general asset accounts, see §1.168(i)-1, §1.168(i)-1T, or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1 (September 19, 2013), as applicable.

(b) Required use of single asset accounts. A taxpayer must account for an asset in a single asset account if the taxpayer uses the asset both in a trade or business (or for the production of income) and in a personal activity, or if the taxpayer places in service and disposes of the asset during the same taxable year. Also, if general asset account treatment for an asset terminates under §1.168(i)-1T(c)(1)(ii)(A), (e)(3)(iii), (e)(3)(vii), (g), or (h)(2) or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(c)(1)(ii)(A), (e)(3)(iii), (e)(3)(vii), (g), or (h)(2) (September 19, 2013), as applicable, the taxpayer must account for the asset in a single asset account beginning in the taxable year in which the general asset account treatment for the asset terminates. If a taxpayer accounts for an asset in a multiple asset account or a pool and the taxpayer disposes of the asset, the taxpayer must account for the asset in a single asset account beginning in the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. See §1.168(i)-8T(g)(2)(i) or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(h)(2)(i) (September 19, 2013), as applicable. If a taxpayer disposes of a component of a larger asset and the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed of component is included in the unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger asset, the taxpayer must account for the component in a single asset account beginning in the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. See Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(g)(3)(i) (September 19, 2013).

(c) Establishment of multiple asset accounts or pools—(1) Assets eligible for multiple asset accounts or pools. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, assets that are subject to either the general depreciation system of section 168(a) or the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) may be accounted for in one or more multiple asset accounts or pools.

(2) Grouping assets in multiple asset accounts or pools—(i) General rules. Assets that are eligible to be grouped into a single multiple asset account or pool may be divided into more than one multiple asset account or pool. Each multiple asset account or pool must include only assets that—

(A) Have the same applicable depreciation method;

(B) Have the same applicable recovery period;

(C) Have the same applicable convention; and

(D) Are placed in service by the taxpayer in the same taxable year.

(ii) Special rules. In addition to the general rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the following rules apply when establishing multiple asset accounts or pools—

(A) Assets subject to the mid-quarter convention may only be grouped into a multiple asset account or pool with assets that are placed in service in the same quarter of the taxable year;

(B) Assets subject to the mid-month convention may only be grouped into a multiple asset account or pool with assets that are placed in service in the same month of the taxable year;

(C) Passenger automobiles for which the depreciation allowance is limited under section 280F(a) must be grouped into a separate multiple asset account or pool;

(D) Assets not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction (including assets for which the taxpayer elected not to deduct the additional first year depreciation) provided by, for example, section 168(k) through (n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d), must be grouped into a separate multiple asset account or pool;

(E) Assets eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction may only be grouped into a multiple asset account or pool with assets for which the taxpayer claimed the same percentage of the additional first year depreciation (for example, 30 percent, 50 percent, or 100 percent);

(F) Except for passenger automobiles described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, listed property (as defined in section 280F(d)(4)) must be grouped into a separate multiple asset account or pool;

(G) Assets for which the depreciation allowance for the placed-in-service year is not determined by using an optional depreciation table (for further guidance, see section 8 of Rev. Proc. 87-57, 1987-2 C.B. 687, 693 (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter)) must be grouped into a separate multiple asset account or pool; and

(H) Mass assets (as defined in §1.168(i)-8T(b)(2) or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(b)(3) (September 19, 2013), as applicable) that are or will be subject to §1.168(i)-8T(f)(2)(iii) or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(g)(2)(iii) (September 19, 2013) as applicable, (disposed of or converted mass asset is identified by a mortality dispersion table) must be grouped into a separate multiple asset account or pool.

(d) Cross references. See §1.167(a)-7(c) for the records to be maintained by a taxpayer for each account. In addition, see §1.168(i)-1(l)(3) for the records to be maintained by a taxpayer for each general asset account.

(e) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply the provisions of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.168(i)-7T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

(4) Change in method of accounting. A change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending on or after December 30, 2003, is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. A taxpayer also may treat a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending before December 30, 2003, as a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply.

§1.168(i)-7T [Removed]

Par. 17. Section 1.168(i)-7T is removed.

Par. 18. Section 1.263(a)-0 is amended by:

1. The table of contents introductory text is revised.

2. Revising the section heading and entries to the table of contents for §§1.263(a)-1, 1.263(a)-2 and 1.263(a)-3.

3. Adding §1.263(a)-6 to the table of contents.

The revisions and additions read as follows:

§1.263(a)-0 Outline of regulations under section 263(a).

This section lists the paragraphs in §§1.263(a)-1 through 1.263(a)-3 and §1.263(a)-6.

§1.263(a)-1 Capital expenditures; in general.

(a) General rule for capital expenditures.

(b) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) Definitions.

(1) Amount paid.

(2) Produce.

(d) Examples of capital expenditures.

(e) Amounts paid to sell property.

(1) In general.

(2) Dealer in property.

(3) Examples.

(f) De minimis safe harbor election.

(1) In general.

(i) Taxpayer with applicable financial statement.

(ii) Taxpayer without applicable financial statement.

(iii) Taxpayer with both an applicable financial statement and a non-qualifying financial statement.

(2) Exceptions to de minimis safe harbor.

(3) Additional rules.

(i) Transaction and other additional costs.

(ii) Materials and supplies.

(iii) Sale or disposition.

(iv) Treatment of de minimis amounts.

(v) Coordination with section 263A.

(vi) Written accounting procedures for groups of entities.

(vii) Combined expensing accounting procedures.

(4) Definition of applicable financial statement.

(5) Time and manner of making election.

(6) Anti-abuse rule.

(7) Examples.

(g) Accounting method changes.

(h) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Early application of this section.

(i) In general.

(ii) Transition rule for de minimis safe harbor election on 2012 or 2013 returns.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564.

§1.263(a)-2 Amounts paid to acquire or produce tangible property.

(a) Overview.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Amount paid.

(2) Personal property.

(3) Real property.

(4) Produce.

(c) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(1) In general.

(2) Materials and supplies.

(d) Acquired or produced tangible property.

(1) Requirement to capitalize.

(2) Examples.

(e) Defense or perfection of title to property.

(1) In general.

(2) Examples.

(f) Transaction costs.

(1) In general.

(2) Scope of facilitate.

(i) In general.

(ii) Inherently facilitative amounts.

(iii) Special rule for acquisitions of real property.

(A) In general.

(B) Acquisitions of real and personal property in a single transaction.

(iv) Employee compensation and overhead costs.

(A) In general.

(B) Election to capitalize.

(3) Treatment of transaction costs.

(i) In general.

(ii) Treatment of inherently facilitative amounts.

(iii) Contingency fees.

(4) Examples.

(g) Treatment of capital expenditures.

(h) Recovery of capitalized amounts.

(1) In general.

(2) Examples.

(i) Accounting method changes.

(j) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Early application of this section.

(i) In general.

(ii) Transition rule for election to capitalize employee compensation and overhead costs on 2012 or 2013 returns.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564.

§1.263(a)-3 Amounts paid to improve tangible property.

(a) Overview.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Amount paid.

(2) Personal property.

(3) Real property.

(4) Owner.

(c) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(1) In general.

(2) Materials and supplies.

(3) Example.

(d) Requirement to capitalize amounts paid for improvements.

(e) Determining the unit of property.

(1) In general.

(2) Building.

(i) In general.

(ii) Application of improvement rules to a building.

(A) Building structure.

(B) Building system.

(iii) Condominium.

(A) In general.

(B) Application of improvement rules to a condominium.

(iv) Cooperative.

(A) In general.

(B) Application of improvement rules to a cooperative.

(v) Leased building.

(A) In general.

(B) Application of improvement rules to a leased building.

(1) Entire building.

(2) Portion of building.

(3) Property other than a building.

(i) In general.

(ii) Plant property.

(A) Definition.

(B) Unit of property for plant property.

(iii) Network assets.

(A) Definition.

(B) Unit of property for network assets.

(iv) Leased property other than buildings.

(4) Improvements to property.

(5) Additional rules.

(i) Year placed in service.

(ii) Change in subsequent taxable year.

(6) Examples.

(f) Improvements to leased property.

(1) In general.

(2) Lessee improvements.

(i) Requirement to capitalize.

(ii) Unit of property for lessee improvements.

(3) Lessor improvements.

(i) Requirement to capitalize.

(ii) Unit of property for lessor improvements.

(4) Examples.

(g) Special rules for determining improvement costs.

(1) Certain costs incurred during an improvement.

(i) In general.

(ii) Exception for individuals’ residences.

(2) Removal costs.

(i) In general.

(ii) Examples.

(3) Related amounts.

(4) Compliance with regulatory requirements.

(h) Safe harbor for small taxpayers.

(1) In general.

(2) Application with other safe harbor provisions.

(3) Qualifying taxpayer.

(i) In general.

(ii) Application to new taxpayers.

(iii) Treatment of short taxable year.

(iv) Definition of gross receipts.

(4) Eligible building property.

(5) Unadjusted basis.

(i) Eligible building property owned by the taxpayer.

(ii) Eligible building property leased to the taxpayer.

(6) Time and manner of election.

(7) Treatment of safe harbor amounts.

(8) Safe harbor exceeded.

(9) Modification of safe harbor amounts.

(10) Examples.

(i) Safe harbor for routine maintenance.

(1) In general.

(i) Routine maintenance for buildings.

(ii) Routine maintenance for property other than buildings.

(2) Rotable and temporary spare parts.

(3) Exceptions.

(4) Class life.

(5) Coordination with section 263A.

(6) Examples.

(j) Capitalization of betterments.

(1) In general.

(2) Application of betterment rules.

(i) In general.

(ii) Application of betterment rules to buildings.

(iii) Unavailability of replacement parts.

(iv) Appropriate comparison.

(A) In general.

(B) Normal wear and tear.

(C) Damage to property.

(4) Examples.

(k) Capitalization of restorations.

(1) In general.

(2) Application of restorations to buildings.

(3) Exception for losses based on salvage value.

(4) Restoration of damage from casualty.

(i) Limitation.

(ii) Amounts in excess of limitation.

(5) Rebuild to like-new condition.

(6) Replacement of a major component or substantial structural part.

(i) In general.

(A) Major component.

(B) Substantial structural part.

(ii) Major components and substantial structural parts of buildings.

(7) Examples.

(l) Capitalization of amounts to adapt property to a new or different use.

(1) In general.

(2) Application of adaptation rule to buildings.

(3) Examples.

(m) Optional regulatory accounting method.

(1) In general.

(2) Eligibility for regulatory accounting method.

(3) Description of regulatory accounting method.

(4) Examples.

(n) Election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs.

(1) In general.

(2) Time and manner of election.

(3) Exception.

(4) Examples.

(o) Treatment of capital expenditures.

(p) Recovery of capitalized amounts.

(q) Accounting method changes.

(r) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Early application of this section.

(i) In general.

(ii) Transition rule for elections on 2012 and 2013 returns.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564.

* * * * *

§1.263(a)-6 Election to deduct or capitalize certain expenditures.

(a) In general.

(b) Election provisions.

(c) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Early application of this section.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564.

§1.263(a)-0T [Removed]

Par. 19. Section 1.263(a)-0T is removed.

Par. 20. Section 1.263(a)-1 is revised to read as follows:

§1.263(a)-1 Capital expenditures; in general.

(a) General rule for capital expenditures. Except as provided in chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, no deduction is allowed for—

(1) Any amount paid for new buildings or for permanent improvements or betterments made to increase the value of any property or estate; or

(2) Any amount paid in restoring property or in making good the exhaustion thereof for which an allowance is or has been made.

(b) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of any amount that is specifically provided for under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code or the Treasury Regulations other than section 162(a) or section 212 and the regulations under those sections. For example, see section 263A, which requires taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs to property produced by the taxpayer and property acquired for resale. See also section 195 requiring taxpayers to capitalize certain costs as start-up expenditures.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Amount paid. In the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, the terms amount paid and payment mean a liability incurred (within the meaning of §1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred.

(2) Produce means construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, create, raise, or grow. This definition is intended to have the same meaning as the definition used for purposes of section 263A(g)(1) and §1.263A-2(a)(1)(i), except that improvements are excluded from the definition in this paragraph (c)(2) and are separately defined and addressed in §1.263(a)-3.

(d) Examples of capital expenditures . The following amounts paid are examples of capital expenditures:

(1) An amount paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal tangible property. See §1.263(a)-2.

(2) An amount paid to improve a unit of real or personal tangible property. See §1.263(a)-3.

(3) An amount paid to acquire or create intangibles. See §1.263(a)-4.

(4) An amount paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in capital structure of a business entity, and certain other transactions. See §1.263(a)-5.

(5) An amount paid to acquire or create interests in land, such as easements, life estates, mineral interests, timber rights, zoning variances, or other interests in land.

(6) An amount assessed and paid under an agreement between bondholders or shareholders of a corporation to be used in a reorganization of the corporation or voluntary contributions by shareholders to the capital of the corporation for any corporate purpose. See section 118 and §1.118-1.

(7) An amount paid by a holding company to carry out a guaranty of dividends at a specified rate on the stock of a subsidiary corporation for the purpose of securing new capital for the subsidiary and increasing the value of its stockholdings in the subsidiary. This amount must be added to the cost of the stock in the subsidiary.

(e) Amounts paid to sell property—(1) In general. Commissions and other transaction costs paid to facilitate the sale of property are not currently deductible under section 162 or 212. Instead, the amounts are capitalized costs that reduce the amount realized in the taxable year in which the sale occurs or are taken into account in the taxable year in which the sale is abandoned if a deduction is permissible. These amounts are not added to the basis of the property sold or treated as an intangible asset under §1.263(a)-4. See §1.263(a)-5(g) for the treatment of amounts paid to facilitate the disposition of assets that constitute a trade or business.

(2) Dealer in property. In the case of a dealer in property, amounts paid to facilitate the sale of such property are treated as ordinary and necessary business expenses.

(3) Examples. The following examples, which assume the sale is not an installment sale under section 453, illustrate the rules of this paragraph (e):

Example 1. Sales costs of real property. A owns a parcel of real estate. A sells the real estate and pays legal fees, recording fees, and sales commissions to facilitate the sale. A must capitalize the fees and commissions and, in the taxable year of the sale, must reduce the amount realized from the sale of the real estate by the fees and commissions.

Example 2. Sales costs of dealers. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that A is a dealer in real estate. The commissions and fees paid to facilitate the sale of the real estate may be deducted as ordinary and necessary business expenses under section 162.

Example 3. Sales costs of personal property used in a trade or business. B owns a truck for use in B’s trade or business. B decides to sell the truck on November 15, Year 1. B pays for an appraisal to determine a reasonable asking price. On February 15, Year 2, B sells the truck to C. In Year 1, B must capitalize the amount paid to appraise the truck, and in Year 2, must reduce the amount realized from the sale of the truck by the amount paid for the appraisal.

Example 4. Costs of abandoned sale of personal property used in a trade or business. Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except that, instead of selling the truck on February 15, Year 2, B decides on that date not to sell the truck and takes the truck off the market. In Year 1, B must capitalize the amount paid to appraise the truck. However, B may recognize the amount paid to appraise the truck as a loss under section 165 in Year 2, the taxable year when the sale is abandoned.

Example 5. Sales costs of personal property not used in a trade or business. Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except that B does not use the truck in B’s trade or business but instead uses it for personal purposes. In Year 1, B must capitalize the amount paid to appraise the truck, and in Year 2, must reduce the amount realized from the sale of the truck by the amount paid for the appraisal.

Example 6. Costs of abandoned sale of personal property not used in a trade or business. Assume the same facts as in Example 5, except that, instead of selling the truck on February 15, Year 2, B decides on that date not to sell the truck and takes the truck off the market. In Year 1, B must capitalize the amount paid to appraise the truck. Although B abandons the sale in Year 2, B may not treat the amount paid to appraise the truck as a loss under section 165 because the truck was not used in B’s trade or business or in a transaction entered into for profit.

(f) De minimis safe harbor election—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, a taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) may not capitalize under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) or §1.263(a)-3(d) any amount paid in the taxable year for the acquisition or production of a unit of tangible property nor treat as a material or supply under §1.162-3(a) any amount paid in the taxable year for tangible property if the amount specified under this paragraph (f)(1) meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1)(i) or (f)(1)(ii) of this section. But see section 263A and the regulations under section 263A, which require taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced by the taxpayer (for example, property improved by the taxpayer) and property acquired for resale.

(i) Taxpayer with applicable financial statement. A taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor may not capitalize under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) or §1.263(a)-3(d) nor treat as a material or supply under §1.162-3(a) any amount paid in the taxable year for property described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section if—

(A) The taxpayer has an applicable financial statement (as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section);

(B) The taxpayer has at the beginning of the taxable year written accounting procedures treating as an expense for non-tax purposes—

(1) Amounts paid for property costing less than a specified dollar amount; or

(2) Amounts paid for property with an economic useful life (as defined in §1.162-3(c)(4)) of 12 months or less;

(C) The taxpayer treats the amount paid for the property as an expense on its applicable financial statement in accordance with its written accounting procedures; and

(D) The amount paid for the property does not exceed $5,000 per invoice (or per item as substantiated by the invoice) or other amount as identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(ii) Taxpayer without applicable financial statement. A taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor may not capitalize under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) or §1.263(a)-3(d) nor treat as a material or supply under §1.162-3(a) any amount paid in the taxable year for property described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section if—

(A) The taxpayer does not have an applicable financial statement (as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section);

(B) The taxpayer has at the beginning of the taxable year accounting procedures treating as an expense for non-tax purposes—

(1) Amounts paid for property costing less than a specified dollar amount; or

(2) Amounts paid for property with an economic useful life (as defined in §1.162-3(c)(4)) of 12 months or less;

(C) The taxpayer treats the amount paid for the property as an expense on its books and records in accordance with these accounting procedures; and

(D) The amount paid for the property does not exceed $500 per invoice (or per item as substantiated by the invoice) or other amount as identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(iii) Taxpayer with both an applicable financial statement and a non-qualifying financial statement. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(1), if a taxpayer has an applicable financial statement defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section in addition to a financial statement that does not meet requirements of paragraph (f)(4) of this section, the taxpayer must meet the requirements of paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section to qualify to elect the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f).

(2) Exceptions to de minimis safe harbor. The de minimis safe harbor in paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply to the following:

(i) Amounts paid for property that is or is intended to be included in inventory property;

(ii) Amounts paid for land;

(iii) Amounts paid for rotable, temporary, and standby emergency spare parts that the taxpayer elects to capitalize and depreciate under §1.162-3(d); and

(iv) Amounts paid for rotable and temporary spare parts that the taxpayer accounts for under the optional method of accounting for rotable parts pursuant to §1.162-3(e).

(3) Additional rules—(i) Transaction and other additional costs. A taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1) of this section is not required to include in the cost of the tangible property the additional costs of acquiring or producing such property if these costs are not included in the same invoice as the tangible property. However, the taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1) of this section must include in the cost of such property all additional costs (for example, delivery fees, installation services, or similar costs) if these additional costs are included on the same invoice with the tangible property. For purposes of this paragraph, if the invoice includes amounts paid for multiple tangible properties and such invoice includes additional invoice costs related to these multiple properties, then the taxpayer must allocate the additional invoice costs to each property using a reasonable method, and each property, including allocable labor and overhead, must meet the requirements of paragraph (f)(1)(i) or paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, whichever is applicable. Reasonable allocation methods include, but are not limited to specific identification, a pro rata allocation, or a weighted average method based on the property’s relative cost. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(3)(i), additional costs consist of the costs of facilitating the acquisition or production of such tangible property under §1.263(a)-2(f) and the costs for work performed prior to the date that the tangible property is placed in service under §1.263(a)-2(d).

(ii) Materials and supplies. If a taxpayer elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor provided under this paragraph (f), then the taxpayer must also apply the de minimis safe harbor to amounts paid for all materials and supplies (as defined under §1.162-3) that meet the requirements of §1.263(a)-1(f). See paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section for treatment of materials and supplies under the de minimis safe harbor.

(iii) Sale or disposition. Property to which a taxpayer applies the de minimis safe harbor contained in this paragraph (f) is not treated upon sale or other disposition as a capital asset under section 1221 or as property used in the trade or business under section 1231.

(iv) Treatment of de minimis amounts. An amount paid for property to which a taxpayer properly applies the de minimis safe harbor contained in this paragraph (f) is not treated as a capital expenditure under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) or §1.263(a)-3(d) or as a material and supply under §1.162-3, and may be deducted under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amount is paid provided the amount otherwise constitutes an ordinary and necessary expense incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

(v) Coordination with section 263A. Amounts paid for tangible property described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if the amounts paid for tangible property comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of other property produced by the taxpayer or property acquired for resale. See, for example, §1.263A-1(e)(3)(ii)(R) requiring taxpayers to capitalize the cost of tools and equipment allocable to property produced or property acquired for resale.

(vi) Written accounting procedures for groups of entities. If the taxpayer’s financial results are reported on the applicable financial statement (as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section) for a group of entities then, for purposes of paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A) of this section, the group’s applicable financial statement may be treated as the applicable financial statement of the taxpayer, and for purposes of paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B) and (f)(1)(i)(C) of this section, the written accounting procedures provided for the group and utilized for the group’s applicable financial statement may be treated as the written accounting procedures of the taxpayer.

(vii) Combined expensing accounting procedures. For purposes of paragraphs (f)(1)(i) and (f)(1)(ii) of this section, if the taxpayer has, at the beginning of the taxable year accounting procedures treating as an expense for non-tax purposes (1) amounts paid for property costing less than a specified dollar amount; and (2) amounts paid for property with an economic useful life (as defined in §1.162-3(c)(4)) of 12 months or less, then a taxpayer electing to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) must apply the provisions of this paragraph (f) to amounts qualifying under either accounting procedure.

(4) Definition of applicable financial statement. For purposes of this paragraph (f), the taxpayer’s applicable financial statement (AFS) is the taxpayer’s financial statement listed in paragraphs (f)(4)(i) through (iii) of this section that has the highest priority (including within paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section). The financial statements are, in descending priority—

(i) A financial statement required to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (the 10-K or the Annual Statement to Shareholders);

(ii) A certified audited financial statement that is accompanied by the report of an independent certified public accountant (or in the case of a foreign entity, by the report of a similarly qualified independent professional) that is used for—

(A) Credit purposes;

(B) Reporting to shareholders, partners, or similar persons; or

(C) Any other substantial non-tax purpose; or

(iii) A financial statement (other than a tax return) required to be provided to the federal or a state government or any federal or state agency (other than the SEC or the Internal Revenue Service).

(5) Time and manner of election. A taxpayer that makes the election under this paragraph (f) must make the election for all amounts paid during the taxable year for property described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section and meeting the requirements of paragraph (f)(1)(i) or paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, as applicable. A taxpayer makes the election by attaching a statement to the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year in which these amounts are paid. See §§301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. The statement must be titled “Section 1.263(a)-1(f) de minimis safe harbor election” and include the taxpayer’s name, address, taxpayer identification number, and a statement that the taxpayer is making the de minimis safe harbor election under §1.263(a)-1(f). In the case of a consolidated group filing a consolidated income tax return, the election is made for each member of the consolidated group by the common parent, and the statement must also include the names and taxpayer identification numbers of each member for which the election is made. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or the partnership and not by the shareholders or partners. An election may not be made through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to make a late election, by filing an amended Federal tax return. A taxpayer may not revoke an election made under this paragraph (f). The manner of electing the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(6) Anti-abuse rule. If a taxpayer acts to manipulate transactions with the intent to achieve a tax benefit or to avoid the application of the limitations provided under paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B)(1), (f)(1)(i)(D), (f)(1)(ii)(B)(1), and (f)(1)(ii)(D) of this section, appropriate adjustments will be made to carry out the purposes of this section. For example, a taxpayer is deemed to act to manipulate transactions with an intent to avoid the purposes and requirements of this section if—

(i) The taxpayer applies the de minimis safe harbor to amounts substantiated with invoices created to componentize property that is generally acquired or produced by the taxpayer (or other taxpayers in the same or similar trade or business) as a single unit of tangible property; and

(ii) This property, if treated as a single unit, would exceed any of the limitations provided under paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B)(1), (f)(1)(i)(D), (f)(1)(ii)(B)(1), and (f)(1)(ii)(D) of this section, as applicable.

(7) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (f). Unless otherwise provided, assume that section 263A does not apply to the amounts described.

Example 1. De minimis safe harbor; taxpayer without AFS. In Year 1, A purchases 10 printers at $250 each for a total cost of $2,500 as indicated by the invoice. Assume that each printer is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). A does not have an AFS. A has accounting procedures in place at the beginning of Year 1 to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $500, and A treats the amounts paid for the printers as an expense on its books and records. The amounts paid for the printers meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section. If A elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) in Year 1, A may not capitalize the amounts paid for the 10 printers or any other amounts meeting the criteria for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1). Instead, in accordance with paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section, A may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 2. De minimis safe harbor; taxpayer without AFS. In Year 1, B purchases 10 computers at $600 each for a total cost of $6,000 as indicated by the invoice. Assume that each computer is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). B does not have an AFS. B has accounting procedures in place at the beginning of Year 1 to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $1,000 and B treats the amounts paid for the computers as an expense on its books and records. The amounts paid for the printers do not meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section because the amount paid for the property exceeds $500 per invoice (or per item as substantiated by the invoice). B may not apply the de minimis safe harbor election to the amounts paid for the 10 computers under paragraph (f)(1) of this section.

Example 3. De minimis safe harbor; taxpayer with AFS. C is a member of a consolidated group for Federal income tax purposes. C’s financial results are reported on the consolidated applicable financial statements for the affiliated group. C’s affiliated group has a written accounting policy at the beginning of Year 1, which is followed by C, to expense amounts paid for property costing $5,000 or less. In Year 1, C pays $6,250,000 to purchase 1,250 computers at $5,000 each. C receives an invoice from its supplier indicating the total amount due ($6,250,000) and the price per item ($5,000). Assume that each computer is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). The amounts paid for the computers meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section. If C elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) for Year 1, C may not capitalize the amounts paid for the 1,250 computers or any other amounts meeting the criteria for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Instead, in accordance with paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section, C may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 4. De minimis safe harbor; taxpayer with AFS. D is a member of a consolidated group for Federal income tax purposes. D’s financial results are reported on the consolidated applicable financial statements for the affiliated group. D’s affiliated group has a written accounting policy at the beginning of Year 1, which is followed by D, to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $15,000. In Year 1, D pays $4,800,000 to purchase 800 elliptical machines at $6,000 each. D receives an invoice from its supplier indicating the total amount due ($4,800,000) and the price per item ($6,000). Assume that each elliptical machine is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). D may not apply the de minimis safe harbor election to the amounts paid for the 800 elliptical machines under paragraph (f)(1) of this section because the amount paid for the property exceeds $5,000 per invoice (or per item as substantiated by the invoice).

Example 5. De minimis safe harbor; additional invoice costs. E is a member of a consolidated group for Federal income tax purposes. E’s financial results are reported on the consolidated applicable financial statements for the affiliated group. E’s affiliated group has a written accounting policy at the beginning of Year 1, which is followed by E, to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $5,000. In Year 1, E pays $45,000 for the purchase and installation of wireless routers in each of its 10 office locations. Assume that each wireless router is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). E receives an invoice from its supplier indicating the total amount due ($45,000), including the material price per item ($2,500), and total delivery and installation ($20,000). E allocates the additional invoice costs to the materials on a pro rata basis, bringing the cost of each router to $4,500 ($2,500 materials + $2,000 labor and overhead). The amounts paid for each router, including the allocable additional invoice costs, meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section. If E elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) for Year 1, E may not capitalize the amounts paid for the 10 routers (including the additional invoice costs) or any other amounts meeting the criteria for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Instead, in accordance with paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section, E may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 6. De minimis safe harbor; non-invoice additional costs. F is a corporation that provides consulting services to its customer. F does not have an AFS, but F has accounting procedures in place at the beginning of Year 1 to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $500. In Year 1, F pays $600 to an interior designer to shop for, evaluate, and make recommendations regarding purchasing new furniture for F’s conference room. As a result of the interior designer’s recommendations, F acquires a conference table for $500 and 10 chairs for $300 each. In Year 1, F receives an invoice from the interior designer for $600 for his services, and F receives a separate invoice from the furniture supplier indicating a total amount due of $500 for the table and $300 for each chair. For Year 1, F treats the amount paid for the table and each chair as an expense on its books and records, and F elects to use the de minimis safe harbor for amounts paid for tangible property that qualify under the safe harbor. The amount paid to the interior designer is a cost of facilitating the acquisition of the table and chairs under §1.263(a)-2(f). Under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section, F is not required to include in the cost of tangible property the additional costs of acquiring such property if these costs are not included in the same invoice as the tangible property. Thus, F is not required to include a pro rata allocation of the amount paid to the interior designer to determine the application of the de minimis safe harbor to the table and the chairs. Accordingly, the amounts paid by F for the table and each chair meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, and F may not capitalize the amounts paid for the table or each chair under paragraph (f)(1) of this section. In addition, F is not required to capitalize the amounts paid to the interior designer as a cost that facilitates the acquisition of tangible property under §1.263(a)-2(f)(3)(i). Instead, F may deduct the amounts paid for the table, chairs, and interior designer under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 7. De minimis safe harbor; 12-month economic useful life. G operates a restaurant. In Year 1, G purchases 10 hand-held point-of-service devices at $300 each for a total cost of $3,000 as indicated by invoice. G also purchases 3 tablet computers at $500 each for a total cost of $1,500 as indicated by invoice. Assume each point-of-service device and each tablet computer has an economic useful life of 12 months or less, beginning when they are used in G’s business. Assume that each device and each tablet is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). G does not have an AFS, but G has accounting procedures in place at the beginning of Year 1 to expense amounts paid for property costing $300 or less and to expense amounts paid for property with an economic useful life of 12 months or less. Thus, G expenses the amounts paid for the hand-held devices on its books and records because each device costs $300. G also expenses the amounts paid for the tablet computers on its books and records because the computers have an economic useful life of 12 months of less, beginning when they are used. The amounts paid for the hand-held devices and the tablet computers meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section. If G elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) in Year 1, G may not capitalize the amounts paid for the hand-held devices, the tablet computers, or any other amounts meeting the criteria for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Instead, in accordance with paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section, G may deduct the amounts paid for the hand-held devices and tablet computers under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary business expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 8. De minimis safe harbor; limitation. Assume the facts as in Example 7, except G purchases the 3 tablet computers at $600 each for a total cost of $1,800. The amounts paid for the tablet computers do not meet the de minimis rule safe harbor under paragraphs (f)(1)(ii) and (f)(3)(vii) of this section because the cost of each computer exceeds $500. Therefore, the amounts paid for the tablet computers may not be deducted under the safe harbor.

Example 9. De minimis safe harbor; materials and supplies. H is a corporation that provides consulting services to its customers. H has an AFS and a written accounting policy at the beginning of the taxable year to expense amounts paid for property costing $5,000 or less. In Year 1, H purchases 1,000 computers at $500 each for a total cost of $500,000. Assume that each computer is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and is not a material or supply under §1.162-3. In addition, H purchases 200 office chairs at $100 each for a total cost of $20,000 and 250 customized briefcases at $80 each for a total cost of $20,000. Assume that each office chair and each briefcase is a material or supply under §1.162-3(c)(1). H treats the amounts paid for the computers, office chairs, and briefcases as expenses on its AFS. The amounts paid for computers, office chairs, and briefcases meet the requirements for the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section. If H elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under this paragraph (f) in Year 1, H may not capitalize the amounts paid for the 1,000 computers, the 200 office chairs, and the 250 briefcases under paragraph (f)(1) of this section. H may deduct the amounts paid for the computers, the office chairs, and the briefcases under §1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid provided the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business.

Example 10. De minimis safe harbor; coordination with section 263A. J is a member of a consolidated group for Federal income tax purposes. J’s financial results are reported on the consolidated AFS for the affiliated group. J’s affiliated group has a written accounting policy at the beginning of Year 1, which is followed by J, to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $1,000 or that has an economic useful life of 12 months or less. In Year 1, J acquires jigs, dies, molds, and patterns for use in the manufacture of J’s products. Assume each jig, die, mold, and pattern is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and costs less than $1,000. In Year 1, J begins using the jigs, dies, molds and patterns to manufacture its products. Assume these items are materials and supplies under §1.162-3(c)(1)(iii), and J elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section to amounts qualifying under the safe harbor in Year 1. Under paragraph (f)(3)(v) of this section, the amounts paid for the jigs, dies, molds, and patterns may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if the amounts paid for these tangible properties comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of other property produced by the taxpayer or property acquired for resale.

Example 11. De minimis safe harbor; anti-abuse rule. K is a corporation that provides hauling services to its customers. In Year 1, K decides to purchase a truck to use in its business. K does not have an AFS. K has accounting procedures in place at the beginning of Year 1 to expense amounts paid for property costing less than $500. K arranges to purchase a used truck for a total of $1,500. Prior to the acquisition, K requests the seller to provide multiple invoices for different parts of the truck. Accordingly, the seller provides K with four invoices during Year 1—one invoice of $500 for the cab, one invoice of $500 for the engine, one invoice of $300 for the trailer, and a fourth invoice of $200 for the tires. K treats the amounts paid under each invoice as an expense on its books and records. K elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f) of this section in Year 1 and does not capitalize the amounts paid for each invoice pursuant to the safe harbor. Under paragraph (f)(6) of this section, K has applied the de minimis rule to amounts substantiated with invoices created to componentize property that is generally acquired as a single unit of tangible property in the taxpayer’s type of business, and this property, if treated as single unit, would exceed the limitations provided under the de minimis rule. Accordingly, K is deemed to manipulate the transaction to acquire the truck with the intent to avoid the purposes of this paragraph (f). As a result, K may not apply the de minimis rule to these amounts and is subject to appropriate adjustments.

(g) Accounting method changes. Except for paragraph (f) of this section (the de minimis safe harbor election), a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method.

(h) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. Except for paragraph (f) of this section, this section generally applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Paragraph (f) of this section applies to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(1) and paragraph (h)(2) of this section, §1.263(a)-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section—(i) In general. Except for paragraph (f) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to apply this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (f) of this section to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(ii) Transition rule for de minimis safe harbor election on 2012 or 2013 returns. If under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to make the election to apply the de minimis safe harbor under paragraph (f) of this section for amounts paid in its taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (f)(5) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (f)(5) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing an amended Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263(a)-1T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.263(a)-1T [Removed]

Par. 21. Section 1.263(a)-1T is removed.

Par. 22. Section 1.263(a)-2 is revised to read as follows:

§1.263(a)-2 Amounts paid to acquire or produce tangible property.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules for applying section 263(a) to amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property. Paragraph (b) of this section contains definitions. Paragraph (c) of this section contains the rules for coordinating this section with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Paragraph (d) of this section provides the general requirement to capitalize amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property. Paragraph (e) of this section provides the requirement to capitalize amounts paid to defend or perfect title to real or personal property. Paragraph (f) of this section provides the rules for determining the extent to which taxpayers must capitalize transaction costs related to the acquisition of tangible property. Paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section address the treatment and recovery of capital expenditures. Paragraph (i) of this section provides for changes in methods of accounting to comply with this section, and paragraph (j) of this section provides the effective and applicability dates for the rules under this section.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Amount paid. In the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, the terms amount paid and payment mean a liability incurred (within the meaning of §1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred.

(2) Personal property means tangible personal property as defined in §1.48-1(c).

(3) Real property means land and improvements thereto, such as buildings or other inherently permanent structures (including items that are structural components of the buildings or structures) that are not personal property as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Any property that constitutes other tangible property under §1.48-1(d) is treated as real property for purposes of this section. Local law is not controlling in determining whether property is real property for purposes of this section.

(4) Produce means construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, create, raise, or grow. This definition is intended to have the same meaning as the definition used for purposes of section 263A(g)(1) and §1.263A-2(a)(1)(i), except that improvements are excluded from the definition in this paragraph (b)(4) and are separately defined and addressed in §1.263(a)-3.

(c) Coordination with other provisions of the Code—(1) In general. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of any amount that is specifically provided for under any provision of the Code or the Treasury Regulations other than section 162(a) or section 212 and the regulations under those sections. For example, see section 263A requiring taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced by the taxpayer and property acquired for resale. See also section 195 requiring taxpayers to capitalize certain costs as start-up expenditures.

(2) Materials and supplies. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of amounts paid to acquire or produce property that is properly treated as materials and supplies under §1.162-3.

(d) Acquired or produced tangible property—(1) Requirement to capitalize. Except as provided in §1.162-3 (relating to materials and supplies) and in §1.263(a)-1(f) (providing a de minimis safe harbor election), a taxpayer must capitalize amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property (as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)), including leasehold improvements, land and land improvements, buildings, machinery and equipment, and furniture and fixtures. See §1.263(a)-3(f) for the rules for determining whether amounts are for leasehold improvements. Amounts paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property include the invoice price, transaction costs as determined under paragraph (f) of this section, and costs for work performed prior to the date that the unit of property is placed in service by the taxpayer (without regard to any applicable convention under section 168(d)). A taxpayer also must capitalize amounts paid to acquire real or personal property for resale.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (d). Unless otherwise provided, assume that the taxpayer does not elect the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) and that the property is not acquired for resale under section 263A.

Example 1. Acquisition of personal property. A purchases new cash registers for use in its retail store located in leased space in a shopping mall. Assume each cash register is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e) and is not a material or supply under §1.162-3. A must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amount paid to acquire each cash register.

Example 2. Acquisition of personal property that is a material or supply; coordination with §1.162-3. B operates a fleet of aircraft. In Year 1, B acquires a stock of component parts, which it intends to use to maintain and repair its aircraft. Assume that each component part is a material or supply under §1.162-3(c)(1) and B does not make elections under §1.162-3(d) to treat the materials and supplies as capital expenditures. In Year 2, B uses the component parts in the repair and maintenance of its aircraft. Because the parts are materials and supplies under §1.162-3, B is not required to capitalize the amounts paid for the parts under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Rather, to determine the treatment of these amounts, B must apply the rules under §1.162-3, governing the treatment of materials and supplies.

Example 3. Acquisition of unit of personal property; coordination with §1.162-3. C operates a rental business that rents out a variety of small individual items to customers (rental items). C maintains a supply of rental items on hand to replace worn or damaged items. C purchases a large quantity of rental items to be used in its business. Assume that each of these rental items is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e). Also assume that a portion of the rental items are materials and supplies under §1.162-3(c)(1). Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, C must capitalize the amounts paid for the rental items that are not materials and supplies under §1.162-3(c)(1). However, C must apply the rules in §1.162-3 to determine the treatment of the rental items that are materials and supplies under §1.162-3(c)(1).

Example 4. Acquisition or production cost. D purchases and produces jigs, dies, molds, and patterns for use in the manufacture of D’s products. Assume that each of these items is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e) and is not a material and supply under §1.162-3(c)(1). D is required to capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amounts paid to acquire and produce the jigs, dies, molds, and patterns.

Example 5. Acquisition of land. F purchases a parcel of undeveloped real estate. F must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amount paid to acquire the real estate. See paragraph (f) of this section for the treatment of amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of real property.

Example 6. Acquisition of building. G purchases a building. G must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amount paid to acquire the building. See paragraph (f) of this section for the treatment of amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of real property.

Example 7. Acquisition of property for resale and production of property for sale; coordination with section 263A. H purchases goods for resale and produces other goods for sale. H must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amounts paid to acquire and produce the goods. See section 263A for the amounts required to be capitalized to the property produced or to the property acquired for resale.

Example 8. Production of building; coordination with section 263A. J constructs a building. J must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amount paid to construct the building. See section 263A for the costs required to be capitalized to the real property produced by J.

Example 9. Acquisition of assets constituting a trade or business. K owns tangible and intangible assets that constitute a trade or business. L purchases all the assets of K in a taxable transaction. L must capitalize under paragraph (d)(1) of this section the amount paid for the tangible assets of K. See §1.263(a)-4 for the treatment of amounts paid to acquire or create intangibles and §1.263(a)-5 for the treatment of amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business. See section 1060 for special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions.

Example 10. Work performed prior to placing the property in service. In Year 1, M purchases a building for use as a business office. Prior to placing the building in service, M pays amounts to repair cement steps, refinish wood floors, patch holes in walls, and paint the interiors and exteriors of the building. In Year 2, M places the building in service and begins using the building as its business office. Assume that the work that M performs does not constitute an improvement to the building or its structural components under §1.263(a)-3. Under §1.263-3(e)(2)(i), the building and its structural components is a single unit of property. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amounts paid must be capitalized as amounts to acquire the building unit of property because they were for work performed prior to M’s placing the building in service.

Example 11. Work performed prior to placing the property in service. In January Year 1, N purchases a new machine for use in an existing production line of its manufacturing business. Assume that the machine is a unit of property under §1.263(a)-3(e) and is not a material or supply under §1.162-3. N pays amounts to install the machine, and after the machine is installed, N pays amounts to perform a critical test on the machine to ensure that it will operate in accordance with quality standards. On November 1, Year 1, the critical test is complete, and N places the machine in service on the production line. N pays amounts to perform periodic quality control testing after the machine is placed in service. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the installation and the critical test performed before the machine is placed in service must be capitalized by N as amounts to acquire the machine. However, amounts paid for periodic quality control testing after N placed the machine in service are not required to be capitalized as amounts paid to acquire the machine.

(e) Defense or perfection of title to property—(1) In general. Amounts paid to defend or perfect title to real or personal property are amounts paid to acquire or produce property within the meaning of this section and must be capitalized.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rule of this paragraph (e):

Example 1. Amounts paid to contest condemnation. X owns real property located in County. County files an eminent domain complaint condemning a portion of X’s property to use as a roadway. X hires an attorney to contest the condemnation. The amounts that X paid to the attorney must be capitalized because they were to defend X’s title to the property.

Example 2. Amounts paid to invalidate ordinance. Y is in the business of quarrying and supplying for sale sand and stone in a certain municipality. Several years after Y establishes its business, the municipality in which it is located passes an ordinance that prohibits the operation of Y’s business. Y incurs attorney’s fees in a successful prosecution of a suit to invalidate the municipal ordinance. Y prosecutes the suit to preserve its business activities and not to defend Y’s title in the property. Therefore, the attorney’s fees that Y paid are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

Example 3. Amounts paid to challenge building line. The board of public works of a municipality establishes a building line across Z’s business property, adversely affecting the value of the property. Z incurs legal fees in unsuccessfully litigating the establishment of the building line. The amounts Z paid to the attorney must be capitalized because they were to defend Z’s title to the property.

(f) Transaction costs—(1) In general. Except as provided in §1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(i) (for purposes of the de minimis safe harbor), a taxpayer must capitalize amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of real or personal property. See §1.263(a)-5 for the treatment of amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business. See §1.167(a)-5 for allocations of facilitative costs between depreciable and non-depreciable property.

(2) Scope of facilitate—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an amount is paid to facilitate the acquisition of real or personal property if the amount is paid in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition. Whether an amount is paid in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition is determined based on all of the facts and circumstances. In determining whether an amount is paid to facilitate an acquisition, the fact that the amount would (or would not) have been paid but for the acquisition is relevant but is not determinative. Amounts paid to facilitate an acquisition include, but are not limited to, inherently facilitative amounts specified in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Inherently facilitative amounts. An amount is paid in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition of real or personal property if the amount is inherently facilitative. An amount is inherently facilitative if the amount is paid for—

(A) Transporting the property (for example, shipping fees and moving costs);

(B) Securing an appraisal or determining the value or price of property;

(C) Negotiating the terms or structure of the acquisition and obtaining tax advice on the acquisition;

(D) Application fees, bidding costs, or similar expenses;

(E) Preparing and reviewing the documents that effectuate the acquisition of the property (for example, preparing the bid, offer, sales contract, or purchase agreement);

(F) Examining and evaluating the title of property;

(G) Obtaining regulatory approval of the acquisition or securing permits related to the acquisition, including application fees;

(H) Conveying property between the parties, including sales and transfer taxes, and title registration costs;

(I) Finders’ fees or brokers’ commissions, including contingency fees (defined in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section);

(J) Architectural, geological, survey, engineering, environmental, or inspection services pertaining to particular properties; or

(K) Services provided by a qualified intermediary or other facilitator of an exchange under section 1031.

(iii) Special rule for acquisitions of real property—(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section (relating to inherently facilitative amounts), an amount paid by the taxpayer in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition of real property does not facilitate the acquisition if it relates to activities performed in the process of determining whether to acquire real property and which real property to acquire.

(B) Acquisitions of real and personal property in a single transaction. An amount paid by the taxpayer in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition of personal property facilitates the acquisition of such personal property, even if such property is acquired in a single transaction that also includes the acquisition of real property subject to the special rule set out in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section. A taxpayer may use a reasonable allocation method to determine which costs facilitate the acquisition of personal property and which costs relate to the acquisition of real property and are subject to the special rule of paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section.

(iv) Employee compensation and overhead costs—(A) In general. For purposes of paragraph (f) of this section, amounts paid for employee compensation (within the meaning of §1.263(a)-4(e)(4)(ii)) and overhead are treated as amounts that do not facilitate the acquisition of real or personal property. See section 263A, however, for the treatment of employee compensation and overhead costs required to be capitalized to property produced by the taxpayer or to property acquired for resale.

(B) Election to capitalize. A taxpayer may elect to treat amounts paid for employee compensation or overhead as amounts that facilitate the acquisition of property. The election is made separately for each acquisition and applies to employee compensation or overhead, or both. For example, a taxpayer may elect to treat overhead, but not employee compensation, as amounts that facilitate the acquisition of property. A taxpayer makes the election by treating the amounts to which the election applies as amounts that facilitate the acquisition in the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year during which the amounts are paid. See §§301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or by the partnership, and not by the shareholders or partners. A taxpayer may revoke an election made under this paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) with respect to each acquisition only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of Government. See generally §301.9100-3 of this chapter. The manner of electing and revoking the election to capitalize under this paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§606.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this section). An election may not be made or revoked through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to make the late election or to revoke the election, by filing an amended Federal tax return.

(3) Treatment of transaction costs—(i) In general. Except as provided under §1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(i) (for purposes of the de minimis safe harbor), all amounts paid to facilitate the acquisition of real or personal property are capital expenditures. Facilitative amounts allocable to real or personal property must be included in the basis of the property acquired.

(ii) Treatment of inherently facilitative amounts. Inherently facilitative amounts allocable to real or personal property are capital expenditures related to such property, even if the property is not eventually acquired. Except for contingency fees as defined in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, inherently facilitative amounts allocable to real or personal property not acquired may be allocated to those properties and recovered as appropriate in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Code and the Treasury Regulations (for example, sections 165, 167, or 168). See paragraph (h) of this section for the recovery of capitalized amounts.

(iii) Contingency Fees. For purposes of this section, a contingency fee is an amount paid that is contingent on the successful closing of the acquisition of real or personal property. Contingency fees must be included in the basis of the property acquired and may not be allocated to the property not acquired.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (f) of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume that the taxpayer does not elect the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f):

Example 1. Broker’s fees to facilitate an acquisition. A decides to purchase a building in which to relocate its offices and hires a real estate broker to find a suitable building. A pays fees to the broker to find property for A to acquire. Under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(I) of this section, A must capitalize the amounts paid to the broker because these costs are inherently facilitative of the acquisition of real property.

Example 2. Inspection and survey costs to facilitate an acquisition. B decides to purchase Building X and pays amounts to third-party contractors for a termite inspection and an environmental survey of Building X. Under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(J) of this section, B must capitalize the amounts paid for the inspection and the survey of the building because these costs are inherently facilitative of the acquisition of real property.

Example 3. Moving costs to facilitate an acquisition. C purchases all the assets of D and, in connection with the purchase, hires a transportation company to move storage tanks from D’s plant to C’s plant. Under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, C must capitalize the amount paid to move the storage tanks from D’s plant to C’s plant because this cost is inherently facilitative to the acquisition of personal property.

Example 4. Geological and geophysical costs; coordination with other provisions. E is in the business of exploring, purchasing, and developing properties in the United States for the production of oil and gas. E considers acquiring a particular property but first incurs costs for the services of an engineering firm to perform geological and geophysical studies to determine if the property is suitable for oil or gas production. Assume that the amounts that E paid to the engineering firm constitute geological and geophysical expenditures under section 167(h). Although the amounts that E paid for the geological and geophysical services are inherently facilitative to the acquisition of real property under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(J) of this section, E is not required to include those amounts in the basis of the real property acquired. Rather, under paragraph (c) of this section, E must capitalize these costs separately and amortize such costs as required under section 167(h) (addressing the amortization of geological and geophysical expenditures).

Example 5. Scope of facilitate. F is in the business of providing legal services to clients. F is interested in acquiring a new conference table for its office. F hires and incurs fees for an interior designer to shop for, evaluate, and make recommendations to F regarding which new table to acquire. Under paragraphs (f)(1) and (2) of this section, F must capitalize the amounts paid to the interior designer to provide these services because they are paid in the process of investigating or otherwise pursuing the acquisition of personal property.

Example 6. Transaction costs allocable to multiple properties. G, a retailer, wants to acquire land for the purpose of building a new distribution facility for its products. G considers various properties on Highway X in State Y. G incurs fees for the services of an architect to advise and evaluate the suitability of the sites for the type of facility that G intends to construct on the selected site. G must capitalize the architect fees as amounts paid to acquire land because these amounts are inherently facilitative to the acquisition of land under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(J) of this section.

Example 7. Transaction costs; coordination with section 263A. H, a retailer, wants to acquire land for the purpose of building a new distribution facility for its products. H considers various properties on Highway X in State Y. H incurs fees for the services of an architect to prepare preliminary floor plans for a building that H could construct at any of the sites. Under these facts, the architect’s fees are not facilitative to the acquisition of land under paragraph (f) of this section. Therefore, H is not required to capitalize the architect fees as amounts paid to acquire land. However, the amounts paid for the architect’s fees may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect cost of property produced by H, such as the building.

Example 8. Special rule for acquisitions of real property. J owns several retail stores. J decides to examine the feasibility of opening a new store in City X. In October, Year 1, J hires and incurs costs for a development consulting firm to study City X and perform market surveys, evaluate zoning and environmental requirements, and make preliminary reports and recommendations as to areas that J should consider for purposes of locating a new store. In December, Year 1, J continues to consider whether to purchase real property in City X and which property to acquire. J hires, and incurs fees for, an appraiser to perform appraisals on two different sites to determine a fair offering price for each site. In March, Year 2, J decides to acquire one of these two sites for the location of its new store. At the same time, J determines not to acquire the other site. Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, J is not required to capitalize amounts paid to the development consultant in Year 1 because the amounts relate to activities performed in the process of determining whether to acquire real property and which real property to acquire, and the amounts are not inherently facilitative costs under paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section. However, J must capitalize amounts paid to the appraiser in Year 1 because the appraisal costs are inherently facilitative costs under paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. In Year 2, J must include the appraisal costs allocable to property acquired in the basis of the property acquired. In addition, J may recover the appraisal costs allocable to the property not acquired in accordance with paragraphs (f)(3)(ii) and (h) of this section. See, for example, §1.165-2 for losses on the permanent withdrawal of non-depreciable property.

Example 9. Contingency fee. K owns several restaurant properties. K decides to open a new restaurant in City X. In October, Year 1, K hires a real estate consultant to identify potential property upon which K may locate its restaurant, and is obligated to compensate the consultant upon the acquisition of property. The real estate consultant identifies three properties, and K decides to acquire one of those properties. Upon closing of the acquisition of that property, K pays the consultant its fee. The amount paid to the consultant constitutes a contingency fee under paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section because the payment is contingent on the successful closing of the acquisition of property. Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, K must include the amount paid to the consultant in the basis of the property acquired. K is not permitted to allocate the amount paid between the properties acquired and not acquired.

Example 10. Employee compensation and overhead. L, a freight carrier, maintains an acquisition department whose sole function is to arrange for the purchase of vehicles and aircraft from manufacturers or other parties to be used in its freight carrying business. As provided in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(A) of this section, L is not required to capitalize any portion of the compensation paid to employees in its acquisition department or any portion of its overhead allocable to its acquisition department. However, under paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, L may elect to capitalize the compensation and/or overhead costs allocable to the acquisition of a vehicle or aircraft by treating these amounts as costs that facilitate the acquisition of that property in its timely filed original Federal tax return for the year the amounts are paid.

(g) Treatment of capital expenditures. Amounts required to be capitalized under this section are capital expenditures and must be taken into account through a charge to capital account or basis, or in the case of property that is inventory in the hands of a taxpayer, through inclusion in inventory costs.

(h) Recovery of capitalized amounts—(1) In general. Amounts that are capitalized under this section are recovered through depreciation, cost of goods sold, or by an adjustment to basis at the time the property is placed in service, sold, used, or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer. Cost recovery is determined by the applicable provisions of the Code and regulations relating to the use, sale, or disposition of property.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rule of paragraph (h)(1) of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume that the taxpayer does not elect the de minimis safe harbor under section §1.263(a)-1(f).

Example 1. Recovery when property placed in service. X owns a 10-unit apartment building. The refrigerator in one of the apartments stops functioning, and X purchases a new refrigerator to replace the old one. X pays for the acquisition, delivery, and installation of the new refrigerator. Assume that the refrigerator is the unit of property, as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e), and is not a material or supply under §1.162-3. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, X is required to capitalize the amounts paid for the acquisition, delivery, and installation of the refrigerator. Under this paragraph (h), the capitalized amounts are recovered through depreciation, which begins when the refrigerator is placed in service by X.

Example 2. Recovery when property used in the production of property. Y operates a plant where it manufactures widgets. Y purchases a tractor loader to move raw materials into and around the plant for use in the manufacturing process. Assume that the tractor loader is a unit of property, as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e), and is not a material or supply under §1.162-3. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, Y is required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire the tractor loader. Under this paragraph (h), the capitalized amounts are recovered through depreciation, which begins when Y places the tractor loader in service. However, because the tractor loader is used in the production of property, under section 263A the cost recovery (that is, the depreciation) may also be capitalized to Y’s property produced, and, consequently, recovered through cost of goods sold. See §1.263A-1(e)(3)(ii)(I).

(i) Accounting method changes. Unless otherwise provided under this section, a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method.

(j) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. Except for paragraphs (f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), and (f)(3)(ii) of this section, this section generally applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Paragraphs (f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), and (f)(3)(ii) of this section apply to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section, §1.263(a)-2 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section—(i) In general. Except for paragraphs (f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), and (f)(3)(ii) of this section of this section, a taxpayer may choose to apply this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraphs (f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), and (f)(3)(ii) of this section to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(ii) Transition rule for election to capitalize employee compensation and overhead costs on 2012 or 2013 returns. If under paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to make the election to capitalize employee compensation and overhead costs under paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section for amounts paid in its taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing an amended Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. Except for §1.263(a)-2T(f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), (f)(3)(ii), and (g), a taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263(a)-2T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263(a)-2T(f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(iv), (f)(3)(ii) and (g) as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.263(a)-2T [Removed]

Par. 23. Section 1.263(a)-2T is removed.

Par. 24. Section 1.263(a)-3 is revised to read as follows:

§1.263(a)-3 Amounts paid to improve tangible property.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules for applying section 263(a) to amounts paid to improve tangible property. Paragraph (b) of this section provides definitions. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for coordinating this section with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Paragraph (d) of this section provides the requirement to capitalize amounts paid to improve tangible property and provides the general rules for determining whether a unit of property is improved. Paragraph (e) of this section provides the rules for determining the appropriate unit of property. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for leasehold improvements. Paragraph (g) of this section provides special rules for determining improvement costs in particular contexts, including indirect costs incurred during an improvement, removal costs, aggregation of related costs, and regulatory compliance costs. Paragraph (h) of this section provides a safe harbor for small taxpayers. Paragraph (i) provides a safe harbor for routine maintenance costs. Paragraph (j) of this section provides rules for determining whether amounts are paid for betterments to the unit of property. Paragraph (k) of this section provides rules for determining whether amounts are paid to restore the unit of property. Paragraph (l) of this section provides rules for amounts paid to adapt the unit of property to a new or different use. Paragraph (m) of this section provides an optional regulatory accounting method. Paragraph (n) of this section provides an election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs consistent with books and records. Paragraphs (o) and (p) of this section provide for the treatment and recovery of amounts capitalized under this section. Paragraphs (q) and (r) of this section provide for accounting method changes and state the effective/applicability date for the rules in this section.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Amount paid. In the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, the terms amounts paid and payment mean a liability incurred (within the meaning of §1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred.

(2) Personal property means tangible personal property as defined in §1.48-1(c).

(3) Real property means land and improvements thereto, such as buildings or other inherently permanent structures (including items that are structural components of the buildings or structures) that are not personal property as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Any property that constitutes other tangible property under §1.48-1(d) is also treated as real property for purposes of this section. Local law is not controlling in determining whether property is real property for purposes of this section.

(4) Owner means the taxpayer that has the benefits and burdens of ownership of the unit of property for Federal income tax purposes.

(c) Coordination with other provisions of the Code—(1) In general. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of any amount that is specifically provided for under any provision of the Code or the regulations other than section 162(a) or section 212 and the regulations under those sections. For example, see section 263A requiring taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced and property acquired for resale.

(2) Materials and supplies. A material or supply as defined in §1.162-3(c)(1) that is acquired and used to improve a unit of tangible property is subject to this section and is not treated as a material or supply under §1.162-3.

(3) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (c):

Example. Railroad rolling stock. X is a railroad that properly treats amounts paid for the rehabilitation of railroad rolling stock as deductible expenses under section 263(d). X is not required to capitalize the amounts paid because nothing in this section changes the treatment of amounts specifically provided for under section 263(d).

(d) Requirement to capitalize amounts paid for improvements. Except as provided in paragraph (h) or paragraph (n) of this section or under §1.263(a)-1(f), a taxpayer generally must capitalize the related amounts (as defined in paragraph (g)(3) of this section) paid to improve a unit of property owned by the taxpayer. However, see paragraph (f) of this section for the treatment of amounts paid to improve leased property. See section 263A for the requirement to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced by the taxpayer and property acquired for resale; section 1016 for adding capitalized amounts to the basis of the unit of property; and section 168 for the treatment of additions or improvements for depreciation purposes. For purposes of this section, a unit of property is improved if the amounts paid for activities performed after the property is placed in service by the taxpayer—

(1) Are for a betterment to the unit of property (see paragraph (j) of this section);

(2) Restore the unit of property (see paragraph (k) of this section); or

(3) Adapt the unit of property to a new or different use (see paragraph (l) of this section).

(e) Determining the unit of property—(1) In general. The unit of property rules in this paragraph (e) apply only for purposes of section 263(a) and §§1.263(a)-1, 1.263(a)-2, 1.263(a)-3, and 1.162-3. Unless otherwise specified, the unit of property determination is based upon the functional interdependence standard provided in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section. However, special rules are provided for buildings (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section), plant property (see paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section), network assets (see paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section), leased property (see paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section for leased buildings and paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section for leased property other than buildings), and improvements to property (see paragraph (e)(4) of this section). Additional rules are provided if a taxpayer has assigned different MACRS classes or depreciation methods to components of property or subsequently changes the class or depreciation method of a component or other item of property (see paragraph (e)(5) of this section). Property that is aggregated or subject to a general asset account election or accounted for in a multiple asset account (that is, pooled) may not be treated as a single unit of property.

(2) Building—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (e)(4), and (e)(5)(ii) of this section, in the case of a building (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(1)), each building and its structural components (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(2)) is a single unit of property (“building”). See paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section for condominiums, paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section for cooperatives, and paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section for leased buildings.

(ii) Application of improvement rules to a building. An amount is paid to improve a building under paragraph (d) of this section if the amount is paid for an improvement under paragraphs (j), (k), or paragraph (l) of this section to any of the following:

(A) Building structure. A building structure consists of the building (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(1)), and its structural components (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(2)), other than the structural components designated as buildings systems in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(B) Building system. Each of the following structural components (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(2)), including the components thereof, constitutes a building system that is separate from the building structure, and to which the improvement rules must be applied—

(1) Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (“HVAC”) systems (including motors, compressors, boilers, furnace, chillers, pipes, ducts, radiators);

(2) Plumbing systems (including pipes, drains, valves, sinks, bathtubs, toilets, water and sanitary sewer collection equipment, and site utility equipment used to distribute water and waste to and from the property line and between buildings and other permanent structures);

(3) Electrical systems (including wiring, outlets, junction boxes, lighting fixtures and associated connectors, and site utility equipment used to distribute electricity from the property line to and between buildings and other permanent structures);

(4) All escalators;

(5) All elevators;

(6) Fire-protection and alarm systems (including sensing devices, computer controls, sprinkler heads, sprinkler mains, associated piping or plumbing, pumps, visual and audible alarms, alarm control panels, heat and smoke detection devices, fire escapes, fire doors, emergency exit lighting and signage, and fire fighting equipment, such as extinguishers, and hoses);

(7) Security systems for the protection of the building and its occupants (including window and door locks, security cameras, recorders, monitors, motion detectors, security lighting, alarm systems, entry and access systems, related junction boxes, associated wiring and conduit);

(8) Gas distribution system (including associated pipes and equipment used to distribute gas to and from the property line and between buildings or permanent structures); and

(9) Other structural components identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) that are excepted from the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and are specifically designated as building systems under this section.

(iii) Condominium—(A) In general. In the case of a taxpayer that is the owner of an individual unit in a building with multiple units (such as a condominium), the unit of property (“condominium”) is the individual unit owned by the taxpayer and the structural components (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(2)) that are part of the unit.

(B) Application of improvement rules to a condominium. An amount is paid to improve a condominium under paragraph (d) of this section if the amount is paid for an improvement under paragraphs (j), (k), or paragraph (l) of this section to the building structure (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) that is part of the condominium or to the portion of any building system (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) that is part of the condominium. In the case of the condominium management association, the association must apply the improvement rules to the building structure or to any building system described under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(iv) Cooperative—(A) In general. In the case of a taxpayer that has an ownership interest in a cooperative housing corporation, the unit of property (“cooperative”) is the portion of the building in which the taxpayer has possessory rights and the structural components (as defined in §1.48-1(e)(2)) that are part of the portion of the building subject to the taxpayer’s possessory rights (cooperative).

(B) Application of improvement rules to a cooperative. An amount is paid to improve a cooperative under paragraph (d) of this section if the amount is paid for an improvement under paragraphs (j), (k), or (l) of this section to the portion of the building structure (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) in which the taxpayer has possessory rights or to the portion of any building system (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) that is part of the portion of the building structure subject to the taxpayer’s possessory rights. In the case of a cooperative housing corporation, the corporation must apply the improvement rules to the building structure or to any building system as described under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(v) Leased building—(A) In general. In the case of a taxpayer that is a lessee of all or a portion of a building (such as an office, floor, or certain square footage), the unit of property (“leased building property”) is each building and its structural components or the portion of each building subject to the lease and the structural components associated with the leased portion.

(B) Application of improvement rules to a leased building. An amount is paid to improve a leased building property under paragraphs (d) and (f)(2) of this section if the amount is paid for an improvement, under paragraphs (j), (k), or (l) of this section, to any of the following:

(1) Entire building. In the case of a taxpayer that is a lessee of an entire building, the building structure (as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) or any building system (as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) that is part of the leased building.

(2) Portion of a building. In the case of a taxpayer that is a lessee of a portion of a building (such as an office, floor, or certain square footage), the portion of the building structure (as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) subject to the lease or the portion of any building system (as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) subject to the lease.

(3) Property other than building—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (e)(3), (e)(4), (e)(5), and (f)(1) of this section, in the case of real or personal property other than property described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, all the components that are functionally interdependent comprise a single unit of property. Components of property are functionally interdependent if the placing in service of one component by the taxpayer is dependent on the placing in service of the other component by the taxpayer.

(ii) Plant property—(A) Definition. For purposes of this paragraph (e), the term plant property means functionally interdependent machinery or equipment, other than network assets, used to perform an industrial process, such as manufacturing, generation, warehousing, distribution, automated materials handling in service industries, or other similar activities.

(B) Unit of property for plant property. In the case of plant property, the unit of property determined under the general rule of paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section is further divided into smaller units comprised of each component (or group of components) that performs a discrete and major function or operation within the functionally interdependent machinery or equipment.

(iii) Network assets—(A) Definition. For purposes of this paragraph (e), the term network assets means railroad track, oil and gas pipelines, water and sewage pipelines, power transmission and distribution lines, and telephone and cable lines that are owned or leased by taxpayers in each of those respective industries. The term includes, for example, trunk and feeder lines, pole lines, and buried conduit. It does not include property that would be included as building structure or building systems under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, nor does it include separate property that is adjacent to, but not part of a network asset, such as bridges, culverts, or tunnels.

(B) Unit of property for network assets. In the case of network assets, the unit of property is determined by the taxpayer’s particular facts and circumstances except as otherwise provided in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). For these purposes, the functional interdependence standard provided in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section is not determinative.

(iv) Leased property other than buildings. In the case of a taxpayer that is a lessee of real or personal property other than property described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the unit of property for the leased property is determined under paragraphs (e)(3)(i),(ii), (iii), and (e)(5) of this section except that, after applying the applicable rules under those paragraphs, the unit of property may not be larger than the property subject to the lease.

(4) Improvements to property. An improvement to a unit of property generally is not a unit of property separate from the unit of property improved. For the unit of property for lessee improvements, see also paragraph (f)(2)(ii)) of this section. If a taxpayer elects to treat as a capital expenditure under §1.162-3(d) the amount paid for a rotable spare part, temporary spare part, or standby emergency spare part, and such part is used in an improvement to a unit of property, then for purposes of applying paragraph (d) of this section to the unit of property improved, the part is not a unit of property separate from the unit of property improved.

(5) Additional rules—(i) Year placed in service. Notwithstanding the unit of property determination under paragraph (e)(3) of this section, a component (or a group of components) of a unit property must be treated as a separate unit of property if, at the time the unit of property is initially placed in service by the taxpayer, the taxpayer has properly treated the component as being within a different class of property under section 168(e) (MACRS classes) than the class of the unit of property of which the component is a part, or the taxpayer has properly depreciated the component using a different depreciation method than the depreciation method of the unit of property of which the component is a part.

(ii) Change in subsequent taxable year. Notwithstanding the unit of property determination under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), (4), or (5)(i) of this section, in any taxable year after the unit of property is initially placed in service by the taxpayer, if the taxpayer or the Internal Revenue Service changes the treatment of that property (or any portion thereof) to a proper MACRS class or a proper depreciation method (for example, as a result of a cost segregation study or a change in the use of the property), then the taxpayer must change the unit of property determination for that property (or the portion thereof) under this section to be consistent with the change in treatment for depreciation purposes. Thus, for example, if a portion of a unit of property is properly reclassified to a MACRS class different from the MACRS class of the unit of property of which it was previously treated as a part, then the reclassified portion of the property should be treated as a separate unit of property for purposes of this section.

(6) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e) and assume that the taxpayer has not made a general asset account election with regard to property or accounted for property in a multiple asset account. In addition, unless the facts specifically indicate otherwise, assume that the additional rules in paragraph (e)(5) of this section do not apply:

Example 1. Building systems. A owns an office building that contains a HVAC system. The HVAC system incorporates ten roof-mounted units that service different parts of the building. The roof-mounted units are not connected and have separate controls and duct work that distribute the heated or cooled air to different spaces in the building’s interior. A pays an amount for labor and materials for work performed on the roof-mounted units. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, A must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is for an improvement to the building structure or any designated building system. Under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, the entire HVAC system, including all of the roof-mounted units and their components, comprise a building system. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, if an amount paid by A for work on the roof-mounted units is an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the HVAC system, A must treat this amount as an improvement to the building.

Example 2. Building systems. B owns a building that it uses in its retail business. The building contains two elevator banks in different locations in its building. Each elevator bank contains three elevators. B pays an amount for labor and materials for work performed on the elevators. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, B must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is for an improvement to the building structure or any designated building system. Under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(5) of this section, all six elevators, including all their components, comprise a building system. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, if an amount paid by B for work on the elevators is an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the elevator system, B must treat this amount as an improvement to the building.

Example 3. Building structure and systems; condominium. C owns a condominium unit in a condominium office building. C uses the condominium unit in its business of providing medical services. The condominium unit contains two restrooms, each of which contains a sink, a toilet, water and drainage pipes and other bathroom fixtures. C pays an amount for labor and materials to perform work on the pipes, sinks, toilets, and plumbing fixtures that are part of the condominium. Under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, C must treat the individual unit that it owns, including the structural components that are part of that unit, as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, an amount is paid to improve the condominium if it is for an improvement to the building structure that is part of the condominium or to a portion of any designated building system that is part of the condominium. Under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, the pipes, sinks, toilets, and plumbing fixtures that are part of C’s condominium comprise the plumbing system for the condominium. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, if an amount paid by C for work on pipes, sinks, toilets, and plumbing fixtures is an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the portion of the plumbing system that is part of C’s condominium, C must treat this amount as an improvement to the condominium.

Example 4. Building structure and systems; property other than buildings. D, a manufacturer, owns a building adjacent to its manufacturing facility that contains office space and related facilities for D’s employees that manage and administer D’s manufacturing operations. The office building contains equipment, such as desks, chairs, computers, telephones, and bookshelves that are not building structure or building systems. D pays an amount to add an extension to the office building. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, D must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is for an improvement to the building structure or any designated building system. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, if an amount paid by D for the addition of an extension to the office building is an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the building structure or any of the building systems, D must treat this amount as an improvement to the building. In addition, because the equipment contained within the office building constitutes property other than the building, the units of property for the office equipment are initially determined under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and are comprised of all the components that are functionally interdependent (for example, each desk, each chair, and each book shelf).

Example 5. Plant property; discrete and major function. E is an electric utility company that operates a power plant to generate electricity. The power plant includes a structure that is not a building under §1.48-1(e)(1), and, among other things, one pulverizer that grinds coal, a single boiler that produces steam, one turbine that converts the steam into mechanical energy, and one generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. In addition, the turbine contains a series of blades that cause the turbine to rotate when affected by the steam. Because the plant is composed of real and personal tangible property other than a building, the unit of property for the generating equipment is initially determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and is comprised of all the components that are functionally interdependent. Under this rule, the initial unit of property is the entire plant because the components of the plant are functionally interdependent. However, because the power plant is plant property under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, the initial unit of property is further divided into smaller units of property by determining the components (or groups of components) that perform discrete and major functions within the plant. Under this paragraph, E must treat the structure, the boiler, the turbine, the generator, and the pulverizer each as a separate unit of property because each of these components performs a discrete and major function within the power plant. E may not treat components, such as the turbine blades, as separate units of property because each of these components does not perform a discrete and major function within the plant.

Example 6. Plant property; discrete and major function. F is engaged in a uniform and linen rental business. F owns and operates a plant that utilizes many different machines and equipment in an assembly line-like process to treat, launder, and prepare rental items for its customers. F utilizes two laundering lines in its plant, each of which can operate independently. One line is used for uniforms and another line is used for linens. Both lines incorporate a sorter, boiler, washer, dryer, ironer, folder, and waste water treatment system. Because the laundering equipment contained within the plant is property other than a building, the unit of property for the laundering equipment is initially determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and is comprised of all the components that are functionally interdependent. Under this rule, the initial units of property are each laundering line because each line is functionally independent and is comprised of components that are functionally interdependent. However, because each line is comprised of plant property under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, F must further divide these initial units of property into smaller units of property by determining the components (or groups of components) that perform discrete and major functions within the line. Under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, F must treat each sorter, boiler, washer, dryer, ironer, folder, and waste water treatment system in each line as a separate unit of property because each of these components performs a discrete and major function within the line.

Example 7. Plant property; industrial process. G operates a restaurant that prepares and serves food to retail customers. Within its restaurant, G has a large piece of equipment that uses an assembly line-like process to prepare and cook tortillas that G serves only to its restaurant customers. Because the tortilla-making equipment is property other than a building, the unit of property for the equipment is initially determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and is comprised of all the components that are functionally interdependent. Under this rule, the initial unit of property is the entire tortilla-making equipment because the various components of the equipment are functionally interdependent. The equipment is not plant property under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section because the equipment is not used in an industrial process, as it performs a small-scale function in G’s restaurant operations. Thus, G is not required to further divide the equipment into separate units of property based on the components that perform discrete and major functions.

Example 8. Personal property. H owns locomotives that it uses in its railroad business. Each locomotive consists of various components, such as an engine, generators, batteries, and trucks. H acquired a locomotive with all its components. Because H’s locomotive is property other than a building, the initial unit of property is determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and is comprised of the components that are functionally interdependent. Under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, the locomotive is a single unit of property because it consists entirely of components that are functionally interdependent.

Example 9. Personal property. J provides legal services to its clients. J purchased a laptop computer and a printer for its employees to use in providing legal services. Because the computer and printer are property other than a building, the initial units of property are determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and are comprised of the components that are functionally interdependent. Under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, the computer and the printer are separate units of property because the computer and the printer are not components that are functionally interdependent (that is, the placing in service of the computer is not dependent on the placing in service of the printer).

Example 10. Building structure and systems; leased building. K is a retailer of consumer products. K conducts its retail sales in a building that it leases from L. The leased building consists of the building structure (including the floor, walls, and roof) and various building systems, including a plumbing system, an electrical system, an HVAC system, a security system, and a fire protection and prevention system. K pays an amount for labor and materials to perform work on the HVAC system of the leased building. Under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(A) of this section, because K leases the entire building, K must treat the leased building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a leased building property if it is for an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the leased building structure or to any building system within the leased building. Therefore, under paragraphs (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) and (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, if an amount paid by K for work on the HVAC system is for an improvement to the HVAC system in the leased building, K must treat this amount as an improvement to the entire leased building property.

Example 11. Production of real property related to leased property. Assume the same facts as in Example 10, except that K receives a construction allowance from L, and K uses the construction allowance to build a driveway adjacent to the leased building. Assume that under the terms of the lease, K, the lessee, is treated as the owner of any property that it constructs on or nearby the leased building. Also assume that section 110 does not apply to the construction allowance. Finally, assume that the driveway is not plant property or a network asset. Because the construction of the driveway consists of the production of real property other than a building, all the components of the driveway are functionally interdependent and are a single unit of property under paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (e)(3)(iv) of this section.

Example 12. Leasehold improvements; construction allowance used for lessor-owned improvements. Assume the same facts as Example 11, except that, under the terms of the lease, L, the lessor, is treated as the owner of any property constructed on the leased premises. Because L, the lessor, is the owner of the driveway and the driveway is real property other than a building, all the components of the driveway are functionally interdependent and are a single unit of property under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.

Example 13. Buildings and structural components; leased office space. M provides consulting services to its clients. M conducts its consulting services business in two office spaces in the same building, each of which it leases from N under separate lease agreements. Each office space contains a separate HVAC system, which is part of the leased property. Both lease agreements provide that M is responsible for maintaining, repairing, and replacing the HVAC system that is part of the leased property. M pays amounts to perform work on the HVAC system in each office space. Because M leases two separate office spaces subject to two leases, M must treat the portion of the building structure and the structural components subject to each lease as a separate unit of property under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(A) of this section. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a leased building property, if it is for an improvement to the leased portion of the building structure or the portion of any designated building system subject to each lease. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) and (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, M must treat the HVAC system associated with each leased office space as a building system of that leased building property. Thus, M must treat the HVAC system associated with the first leased office space as a building system of the first leased office space and the HVAC system associated with the second leased office space as a building system of the second leased office space. Under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, if the amount paid by M for work on the HVAC system in one leased office space is for an improvement (for example, a betterment) to the HVAC system that is part of that leased space, then M must treat the amount as an improvement to that individual leased property.

Example 14. Leased property; personal property. N is engaged in the business of transporting passengers on private jet aircraft. To conduct its business, N leases several aircraft from O. Under paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (referencing paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section), N must treat all of the components of each leased aircraft that are functionally interdependent as a single unit of property. Thus, N must treat each leased aircraft as a single unit of property.

Example 15. Improvement property. (i) P is a retailer of consumer products. In Year 1, P purchases a building from Q, which P intends to use as a retail sales facility. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, P must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is for an improvement to the building structure or any designated building system.

(ii) In Year 2, P pays an amount to construct an extension to the building to be used for additional warehouse space. Assume that the extension involves the addition of walls, floors, roof, and doors, but does not include the addition or extension of any building systems described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. Also assume that the amount paid to build the extension is a betterment to the building structure under paragraph (j) of this section, and is therefore treated as an amount paid for an improvement to the entire building under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, P capitalizes the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d) of this section. Under paragraph (e)(4) of this section, the extension is not a unit of property separate from the building, the unit of property improved. Thus, to determine whether any future expenditure constitutes an improvement to the building under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, P must determine whether the expenditure constitutes an improvement to the building structure, including the building extension, or to any of the designated building systems.

Example 16. Additional rules; year placed in service. R is engaged in the business of transporting freight throughout the United States. To conduct its business, R owns a fleet of truck tractors and trailers. Each tractor and trailer is comprised of various components, including tires. R purchased a truck tractor with all of its components, including tires. The tractor tires have an average useful life to R of more than one year. At the time R placed the tractor in service, it treated the tractor tires as a separate asset for depreciation purposes under section 168. R properly treated the tractor (excluding the cost of the tires) as 3-year property and the tractor tires as 5-year property under section 168(e). Because R’s tractor is property other than a building, the initial units of property for the tractor are determined under the general rule in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and are comprised of all the components that are functionally interdependent. Under this rule, R must treat the tractor, including its tires, as a single unit of property because the tractor and the tires are functionally interdependent (that is, the placing in service of the tires is dependent upon the placing in service of the tractor). However, under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, R must treat the tractor and tires as separate units of property because R properly treated the tires as being within a different class of property under section 168(e).

Example 17. Additional rules; change in subsequent year. S is engaged in the business of leasing nonresidential real property to retailers. In Year 1, S acquired and placed in service a building for use in its retail leasing operation. In Year 5, to accommodate the needs of a new lessee, S incurred costs to improve the building structure. S capitalized the costs of the improvement under paragraph (d) of this section and depreciated the improvement in accordance with section 168(i)(6) as nonresidential real property under section 168(e). In Year 7, S determined that the structural improvement made in Year 5 qualified under section 168(e)(8) as qualified retail improvement property and, therefore, was 15-year property under section 168(e). In Year 7, S changed its method of accounting to use a 15-year recovery period for the improvement. Under paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, in Year 7, S must treat the improvement as a unit of property separate from the building.

Example 18. Additional rules; change in subsequent year. In Year 1, T acquired and placed in service a building and parking lot for use in its retail operations. Under §1.263(a)-2 of the regulations, T capitalized the cost of the building and the parking lot and began depreciating the building and the parking lot as nonresidential real property under section 168(e). In Year 3, T completed a cost segregation study under which it properly determined that the parking lot qualified as 15-year property under section 168(e). In Year 3, T changed its method of accounting for the parking lot to use a 15-year recovery period and the 150-percent declining balance method of depreciation. Under paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, beginning in Year 3, T must treat the parking lot as a unit of property separate from the building.

Example 19. Additional rules; change in subsequent year. In Year 1, U acquired and placed in service a building for use in its manufacturing business. U capitalized the costs allocable to the building’s wiring separately from the building and depreciated the wiring as 7-year property under section 168(e). U capitalized the cost of the building and all other structural components of the building and began depreciating them as nonresidential real property under section 168(e). In Year 3, U completed a cost segregation study under which it properly determined that the wiring is a structural component of the building and, therefore, should have been depreciated as nonresidential real property. In Year 3, U changed its method of accounting to treat the wiring as nonresidential real property. Under paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, U must change the unit of property for the wiring in a manner that is consistent with the change in treatment for depreciation purposes. Therefore, U must change the unit of property for the wiring to treat it as a structural component of the building, and as part of the building unit of property, in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.

(f) Improvements to leased property—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section (safe harbor for small taxpayers) and under §1.263(a)-1(f) (de minimis safe harbor), this paragraph (f) provides the exclusive rules for determining whether amounts paid by a taxpayer are for an improvement to a leased property and must be capitalized. In the case of a leased building or a leased portion of a building, an amount is paid to improve a leased property if the amount is paid for an improvement to any of the properties specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section (for lessor improvements) or in paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section (for lessee improvements, except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section). Section 1.263(a)-4 does not apply to amounts paid for improvements to leased property or to amounts paid for the acquisition or production of leasehold improvement property.

(2) Lessee improvements—(i) Requirement to capitalize. A taxpayer lessee must capitalize the related amounts (see paragraph (g)(3) of this section) that it pays to improve (as defined under paragraph (d) of this section) a leased property except to the extent that section 110 applies to a construction allowance received by the lessee for the purpose of such improvement or when the improvement constitutes a substitute for rent. See §1.61-8(c) for the treatment of lessee expenditures that constitute a substitute for rent. A taxpayer lessee must also capitalize the related amounts that a lessor pays to improve (as defined under paragraph (d) of this section) a leased property if the lessee is the owner of the improvement, except to the extent that section 110 applies to a construction allowance received by the lessee for the purpose of such improvement. An amount paid for a lessee improvement under this paragraph (f)(2)(i) is treated as an amount paid to acquire or produce a unit of real or personal property under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) of the regulations.

(ii) Unit of property for lessee improvements. For purposes of determining whether an amount paid by a lessee constitutes a lessee improvement to a leased property under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, the unit of property and the improvement rules are applied to the leased property in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(v) (leased buildings) or paragraph (e)(3)(iv) (leased property other than buildings) of this section and include previous lessee improvements. However, if a lessee improvement is comprised of an entire building erected on leased property, then the unit of property for the building and the application of the improvement rules to the building are determined under paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section.

(3) Lessor improvements—(i) Requirement to capitalize. A taxpayer lessor must capitalize the related amounts (see paragraph (g)(3) of this section) that it pays directly, or indirectly through a construction allowance to the lessee, to improve (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section) a leased property when the lessor is the owner of the improvement or to the extent that section 110 applies to the construction allowance. A lessor must also capitalize the related amounts that the lessee pays to improve a leased property (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) when the lessee’s improvement constitutes a substitute for rent. See §1.61-8(c) for treatment of expenditures by lessees that constitute a substitute for rent. Amounts capitalized by the lessor under this paragraph (f)(3)(i) may not be capitalized by the lessee. If a lessor improvement is comprised of an entire building erected on leased property, then the amount paid for the building is treated as an amount paid by the lessor to acquire or produce a unit of property under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). See paragraphs (e)(2) of this section for the unit of property for a building and paragraph (e)(3) of this section for the unit of property for real or personal property other than a building.

(ii) Unit of property for lessor improvements. In general, an amount capitalized as a lessor improvement under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section is not a unit of property separate from the unit of property improved. See paragraph (e)(4) of this section. However, if a lessor improvement is comprised of an entire building erected on leased property, then the unit of property for the building and the application of the improvement rules to the building are determined under paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (f) and do not address whether capitalization is required under another provision of the Code (for example, section 263A). For purposes of the following examples, assume that section 110 does not apply to the lessee and the amounts paid by the lessee are not a substitute for rent.

Example 1. Lessee improvements; additions to building. (i) T is a retailer of consumer products. In Year 1, T leases a building from L, which T intends to use as a retail sales facility. The leased building consists of the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and various building systems under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, including a plumbing system, an electrical system, and an HVAC system. Under the terms of the lease, T is permitted to improve the building at its own expense. Under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(A) of this section, because T leases the entire building, T must treat the leased building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a leased building property if the amount is paid for an improvement to the leased building structure or to any building system within the leased building. Therefore, under paragraphs (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, if T pays an amount that improves the building structure, the plumbing system, the electrical system, or the HVAC system, then T must treat this amount as an improvement to the entire leased building property.

(ii) In Year 2, T pays an amount to construct an extension to the building to be used for additional warehouse space. Assume that this amount is for a betterment (as defined under paragraph (j) of this section) to T’s leased building structure and does not affect any building systems. Accordingly, the amount that T pays for the building extension is for a betterment to the leased building structure, and thus, under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) of this section, is treated as an improvement to the entire leased building under paragraph (d) of this section. Because T, the lessee, paid an amount to improve a leased building property, T is required to capitalize the amount paid for the building extension as a leasehold improvement under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. In addition, paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section requires T to treat the amount paid for the improvement as the acquisition or production of a unit of property (leasehold improvement property) under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

(iii) In Year 5, T pays an amount to add a large overhead door to the building extension that it constructed in Year 2 to accommodate the loading of larger products into the warehouse space. Under paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, to determine whether the amount paid by T is for a leasehold improvement, the unit of property and the improvement rules are applied in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section and include T’s previous improvements to the leased property. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(A) of this section, the unit of property is the entire leased building, including the extension built in Year 2. In addition, under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, the leased building property is improved if the amount is paid for an improvement to the building structure or any building system. Assume that the amount paid to add the overhead door is for a betterment, under paragraph (j) of this section, to the building structure, which includes the extension. Accordingly, T must capitalize the amounts paid to add the overhead door as a leasehold improvement to the leased building property. In addition, paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section requires T to treat the amount paid for the improvement as the acquisition or production of a unit of property (leasehold improvement property) under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). However, to determine whether a future amount paid by T is for a leasehold improvement to the leased building, the unit of property and the improvement rules are again applied in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section and include the new overhead door.

Example 2. Lessee improvements; additions to certain structural components of buildings. (i) Assume the same facts as Example 1 except that in Year 2, T also pays an amount to construct an extension of the HVAC system into the building extension. Assume that the extension is a betterment, under paragraph (j) of this section, to the leased HVAC system (a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section). Accordingly, the amount that T pays for the extension of the HVAC system is for a betterment to the leased building system, the HVAC system, and thus, under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B)(1) of this section, is treated as an improvement to the entire leased building property under paragraph (d) of this section. Because T, the lessee, pays an amount to improve a leased building property, T is required to capitalize the amount paid as a leasehold improvement under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, T must treat the amount paid for the HVAC extension as the acquisition and production of a unit of property (leasehold improvement property) under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

(ii) In Year 5, T pays an amount to add an additional chiller to the portion of the HVAC system that it constructed in Year 2 to accommodate the climate control requirements for new product offerings. Under paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, to determine whether the amount paid by T is for a leasehold improvement, the unit of property and the improvement rules are applied in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section and include T’s previous improvements to the leased building property. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, the leased building property is improved if the amount is paid for an improvement to the building structure or any building system. Assume that the amount paid to add the chiller is for a betterment, under paragraph (j) of this section, to the HVAC system, which includes the extension of the system in Year 2. Accordingly, T must capitalize the amounts paid to add the chiller as a leasehold improvement to the leased building property. In addition, paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section requires T to treat the amount paid for the chiller as the acquisition or production of a unit of property (leasehold improvement property) under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). However, to determine whether a future amount paid by T is for a leasehold improvement to the leased building, the unit of property and the improvement rules are again applied in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section and include the new chiller.

Example 3. Lessor Improvements; additions to building. (i) T is a retailer of consumer products. In Year 1, T leases a building from L, which T intends to use as a retail sales facility. Pursuant to the lease, L provides a construction allowance to T, which T intends to use to construct an extension to the retail sales facility for additional warehouse space. Assume that the amount paid for any improvement to the building does not exceed the construction allowance and that L is treated as the owner of any improvement to the building. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, L must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. As provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid for an improvement to the building structure or to any building system.

(ii) In Year 2, T uses L’s construction allowance to construct an extension to the leased building to provide additional warehouse space in the building. Assume that the extension is a betterment (as defined under paragraph (j) of this section) to the building structure, and therefore, the amount paid for the extension results in an improvement to the building under paragraph (d) of this section. Under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section, L, the lessor and owner of the improvement, must capitalize the amounts paid to T to construct the extension to the retail sales facility. T is not permitted to capitalize the amounts paid for the lessor-owned improvement. Finally, under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, the extension to L’s building is not a unit of property separate from the building and its structural components.

Example 4. Lessee property; personal property added to leased building. T is a retailer of consumer products. T leases a building from L, which T intends to use as a retail sales facility. Pursuant to the lease, L provides a construction allowance to T, which T uses to acquire and construct partitions for fitting rooms, counters, and shelving. Assume that each partition, counter, and shelving unit is a unit of property under paragraph (e)(3) of this section. Assume that for Federal income tax purposes T is treated as the owner of the partitions, counters, and shelving. T’s expenditures for the partitions, counters, and shelving are not improvements to the leased property under paragraph (d) of this section, but rather constitute amounts paid to acquire or produce separate units of personal property under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

Example 5. Lessor property; buildings on leased property. L is the owner of a parcel of unimproved real property that L leases to T. Pursuant to the lease, L provides a construction allowance to T of $500,000, which T agrees to use to construct a building costing not more than $500,000 on the leased real property and to lease the building from L after it is constructed. Assume that for Federal income tax purposes, L is treated as the owner of the building that T will construct. T uses the $500,000 to construct the building as required under the lease. The building consists of the building structure and the following building systems: (1) a plumbing system; (2) an electrical system; and (3) an HVAC system. Because L provides a construction allowance to T to construct a building and L is treated as the owner of the building, L must capitalize the amounts that it pays indirectly to T to construct the building as a lessor improvement under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section. In addition, the amounts paid by L for the construction allowance are treated as amounts paid by L to acquire and produce the building under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). Further, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, L must treat the building and its structural components as a single unit of property. Under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section, T, the lessee, may not capitalize the amounts paid (with the construction allowance received from L) for construction of the building.

Example 6. Lessee contribution to construction costs. Assume the same facts as in Example 5, except T spends $600,000 to construct the building. T uses the $500,000 construction allowance provided by L plus $100,000 of its own funds to construct the building that L will own pursuant to the lease. Also assume that the additional $100,000 that T pays is not a substitute for rent. For the reasons discussed in Example 5, L must capitalize the $500,000 it paid T to construct the building under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). In addition, because T spends its own funds to complete the building, T has a depreciable interest of $100,000 in the building and must capitalize the $100,000 it paid to construct the building as a leasehold improvement under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1) of the regulations. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, L must treat the building as a single unit of property to the extent of its depreciable interest of $500,000 In addition, under paragraphs (f)(2)(ii) and (e)(2)(i) of this section, T must also treat the building as a single unit of property to the extent of its depreciable interest of $100,000.

(g) Special rules for determining improvement costs—(1) Certain costs incurred during an improvement—(i) In general. A taxpayer must capitalize all the direct costs of an improvement and all the indirect costs (including, for example, otherwise deductible repair costs) that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of an improvement. Indirect costs arising from activities that do not directly benefit and are not incurred by reason of an improvement are not required to be capitalized under section 263(a), regardless of whether the activities are performed at the same time as an improvement.

(ii) Exception for individuals’ residences. A taxpayer who is an individual may capitalize amounts paid for repairs and maintenance that are made at the same time as capital improvements to units of property not used in the taxpayer’s trade or business or for the production of income if the amounts are paid as part of an improvement (for example, a remodeling) of the taxpayer’s residence.

(2) Removal Costs—(i) In general. If a taxpayer disposes of a depreciable asset, including a partial disposition under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e)(2)(ix) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d) (September 19, 2013), for Federal income tax purposes and has taken into account the adjusted basis of the asset or component of the asset in realizing gain or loss, then the costs of removing the asset or component are not required to be capitalized under this section. If a depreciable asset is included in a general asset account under section 168(i)(4), and neither the regulations under section 168(i)(4) and §1.168(i)-1T(e)(3) nor Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e)(3) (September 19, 2013), apply to a disposition of such asset, or a portion of such asset under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e)(2)(ix) (September 19, 2013), a loss is treated as being realized in the amount of zero upon the disposition of the asset solely for purposes of this paragraph (g)(2)(i). If a taxpayer disposes of a component of a unit of property, but the disposal of the component is not a disposition for Federal tax purposes, then the taxpayer must deduct or capitalize the costs of removing the component based on whether the removal costs directly benefit or are incurred by reason of a repair to the unit of property or an improvement to the unit of property. But see §1.280B-1 for the rules applicable to demolition of structures.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section and, unless otherwise stated, do not address whether capitalization is required under another provision of this section or another provision of the Code (for example, section 263A). For purposes of the following examples, assume that Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 (September 19, 2013), applies and that §1.280B-1 does not apply.

Example 1. Component removed during improvement; no disposition. X owns a factory building with a storage area on the second floor. X pays an amount to remove the original columns and girders supporting the second floor and replace them with new columns and girders to permit storage of supplies with a gross weight 50 percent greater than the previous load-carrying capacity of the storage area. Assume that the replacement of the columns and girders constitutes a betterment to the building structure and is therefore an improvement to the building unit of property under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. Assume that X disposes of the original columns and girders and the disposal of these structural components is not a disposition under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 (September 19, 2013). Under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (j) of this section, the amount paid to remove the columns and girders must be capitalized as a cost of the improvement, because it directly benefits and is incurred by reason of the improvement to the building.

Example 2. Component removed during improvement; disposition. Assume the same facts as Example 1, except X disposes of the original columns and girders and elects to treat the disposal of these structural components as a partial disposition of the factory building under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d) (September 19, 2013), taking into account the adjusted basis of the components in realizing loss on the disposition. Under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section, the amount paid to remove the columns and girders is not required to be capitalized as part of the cost of the improvement regardless of their relation to the improvement. However, all the remaining costs of replacing the columns and girders must be capitalized as improvements to the building unit of property under paragraphs (d)(1), (j), and (g)(1) of this section.

Example 3. Component removed during repair or maintenance; no disposition. Y owns a building in which it conducts its retail business. The roof over Y’s building is covered with shingles. Over time, the shingles begin to wear and Y begins to experience leaks into its retail premises. However, the building still functions in Y’s business. To eliminate the problems, a contractor recommends that Y remove the original shingles and replace them with new shingles. Accordingly, Y pays the contractor to replace the old shingles with new but comparable shingles. The new shingles are comparable to original shingles but correct the leakage problems. Assume that Y disposes of the original shingles, and the disposal of these shingles is not a disposition under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 (September 19, 2013). Assume that replacement of old shingles with new shingles to correct the leakage is not a betterment or a restoration of the building structure or systems under paragraph (j) or (k) of this section and does not adapt the building structure or systems to a new or different use under paragraph (l) of this section. Thus, the amounts paid by Y to replace the shingles are not improvements to the building unit of property under paragraph (d) of this section. Under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section, the amounts paid to remove the shingles are not required to be capitalized because they directly benefit and are incurred by reason of repair or maintenance to the building structure.

Example 4. Component removed with disposition and restoration. Assume the same facts as Example 3 except Y disposes of the original shingles, and Y elects to treat the disposal of these components as a partial disposition of the building under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d) (September 19, 2013), and deducts the adjusted basis of the components as a loss on the disposition. Under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, amounts paid for replacement of the shingles constitute a restoration of the building structure because the amounts are paid for the replacement of a component of the structure and the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component. Thus, under paragraphs (d)(2) and (k) of this section, Y is required to capitalize the amounts paid for the replacement of the shingles as an improvement to the building unit of property. However, under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section, the amounts paid by Y to remove the original shingles are not required to be capitalized as part of the costs of the improvement, regardless of their relation to the improvement.

(3) Related amounts. For purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, amounts paid to improve a unit of property include amounts paid over a period of more than one taxable year. Whether amounts are related to the same improvement depends on the facts and circumstances of the activities being performed.

(4) Compliance with regulatory requirements. For purposes of this section, a Federal, state, or local regulator’s requirement that a taxpayer perform certain repairs or maintenance on a unit of property to continue operating the property is not relevant in determining whether the amount paid improves the unit of property.

(h) Safe harbor for small taxpayers—(1) In general. A qualifying taxpayer (as defined in paragraph (h)(3) of this section) may elect to not apply paragraph (d) or paragraph (f) of this section to an eligible building property (as defined in paragraph (h)(4) of this section) if the total amount paid during the taxable year for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the eligible building property does not exceed the lesser of—

(i) 2 percent of the unadjusted basis (as defined under paragraph (h)(5) of this section) of the eligible building property; or

(ii) $10,000.

(2) Application with other safe harbor provisions. For purposes of paragraph (h)(1) of this section, amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on eligible building property include those amounts not capitalized under the de minimis safe harbor election under §1.263(a)-1(f) and those amounts deemed not to improve property under the safe harbor for routine maintenance under paragraph (i) of this section.

(3) Qualifying taxpayer—(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph (h), the term qualifying taxpayer means a taxpayer whose average annual gross receipts as determined under this paragraph (h)(3) for the three preceding taxable years is less than or equal to $10,000,000.

(ii) Application to new taxpayers. If a taxpayer has been in existence for less than three taxable years, the taxpayer determines its average annual gross receipts for the number of taxable years (including short taxable years) that the taxpayer (or its predecessor) has been in existence.

(iii) Treatment of short taxable year. In the case of any taxable year of less than 12 months (a short taxable year), the gross receipts shall be annualized by—

(A) Multiplying the gross receipts for the short period by 12; and

(B) Dividing the product determined in paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(A) of this section by the number of months in the short period.

(iv) Definition of gross receipts. For purposes of applying paragraph (h)(3)(i) of this section, the term gross receipts means the taxpayer’s receipts for the taxable year that are properly recognized under the taxpayer’s methods of accounting used for Federal income tax purposes for the taxable year. For this purpose, gross receipts include total sales (net of returns and allowances) and all amounts received for services. In addition, gross receipts include any income from investments and from incidental or outside sources. For example, gross receipts include interest (including original issue discount and tax-exempt interest within the meaning of section 103), dividends, rents, royalties, and annuities, regardless of whether such amounts are derived in the ordinary course of the taxpayer’s trade of business. Gross receipts are not reduced by cost of goods sold or by the cost of property sold if such property is described in section 1221(a)(1), (3), (4), or (5). With respect to sales of capital assets as defined in section 1221, or sales of property described in section 1221(a)(2) (relating to property used in a trade or business), gross receipts shall be reduced by the taxpayer’s adjusted basis in such property. Gross receipts do not include the repayment of a loan or similar instrument (for example, a repayment of the principal amount of a loan held by a commercial lender) and, except to the extent of gain recognized, do not include gross receipts derived from a non-recognition transaction, such as a section 1031 exchange. Finally, gross receipts do not include amounts received by the taxpayer with respect to sales tax or other similar state and local taxes if, under the applicable state or local law, the tax is legally imposed on the purchaser of the good or service, and the taxpayer merely collects and remits the tax to the taxing authority. If, in contrast, the tax is imposed on the taxpayer under the applicable law, then gross receipts include the amounts received that are allocable to the payment of such tax.

(4) Eligible building property. For purposes of this section, the term, eligible building property refers to each unit of property defined in paragraph (e)(2)(i) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(A) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(A) (leased building or portion of building) of this section, as applicable, that has an unadjusted basis of $1,000,000 or less.

(5) Unadjusted basis—(i) Eligible building property owned by taxpayer. For purposes of this section, the unadjusted basis of eligible building property owned by the taxpayer means the basis as determined under section 1012, or other applicable sections of Chapter 1, including subchapters O (relating to gain or loss on dispositions of property), C (relating to corporate distributions and adjustments), K (relating to partners and partnerships), and P (relating to capital gains and losses). Unadjusted basis is determined without regard to any adjustments described in section 1016(a)(2) or (3) or to amounts for which the taxpayer has elected to treat as an expense (for example, under sections 179, 179B, or 179C).

(ii) Eligible building property leased to the taxpayer. For purposes of this section, the unadjusted basis of eligible building property leased to the taxpayer is the total amount of (undiscounted) rent paid or expected to be paid by the lessee under the lease for the entire term of the lease, including renewal periods if all the facts and circumstances in existence during the taxable year in which the lease is entered indicate a reasonable expectancy of renewal. See §1.263(a)-4(f)(5)(ii) for the factors significant in determining whether there exists a reasonable expectancy of renewal.

(6) Time and manner of election. A taxpayer makes the election described in paragraph (h)(1) of this section by attaching a statement to the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year in which amounts are paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the eligible building property providing that such amounts qualify under the safe harbor provided in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. See §§301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. The statement must be titled, “Section 1.263(a)-3(h) Safe Harbor Election for Small Taxpayers” and include the taxpayer’s name, address, taxpayer identification number, and a description of each eligible building property to which the taxpayer is applying the election. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or by the partnership, and not by the shareholders or partners. An election may not be made through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to make a late election, by filing an amended Federal tax return. A taxpayer may not revoke an election made under this paragraph (h). The time and manner of making the election under this paragraph (h) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(7) Treatment of safe harbor amounts. Amounts paid by the taxpayer for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities to which the taxpayer properly applies the safe harbor under paragraph (h)(1) of this section and for which the taxpayer properly makes the election under paragraph (h)(6) of this section are not treated as improvements under paragraph (d) or (f) of this section and may be deducted under §1.162-1 or §1.212-1, as applicable, in the taxable year these amounts are paid, provided the amounts otherwise qualify for a deduction under these sections.

(8) Safe harbor exceeded. If total amounts paid by a qualifying taxpayer during the taxable year for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on an eligible building property exceed the safe harbor limitations specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, then the safe harbor election is not available for that eligible building property and the taxpayer must apply the general improvement rules under this section to determine whether amounts are for improvements to the unit of property, including the safe harbor for routine maintenance under paragraph (i) of this section. The taxpayer may also elect to apply the de minimis safe harbor under §1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts qualifying under that safe harbor irrespective of the application of this paragraph (h).

(9) Modification of safe harbor amounts. The amount limitations provided in paragraphs (h)(1)(i), (h)(1)(ii), and (h)(3) of this section may be modified through published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(10) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (h). Assume that §1.212-1 does not apply to the amounts paid.

Example 1. Safe harbor for small taxpayers applicable. A is a qualifying taxpayer under paragraph (h)(3) of this section. A owns an office building in which A provides consulting services. In Year 1, A’s building has an unadjusted basis of $750,000 as determined under paragraph (h)(5)(i) of this section. In Year 1, A pays $5,500 for repairs, maintenance, improvements and similar activities to the office building. Because A’s building unit of property has an unadjusted basis of $1,000,000 or less, A’s building constitutes eligible building property under paragraph (h)(4) of this section. The aggregate amount paid by A during Year 1 for repairs, maintenance, improvements and similar activities on this eligible building property does not exceed the lesser of $15,000 (2 percent of the building’s unadjusted basis of $750,000) or $10,000. Therefore, under paragraph (h)(1) of this section, A may elect to not apply the capitalization rule of paragraph (d) of this section to the amounts paid for repair, maintenance, improvements, or similar activities on the office building in Year 1. If A properly makes the election under paragraph (h)(6) of this section for the office building and the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on a trade or business, A may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1 in Year 1.

Example 2. Safe harbor for small taxpayers inapplicable. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that A pays $10,500 for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on its office building in Year 1. Because this amount exceeds $10,000, the lesser of the two limitations provided in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, A may not apply the safe harbor for small taxpayers under paragraph (h)(1) of this section to the total amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the building. Therefore, A must apply the general improvement rules under this section to determine which of the aggregate amounts paid are for improvements and must be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section and which of the amounts are for repair and maintenance under §1.162-4.

Example 3. Safe harbor applied building-by-building. (i) B is a qualifying taxpayer under paragraph (h)(3) of this section. B owns two rental properties, Building M and Building N. Building M and Building N are both multi-family residential buildings. In Year 1, each property has an unadjusted basis of $300,000 under paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Because Building M and Building N each have an unadjusted basis of $1,000,000 or less, Building M and Building N each constitute eligible building property in Year 1 under paragraph (h)(4) of this section. In Year 1, B pays $5,000 for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on Building M. In Year 1, B also pays $7,000 for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on Building N.

(ii) The total amount paid by B during Year 1 for repairs, maintenance, improvements and similar activities on Building M ($5,000) does not exceed the lesser of $6,000 (2 percent of the building’s unadjusted basis of $300,000) or $10,000. Therefore, under paragraph (h)(1) of this section, for Year 1, B may elect to not apply the capitalization rule under paragraph (d) of this section to the amounts it paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities on Building M. If B properly makes the election under paragraph (h)(6) of this section for Building M and the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on B’s trade or business, B may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1.

(iii) The total amount paid by B during Year 1 for repairs, maintenance, improvements and similar activities on Building N ($7,000) exceeds $6,000 (2 percent of the building’s unadjusted basis of $300,000), the lesser of the two limitations provided under paragraph (h)(1) of this section. Therefore, B may not apply the safe harbor under paragraph (h)(1) of this section to the total amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on Building N. Instead, B must apply the general improvement rules under this section to determine which of the total amounts paid for work performed on Building N are for improvements and must be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section and which amounts are for repair and maintenance under §1.162-4.

Example 4. Safe harbor applied to leased building property. C is a qualifying taxpayer under paragraph (h)(3) of this section. C is the lessee of a building in which C operates a retail store. The lease is a triple-net lease, and the lease term is 20 years, including reasonably expected renewals. C pays $4,000 per month in rent. In Year 1, C pays $7,000 for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities performed on the building. Under paragraph (h)(5)(ii) of this section, the unadjusted basis of C’s leased unit of property is $960,000 ($4,000 monthly rent x 12 months x 20 years). Because C’s leased building has an unadjusted basis of $1,000,000 or less, the building is eligible building property for Year 1 under paragraph (h)(4) of this section. The total amount paid by C during Year 1 for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities on the leased building ($7,000) does not exceed the lesser of $19,200 (2 percent of the building’s unadjusted basis of $960,000) or $10,000. Therefore, under paragraph (h)(1) of this section, for Year 1, C may elect to not apply the capitalization rule under paragraph (d) of this section to the amounts it paid for repairs, maintenance, improvements, and similar activities on the leased building. If C properly makes the election under paragraph (h)(6) of this section for the leased building and the amounts otherwise constitute deductible ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in carrying on C’s trade or business, C may deduct these amounts under §1.162-1.

(i) Safe harbor for routine maintenance on property—(1) In general. An amount paid for routine maintenance (as defined in paragraph (i)(1)(i) or (i)(1)(ii) of this section, as applicable) on a unit of tangible property, or in the case of a building, on any of the properties designated in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii), (e)(2)(iii)(B), (e)(2)(iv)(B), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section, is deemed not to improve that unit of property.

(i) Routine maintenance for buildings. Routine maintenance for a building unit of property is the recurring activities that a taxpayer expects to perform as a result of the taxpayer’s use of any of the properties designated in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii), (e)(2)(iii)(B), (e)(2)(iv)(B), or (e)(2)(v)(B) of this section to keep the building structure or each building system in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. Routine maintenance activities include, for example, the inspection, cleaning, and testing of the building structure or each building system, and the replacement of damaged or worn parts with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Routine maintenance may be performed any time during the useful life of the building structure or building systems. However, the activities are routine only if the taxpayer reasonably expects to perform the activities more than once during the 10-year period beginning at the time the building structure or the building system upon which the routine maintenance is performed is placed in service by the taxpayer. A taxpayer’s expectation will not be deemed unreasonable merely because the taxpayer does not actually perform the maintenance a second time during the 10-year period, provided that the taxpayer can otherwise substantiate that its expectation was reasonable at the time the property was placed in service. Factors to be considered in determining whether maintenance is routine and whether a taxpayer’s expectation is reasonable include the recurring nature of the activity, industry practice, manufacturers’ recommendations, and the taxpayer’s experience with similar or identical property. With respect to a taxpayer that is a lessor of a building or a part of the building, the taxpayer’s use of the building unit of property includes the lessee’s use of its unit of property.

(ii) Routine maintenance for property other than buildings. Routine maintenance for property other than buildings is the recurring activities that a taxpayer expects to perform as a result of the taxpayer’s use of the unit of property to keep the unit of property in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. Routine maintenance activities include, for example, the inspection, cleaning, and testing of the unit of property, and the replacement of damaged or worn parts of the unit of property with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Routine maintenance may be performed any time during the useful life of the unit of property. However, the activities are routine only if, at the time the unit of property is placed in service by the taxpayer, the taxpayer reasonably expects to perform the activities more than once during the class life (as defined in paragraph (i)(4) of this section) of the unit of property. A taxpayer’s expectation will not be deemed unreasonable merely because the taxpayer does not actually perform the maintenance a second time during the class life of the unit of property, provided that the taxpayer can otherwise substantiate that its expectation was reasonable at the time the property was placed in service. Factors to be considered in determining whether maintenance is routine and whether the taxpayer’s expectation is reasonable include the recurring nature of the activity, industry practice, manufacturers’ recommendations, and the taxpayer’s experience with similar or identical property. With respect to a taxpayer that is a lessor of a unit of property, the taxpayer’s use of the unit of property includes the lessee’s use of the unit of property.

(2) Rotable and temporary spare parts. Except as provided in paragraph (i)(3) of this section, for purposes of paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, amounts paid for routine maintenance include routine maintenance performed on (and with regard to) rotable and temporary spare parts.

(3) Exceptions. Routine maintenance does not include the following:

(i) Amounts paid for a betterment to a unit of property under paragraph (j) of this section;

(ii) Amounts paid for the replacement of a component of a unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component (other than a casualty loss under §1.165-7) (see paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section);

(iii) Amounts paid for the replacement of a component of a unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly taken into account the adjusted basis of the component in realizing gain or loss resulting from the sale or exchange of the component (see paragraph (k)(1)(ii) of this section);

(iv) Amounts paid for the restoration of damage to a unit of property for which the taxpayer is required to take a basis adjustment as a result of a casualty loss under section 165, or relating to a casualty event described in section 165, subject to the limitation in paragraph (k)(4) of this section (see paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section);

(v) Amounts paid to return a unit of property to its ordinarily efficient operating condition, if the property has deteriorated to a state of disrepair and is no longer functional for its intended use (see paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section);

(vi) Amounts paid to adapt a unit of property to a new or different use under paragraph (l) of this section;

(vii) Amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, or improvement of network assets (as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(A) of this section); or

(viii) Amounts paid for repairs, maintenance, or improvement of rotable and temporary spare parts to which the taxpayer applies the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under §1.162-3(e).

(4) Class life. The class life of a unit of property is the recovery period prescribed for the property under sections 168(g)(2) and (3) for purposes of the alternative depreciation system, regardless of whether the property is depreciated under section 168(g). For purposes of determining class life under this section, section 168(g)(3)(A) (relating to tax-exempt use property subject to lease) does not apply. If the unit of property is comprised of components with different class lives, then the class life of the unit of property is deemed to be the same as the component with the longest class life.

(5) Coordination with section 263A. Amounts paid for routine maintenance under this paragraph (i) may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of other property produced by the taxpayer or property acquired for resale. See, for example, §1.263A-1(e)(3)(ii)(O) requiring taxpayers to capitalize the cost of repairing equipment or facilities allocable to property produced or property acquired for resale.

(6) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (i) and, unless otherwise stated, do not address the treatment under other provisions of the Code (for example, section 263A). In addition, unless otherwise stated, assume that the taxpayer has not applied the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under §1.162-3(e).

Example 1. Routine maintenance on component. (i) A is a commercial airline engaged in the business of transporting passengers and freight throughout the United States and abroad. To conduct its business, A owns or leases various types of aircraft. As a condition of maintaining its airworthiness certification for these aircraft, A is required by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish and adhere to a continuous maintenance program for each aircraft within its fleet. These programs, which are designed by A and the aircraft’s manufacturer and approved by the FAA, are incorporated into each aircraft’s maintenance manual. The maintenance manuals require a variety of periodic maintenance visits at various intervals. One type of maintenance visit is an engine shop visit (ESV), which A expects to perform on its aircraft engines approximately every 4 years to keep its aircraft in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. In Year 1, A purchased a new aircraft, which included four new engines attached to the airframe. The four aircraft engines acquired with the aircraft are not materials or supplies under §1.162-3(c)(1)(i) because they are acquired as part of a single unit of property, the aircraft. In Year 5, A performs its first ESV on the aircraft engines. The ESV includes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, repair, replacement, reassembly, and testing of the engine and its component parts. During the ESV, the engine is removed from the aircraft and shipped to an outside vendor who performs the ESV. If inspection or testing discloses a discrepancy in a part’s conformity to the specifications in A’s maintenance program, the part is repaired, or if necessary, replaced with a comparable and commercially available replacement part. After the ESVs, the engines are returned to A to be reinstalled on another aircraft or stored for later installation. Assume that the class life for A’s aircraft, including the engines, is 12 years. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the costs of performing the ESVs.

(ii) Because the ESVs involve the recurring activities that A expects to perform as a result of its use of the aircraft to keep the aircraft in ordinarily efficient operating condition and consist of maintenance activities that A expects to perform more than once during the 12 year class life of the aircraft, A’s ESVs are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the ESVs are deemed not to improve the aircraft and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 2. Routine maintenance after class life. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that in year 15 A pays amounts to perform an ESV on one of the original aircraft engines after the end of the class life of the aircraft. Because this ESV involves the same routine maintenance activities that were performed on aircraft engines in Example 1, this ESV also is within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for this ESV, even though performed after the class life of the aircraft, are deemed not to improve the aircraft and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 3. Routine maintenance on rotable spare parts. (i) Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that in addition to the four engines purchased as part of the aircraft, A separately purchases four additional new engines that A intends to use in its aircraft fleet to avoid operational downtime when ESVs are required to be performed on the engines previously installed on an aircraft. Later in Year 1, A installs these four engines on an aircraft in its fleet. In Year 5, A performs the first ESVs on these four engines. Assume that these ESVs involve the same routine maintenance activities that were performed on the engines in Example 1, and that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to these ESVs. After the ESVs were performed, these engines were reinstalled on other aircraft or stored for later installation.

(ii) The additional aircraft engines are rotable spare parts because they were acquired separately from the aircraft, they are removable from the aircraft, and are repaired and reinstalled on other aircraft or stored for later installation. See §1.162-3(c)(2) (definition of rotable and temporary spare parts). Assume the class life of an engine is the same as the airframe, 12 years. Because the ESVs involve the recurring activities that A expects to perform as a result of its use of the engines to keep the engines in ordinarily efficient operating condition, and consist of maintenance activities that A expects to perform more than once during the 12 year class life of the engine, the ESVs fall within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the ESVs for the four additional engines are deemed not to improve these engines and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section. For the treatment of amounts paid to acquire the engines, see §1.162-3(a).

Example 4. Routine maintenance resulting from prior owner’s use. (i) In January, Year 1, B purchases a used machine for use in its manufacturing operations. Assume that the machine is the unit of property and has a class life of 10 years. B places the machine in service in January, Year 1, and at that time, B expects to perform manufacturer recommended scheduled maintenance on the machine approximately every three years. The scheduled maintenance includes the cleaning and oiling of the machine, the inspection of parts for defects, and the replacement of minor items such as springs, bearings, and seals with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. At the time B purchased the machine, the machine was approaching the end of a three-year scheduled maintenance period. As a result, in February, Year 1, B pays amounts to perform the manufacturer recommended scheduled maintenance. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance.

(ii) The majority of B’s costs do not qualify under the routine maintenance safe harbor in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section because the costs were incurred primarily as a result of the prior owner’s use of the property and not B’s use. B acquired the machine just before it had received its three-year scheduled maintenance. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance resulted from the prior owner’s, and not B’s, use of the property and must be capitalized if those amounts result in a betterment under paragraph (i) of this section, including the amelioration of a material condition or defect, or otherwise result in an improvement under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 5. Routine maintenance resulting from new owner’s use. Assume the same facts as in Example 4, except that after B pays amounts for the maintenance in Year 1, B continues to operate the machine in its manufacturing business. In Year 4, B pays amounts to perform the next scheduled manufacturer recommended maintenance on the machine. Assume that the scheduled maintenance activities performed are the same as those performed in Example 4 and that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance. Because the scheduled maintenance performed in Year 4 involves the recurring activities that B performs as a result of its use of the machine, keeps the machine in an ordinarily efficient operating condition, and consists of maintenance activities that B expects to perform more than once during the 10-year class life of the machine, B’s scheduled maintenance costs are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance in Year 4 are deemed not to improve the machine and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 6. Routine maintenance; replacement of substantial structural part; coordination with section 263A. C is in the business of producing commercial products for sale. As part of the production process, C places raw materials into lined containers in which a chemical reaction is used to convert raw materials into the finished product. The lining, which comprises 60 percent of the total physical structure of the container, is a substantial structural part of the container. Assume that each container, including its lining, is the unit of property and that a container has a class life of 12 years. At the time that C placed the container into service, C was aware that approximately every three years, the container lining would need to be replaced with comparable and commercially available replacement materials. At the end of three years, the container will continue to function, but will become less efficient and the replacement of the lining will be necessary to keep the container in an ordinarily efficient operating condition. In Year 1, C acquired 10 new containers and placed them into service. In Year 4, Year 7, Year 9, and Year 12, C pays amounts to replace the containers’ linings with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the amounts paid for the replacement linings. Because the replacement of the linings involves recurring activities that C expects to perform as a result of its use of the containers to keep the containers in their ordinarily efficient operating condition and consists of maintenance activities that C expects to perform more than once during the 12-year class life of the containers, C’s lining replacement costs are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts that C paid for the replacement of the container linings are deemed not to improve the containers and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section. However, the amounts paid to replace the lining may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if the amounts paid for this maintenance comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of the property produced by C. See §1.263A-1(e)(3)(ii)(O).

Example 7. Routine maintenance once during class life. D is a Class I railroad that owns a fleet of freight cars. Assume that a freight car, including all its components, is a unit of property and has a class life of 14 years. At the time that D places a freight car into service, D expects to perform cyclical reconditioning to the car every 8 to 10 years to keep the freight car in ordinarily efficient operating condition. During this reconditioning, D pays amounts to disassemble, inspect, and recondition or replace components of the freight car with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Ten years after D places the freight car in service, D pays amounts to perform a cyclical reconditioning on the car. Because D expects to perform the reconditioning only once during the 14 year class life of the freight car, the amounts D pays for the reconditioning do not qualify for the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, D must capitalize the amounts paid for the reconditioning of the freight car if these amounts result in an improvement under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 8. Routine maintenance; reasonable expectation. Assume the same facts as Example 7, except in Year 1, D acquires and places in service several refrigerated freight cars, which also have a class life of 14 years. Because of the special requirements of these cars, at the time they are placed in service, D expects to perform a reconditioning of the refrigeration components of the freight car every 6 years to keep the freight car in an ordinarily efficient operating condition. During the reconditioning, D pays amounts to disassemble, inspect, and recondition or replace the refrigeration components of the freight car with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the amounts paid for the reconditioning of these freight cars. In Year 6, D pays amounts to perform a reconditioning on the refrigeration components on one of the freight cars. However, because of changes in the frequency that D utilizes this freight car, D does not perform the second reconditioning on the same freight car until Year 15, after the end of the 14-year class life of the car. Under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, D’s reasonable expectation that it would perform the reconditioning every 6 years will not be deemed unreasonable merely because D did not actually perform the reconditioning a second time during the 14-year class life, provided that D can substantiate that its expectation was reasonable at the time the property was placed in service. If D can demonstrate that its expectation was reasonable in Year 1 using the factors provided in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, then the amounts paid by D to recondition the refrigerated freight car components in Year 6 and in Year 15 are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section.

Example 9. Routine maintenance on non-rotable part. E is a towboat operator that owns and leases a fleet of towboats. Each towboat is equipped with two diesel-powered engines. Assume that each towboat, including its engines, is the unit of property and that a towboat has a class life of 18 years. At the time that E places its towboats into service, E is aware that approximately every three to four years E will need to perform scheduled maintenance on the two towboat engines to keep the engines in their ordinarily efficient operating condition. This maintenance is completed while the engines are attached to the towboat and involves the cleaning and inspecting of the engines to determine which parts are within acceptable operating tolerances and can continue to be used, which parts must be reconditioned to be brought back to acceptable tolerances, and which parts must be replaced. Engine parts replaced during these procedures are replaced with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Assume the towboat engines are not rotable spare parts under §1.162-3(c)(2). In Year 1, E acquired a new towboat, including its two engines, and placed the towboat into service. In Year 5, E pays amounts to perform scheduled maintenance on both engines in the towboat. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the scheduled maintenance costs. Because the scheduled maintenance involves recurring activities that E expects to perform more than once during the 18-year class life of the towboat, the maintenance results from E’s use of the towboat, and the maintenance is performed to keep the towboat in an ordinarily efficient operating condition, the scheduled maintenance on E’s towboat is within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance to its towboat engines in Year 5 are deemed not to improve the towboat and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 10. Routine maintenance with related betterments. Assume the same facts as Example 9, except that in Year 9 E’s towboat engines are due for another scheduled maintenance visit. At this time, E decides to upgrade the engines to increase their horsepower and propulsion, which would permit the towboats to tow heavier loads. Accordingly, in Year 9, E pays amounts to perform many of the same activities that it would perform during the typical scheduled maintenance activities such as cleaning, inspecting, reconditioning, and replacing minor parts, but at the same time, E incurs costs to upgrade certain engine parts to increase the towing capacity of the boats in excess of the capacity of the boats when E placed them in service. In combination with the replacement of parts with new and upgraded parts, the scheduled maintenance must be completed to perform the horsepower and propulsion upgrade. Thus, the work done on the engines encompasses more than the recurring activities that E expected to perform as a result of its use of the towboats and did more than keep the towboat in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. Rather under paragraph (j) of this section, the amounts paid to increase the horsepower and propulsion of the engines are for a betterment to the towboat, and such amounts are excepted from the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(3)(i) of this section. In addition, under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, the scheduled maintenance procedures directly benefit the upgrades. Therefore, the amounts that E paid in Year 9 for the maintenance and upgrade of the engines do not qualify for the routine maintenance safe harbor described under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Rather, E must capitalize the amounts paid for maintenance and upgrades of the engines as an improvement to the towboats under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 11. Routine maintenance with unrelated improvements. Assume the same facts as Example 9, except in Year 5, in addition to paying amounts to perform the scheduled engine maintenance on both engines, E also incurs costs to upgrade the communications and navigation systems in the pilot house of the towboat with new state-of-the-art systems. Assume the amounts paid to upgrade the communications and navigation systems are for betterments under paragraph (j) of this section, and therefore result in an improvement to the towboat under paragraph (d) of this section. In contrast with Example 9, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance on E’s towboat engines are not otherwise related to the upgrades to the navigation systems. Because the scheduled maintenance on the towboat engines does not directly benefit and is not incurred by reason of the upgrades to the communication and navigation systems, the amounts paid for the scheduled engine maintenance are not a direct or indirect cost of the improvement under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance to its towboat engines in Year 5 are routine maintenance deemed not to improve the towboat and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 12. Exceptions to routine maintenance. F owns and operates a farming and cattle ranch with an irrigation system that provides water for crops. Assume that each canal in the irrigation system is a single unit of property and has a class life of 20 years. At the time F placed the canals into service, F expected to have to perform major maintenance on the canals every three years to keep the canals in their ordinarily efficient operating condition. This maintenance includes draining the canals, and then cleaning, inspecting, repairing, and reconditioning or replacing parts of the canal with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. F placed the canals into service in Year 1 and did not perform any maintenance on the canals until Year 6. At that time, the canals had fallen into a state of disrepair and no longer functioned for irrigation. In Year 6, F pays amounts to drain the canals and do extensive cleaning, repairing, reconditioning, and replacing parts of the canals with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Although the work performed on F’s canals was similar to the activities that F expected to perform, but did not perform, every three years, the costs of these activities do not fall within the routine maintenance safe harbor. Specifically, under paragraph (i)(3)(v) of this section, routine maintenance does not include activities that return a unit of property to its former ordinarily efficient operating condition if the property has deteriorated to a state of disrepair and is no longer functional for its intended use. Accordingly, amounts that F pays for work performed on the canals in Year 6 must be capitalized if they result in improvements under paragraph (d) of this section (for example, restorations under paragraph (k) of this section).

Example 13. Routine maintenance on a building; escalator system. In Year 1, G acquires a large retail mall in which it leases space to retailers. The mall contains an escalator system with 40 escalators, which includes landing platforms, trusses, tracks, steps, handrails, and safety brushes. In Year 1, when G placed its building into service, G reasonably expected that it would need to replace the handrails on the escalators approximately every four years to keep the escalator system in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. After a routine inspection and test of the escalator system in Year 4, G determines that the handrails need to be replaced and pays an amount to replace the handrails with comparable and commercially available handrails. The escalator system, including the handrails, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(4) of this section. Assume that none of the exceptions in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the scheduled maintenance costs. Because the replacement of the handrails involves recurring activities that G expects to perform as a result of its use of the escalator system to keep the escalator system in an ordinarily efficient operating condition, and G reasonably expects to perform these activities more than once during the 10-year period beginning at the time building system was placed in service, the amounts paid by G for the handrail replacements are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the replacement of the handrails in Year 4 are deemed not to improve the building unit of property and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

Example 14. Not routine maintenance; escalator system. Assume the same facts as in Example 13, except that in Year 9, G pays amounts to replace the steps of the escalators. In Year 1, when G placed its building into service, G reasonably expected that approximately every 18 to 20 years G would need to replace the steps to keep the escalator system in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. Because the replacement does not involve recurring activities that G expects to perform more than once during the 10-year period beginning at the time the building structure or the building system was placed in service, the costs of these activities do not fall within the routine maintenance safe harbor. Accordingly, amounts that G pays to replace the steps in Year 9 must be capitalized if they result in improvements under paragraph (d) of this section (for example, restorations under paragraph (k) of this section).

Example 15. Routine maintenance on building; reasonable expectation. In Year 1, H acquires a new office building, which it uses to provide services. The building contains an HVAC system, which is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. In Year 1, when H placed its building into service, H reasonably expected that every four years H would need to pay an outside contractor to perform detailed testing, monitoring, and preventative maintenance on its HVAC system to keep the HVAC system in its ordinarily efficient operating condition. This scheduled maintenance includes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, repair, replacement, reassembly, and testing of the HVAC system and many of its component parts. If inspection or testing discloses a problem with any component, the part is repaired, or if necessary, replaced with a comparable and commercially available replacement part. The scheduled maintenance at these intervals is recommended by the manufacturer of the HVAC system and is routinely performed on similar systems in similar buildings. Assume that none of the exceptions in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the amounts paid for the maintenance on the HVAC system. In Year 4, H pays amounts to a contractor to perform the scheduled maintenance. However, H does not perform this scheduled maintenance on its building again until Year 11. Under paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section, H’s reasonable expectation that it would perform the maintenance every 4 years will not be deemed unreasonable merely because H did not actually perform the maintenance a second time during the 10-year period, provided that H can substantiate that its expectation was reasonable at the time the property was placed in service. If H can demonstrate that its expectation was reasonable in Year 1 using the other factors considered in paragraph (i)(1)(i), then the amounts H paid for the maintenance of the HVAC system in Year 4 and in Year 11 are within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section.

(j) Capitalization of betterments—(1) In general. A taxpayer must capitalize as an improvement an amount paid for a betterment to a unit of property. An amount is paid for a betterment to a unit of property only if it—

(i) Ameliorates a material condition or defect that either existed prior to the taxpayer’s acquisition of the unit of property or arose during the production of the unit of property, whether or not the taxpayer was aware of the condition or defect at the time of acquisition or production;

(ii) Is for a material addition, including a physical enlargement, expansion, extension, or addition of a major component (as defined in paragraph (k)(6) of this section) to the unit of property or a material increase in the capacity, including additional cubic or linear space, of the unit of property; or

(iii) Is reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the unit of property.

(2) Application of betterment rules—(i) In general. The applicability of each quantitative and qualitative factor provided in paragraphs (j)(1)(ii) and (j)(1)(iii) of this section to a particular unit of property depends on the nature of the unit of property. For example, if an addition or an increase in a particular factor cannot be measured in the context of a specific type of property, this factor is not relevant in the determination of whether an amount has been paid for a betterment to the unit of property.

(ii) Application of betterment rules to buildings. An amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid for a betterment, as defined under paragraph (j)(1) of this section, to a property specified under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(B) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) (leased building or leased portion of building) of this section. For example, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid for an increase in the efficiency of the building structure or any one of its building systems (for example, the HVAC system).

(iii) Unavailability of replacement parts. If a taxpayer replaces a part of a unit of property that cannot reasonably be replaced with the same type of part (for example, because of technological advancements or product enhancements), the replacement of the part with an improved, but comparable, part does not, by itself, result in a betterment to the unit of property.

(iv) Appropriate comparison(A) In general. In cases in which an expenditure is necessitated by normal wear and tear or damage to the unit of property that occurred during the taxpayer’s use of the unit of property, the determination of whether an expenditure is for the betterment of the unit of property is made by comparing the condition of the property immediately after the expenditure with the condition of the property immediately prior to the circumstances necessitating the expenditure.

(B) Normal wear and tear. If the expenditure is made to correct the effects of normal wear and tear to the unit of property that occurred during the taxpayer’s use of the unit of property, the condition of the property immediately prior to the circumstances necessitating the expenditure is the condition of the property after the last time the taxpayer corrected the effects of normal wear and tear (whether the amounts paid were for maintenance or improvements) or, if the taxpayer has not previously corrected the effects of normal wear and tear, the condition of the property when placed in service by the taxpayer.

(C) Damage to property. If the expenditure is made to correct damage to a unit of property that occurred during the taxpayer’s use of the unit of property, the condition of the property immediately prior to the circumstances necessitating the expenditure is the condition of the property immediately prior to damage.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (j) only and do not address whether capitalization is required under another provision of this section or another provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 263A). Unless otherwise provided, assume that the appropriate comparison in paragraph (j)(2)(iv) of this section is not applicable under the facts.

Example 1. Amelioration of pre-existing material condition or defect. In Year 1, A purchases a store located on a parcel of land that contains underground gasoline storage tanks left by prior occupants. Assume that the parcel of land is the unit of property. The tanks had leaked prior to A’s purchase, causing soil contamination. A is not aware of the contamination at the time of purchase. In Year 2, A discovers the contamination and incurs costs to remediate the soil. The remediation costs are for a betterment to the land under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section because A incurred the costs to ameliorate a material condition or defect that existed prior to A’s acquisition of the land.

Example 2. Not amelioration of pre-existing condition or defect. B owns an office building that was constructed with insulation that contained asbestos. The health dangers of asbestos were not widely known when the building was constructed. Several years after B places the building into service, B determines that certain areas of asbestos-containing insulation have begun to deteriorate and could eventually pose a health risk to employees. Therefore, B pays an amount to remove the asbestos-containing insulation from the building structure and replace it with new insulation that is safer to employees, but no more efficient or effective than the asbestos insulation. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Although the asbestos is determined to be unsafe under certain circumstances, the presence of asbestos insulation in a building, by itself, is not a preexisting material condition or defect of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section. In addition, the removal and replacement of the asbestos is not for a material addition to the building structure or a material increase in the capacity of the building structure under paragraphs (j)(1)(ii) and (j)(2)(iv) of this section as compared to the condition of the property prior to the deterioration of the insulation. Similarly, the removal and replacement of asbestos is not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the building structure under paragraphs (j)(1)(iii) and (j)(2)(iv) of this section as compared to the condition of the property prior to the deterioration of the insulation. Therefore, the amount paid to remove and replace the asbestos insulation is not for a betterment to the building structure or an improvement to the building under paragraph (j) of this section.

Example 3. Not amelioration of pre-existing material condition or defect. (i) In January, Year 1, C purchased a used machine for use in its manufacturing operations. Assume that the machine is a unit of property and has a class life of 10 years. C placed the machine in service in January, Year 1 and at that time expected to perform manufacturer recommended scheduled maintenance on the machine every three years. The scheduled maintenance includes cleaning and oiling the machine, inspecting parts for defects, and replacing minor items, such as springs, bearings, and seals, with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. The scheduled maintenance does not include any material additions or materially increase the capacity, productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the machine. At the time C purchased the machine, it was approaching the end of a three-year scheduled maintenance period. As a result, in February, Year 1, C pays an amount to perform the manufacturer recommended scheduled maintenance to keep the machine in its ordinarily efficient operating condition.

(ii) The amount that C pays does not qualify under the routine maintenance safe harbor in paragraph (i) of this section, because the cost primarily results from the prior owner’s use of the property and not the taxpayer’s use. C acquired the machine just before it had received its three-year scheduled maintenance. Accordingly, the amount that C pays for the scheduled maintenance results from the prior owner’s use of the property and ameliorates conditions or defects that existed prior to C’s ownership of the machine. Nevertheless, considering the purpose and minor nature of the work performed, this amount does not ameliorate a material condition or defect in the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, is not for a material addition to or increase in capacity of the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section, and is not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Therefore, C is not required to capitalize the amount paid for the scheduled maintenance as a betterment to the unit of property under this paragraph (j).

Example 4. Not amelioration of pre-existing material condition or defect. D purchases a used ice resurfacing machine for use in the operation of its ice skating rink. To comply with local regulations, D is required to routinely monitor the air quality in the ice skating rink. One week after D places the machine into service, during a routine air quality check, D discovers that the operation of the machine is adversely affecting the air quality in the skating rink. As a result, D pays an amount to inspect and retune the machine, which includes replacing minor components of the engine that had worn out prior to D’s acquisition of the machine. Assume the resurfacing machine, including the engine, is the unit of property. The routine maintenance safe harbor in paragraph (i) of this section does not apply to the amounts paid, because the activities performed do not relate solely to the taxpayer’s use of the machine. The amount that D pays to inspect, retune, and replace minor components of the ice resurfacing machine ameliorates a condition or defect that existed prior to D’s acquisition of the equipment. Nevertheless, considering the purpose and minor nature of the work performed, this amount does not ameliorate a material condition or defect in the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section. In addition, the amount is not paid for a material addition to the machine or a material increase in the capacity of the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section. Also, the activities are not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Therefore, D is not required to capitalize the amount paid to inspect, retune, and replace minor components of the machine as a betterment under this paragraph (j).

Example 5. Amelioration of material condition or defect. (i) E acquires a building for use in its business of providing assisted living services. Before and after the purchase, the building functions as an assisted living facility. However, at the time of the purchase, E is aware that the building is in a condition that is below the standards that E requires for facilities used in its business. Immediately after the acquisition and during the following two years, while E continues to use the building as an assisted living facility, E pays amounts for extensive repairs and maintenance, and the acquisition of new property to bring the facility into the high-quality condition for which E’s facilities are known. The work on E’s building includes repairing damaged drywall, repainting, re-wallpapering, replacing windows, repairing and replacing doors, replacing and regrouting tile, repairing millwork, and repairing and replacing roofing materials. The work also involves the replacement of section 1245 property, including window treatments, furniture, and cabinets. The work that E performs affects only the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and does not affect any of the building systems described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. Assume that each section 1245 property is a separate unit of property.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Considering the purpose of the expenditure and the effect of the expenditures on the building structure, the amounts that E paid for repairs and maintenance to the building structure comprise a betterment to the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section because the amounts ameliorate material conditions that existed prior to E’s acquisition of the building. Therefore, E must treat the amounts paid for the betterment to the building structure as an improvement to the building and must capitalize the amounts under paragraphs (j) and (d)(1) of this section. Moreover, E is required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property, including each window treatment, each item of furniture, and each cabinet, in accordance with §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

Example 6. Not a betterment; building refresh. (i) F owns a nationwide chain of retail stores that sell a wide variety of items. To maintain the appearance and functionality of its store buildings after several years of wear, F periodically pays amounts to refresh the look and layout of its stores. The work that F performs during a refresh consists of cosmetic and layout changes to the store’s interiors and general repairs and maintenance to the store building to modernize the store buildings and reorganize the merchandise displays. The work to each store consists of replacing and reconfiguring display tables and racks to provide better exposure of the merchandise, making corresponding lighting relocations and flooring repairs, moving one wall to accommodate the reconfiguration of tables and racks, patching holes in walls, repainting the interior structure with a new color scheme to coordinate with new signage, replacing damaged ceiling tiles, cleaning and repairing wood flooring throughout the store building, and power washing building exteriors. The display tables and the racks all constitute section 1245 property. F pays amounts to refresh 50 stores during the taxable year. Assume that each section 1245 property within each store is a separate unit of property. Finally, assume that the work does not ameliorate any material conditions or defects that existed when F acquired the store buildings or result in any material additions to the store buildings.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Considering the facts and circumstances including the purpose of the expenditure, the physical nature of the work performed, and the effect of the expenditure on the buildings’ structure and systems, the amounts paid for the refresh of each building are not for any material additions to, or material increases in the capacity of, the buildings’ structure or systems as compared with the condition of the structure or systems after the previous refresh. Moreover, the amounts paid are not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of any building structure or system under as compared to the condition of the structures or systems after the previous refresh. Rather, the work performed keeps F’s store buildings’ structures and buildings’ systems in their ordinarily efficient operating condition. Therefore, F is not required to treat the amounts paid for the refresh of its store buildings’ structures and buildings’ systems as betterments under paragraphs (j)(1)(ii), (j)(1)(iii), and (j)(2)(iv) of this section. However, F is required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property in accordance with §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

Example 7. Building refresh; limited improvement. (i) Assume the same facts as Example 6 except, in the course of the refresh to one of its store buildings, F also pays amounts to increase the building’s storage space, add a second loading dock, and add a second overhead door. Specifically, at the same time F pays amounts to perform the refresh, F pays additional amounts to construct an addition to the back of the store building, including adding a new overhead door and loading dock to the building. The work also involves upgrades to the electrical system of the building, including the addition of a second service box with increased amperage and new wiring from the service box to provide lighting and power throughout the new space. Although it is performed at the same time, the construction of the additions does not affect, and is not otherwise related to, the refresh of the retail space.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section, the amounts paid by F to add the storage space, loading dock, overhead door, and expand the electrical system are for betterments to F’s building structure and to the electrical system because they are for material additions to, and a material increase in capacity of, the structure and the electrical system of F’s store building. Accordingly, F must treat the amounts paid for these betterments as improvements to the building unit of property and capitalize these amounts under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. However, for the reasons discussed in Example 6, F is not required to treat the amounts paid for the refresh of its store building structure and systems as a betterments under paragraph (j)(1) of this section. In addition, F is not required under paragraph (g)(1) of this section to capitalize the refresh costs described in Example 6 because these costs do not directly benefit and are not incurred by reason of the additions to the building structure and electrical system. As in Example 6, F is required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property in accordance with §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

Example 8. Betterment; building remodel. (i) G owns a large chain of retail stores that sell a variety of items. G determines that due to changes in the retail market, it can no longer compete in its current store class and decides to upgrade its stores to offer higher end products to a different type of customer. To offer these products and attract different types of customers, G must substantially remodel its stores. Thus, G pays amounts to remodel its stores by performing work on the buildings’ structures and systems as defined under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. This work includes replacing large parts of the exterior walls with windows, replacing the escalators with a monumental staircase, adding a new glass enclosed elevator, rebuilding the interior and exterior facades, replacing vinyl floors with ceramic flooring, replacing ceiling tiles with acoustical tiles, and removing and rebuilding walls to move changing rooms and create specialty departments. The work also includes upgrades to increase the capacity of the buildings’ electrical system to accommodate the structural changes and the addition of new section 1245 property, such as new product information kiosks and point of sale systems. The work to the electrical system also involves the installation of new more efficient and mood enhancing lighting fixtures. In addition, the work includes remodeling all bathrooms by replacing contractor-grade plumbing fixtures with designer-grade fixtures that conserve water and energy. Finally, G also pays amounts to clean debris resulting from construction during the remodel, patch holes in walls that were made to upgrade the electrical system, repaint existing walls with a new color scheme to match the new interior construction, and to power wash building exteriors to enhance the new exterior facade.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Considering the facts and circumstances, including the purpose of the expenditure, the physical nature of the work performed, and the effect of the work on the buildings’ structures and buildings’ systems, the amounts that G pays for the remodeling of its stores result in betterments to the buildings’ structures and several of its systems under paragraph (j) of this section. Specifically, the amounts paid to replace large parts of the exterior walls with windows, replace the escalators with a monumental staircase, add a new elevator, rebuild the interior and exterior facades, replace vinyl floors with ceramic flooring, replace the ceiling tiles with acoustical tiles, and to remove and rebuild walls are for material additions, that is the addition of major components, to the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section and are reasonably expected to increase the quality of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Similarly, the amounts paid to upgrade the electrical system are to materially increase the capacity of the electrical system under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section and are reasonably expected to increase the quality of this system under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. In addition, the amounts paid to remodel the bathrooms with higher grade and more resource-efficient materials are reasonably expected to increase the efficiency and quality of the plumbing system under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Finally, the amounts paid to clean debris, patch and repaint existing walls with a new color scheme, and to power wash building exteriors, while not betterments by themselves, directly benefitted and were incurred by reason of the improvements to G’s store buildings’ structures and electrical systems under paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Therefore, G must treat the amounts paid for betterments to the store buildings’ structures and systems, including the costs of cleaning, patching, repairing, and power washing the building, as improvements to G’s buildings and must capitalize these amounts under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. Moreover, G is required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property in accordance with §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). For the treatment of amounts paid to remove components of property, see paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

Example 9. Not betterment; relocation and reinstallation of personal property. In Year 1, H purchases new cash registers for use in its retail store located in leased space in a shopping mall. Assume that each cash register is a unit of property as determined under paragraph (e)(3) of this section. In Year 1, H capitalizes the costs of acquiring and installing the new cash registers under §1.263(a)-2(d)(1). In Year 3, H’s lease expires, and H decides to relocate its retail store to a different building. In addition to various other costs, H pays $5,000 to move the cash registers and $1,000 to reinstall them in the new store. The cash registers are used for the same purpose and in the same manner that they were used in the former location. The amounts that H pays to move and reinstall the cash registers into its new store do not result in a betterment to the cash registers under paragraph (j) of this section.

Example 10. Betterment; relocation and reinstallation of equipment. J operates a manufacturing facility in Building A, which contains various machines that J uses in its manufacturing business. J decides to expand part of its operations by relocating a machine to Building B to reconfigure the machine with additional components. Assume that the machine is a single unit of property under paragraph (e)(3) of this section. J pays amounts to disassemble the machine, to move the machine to the new location, and to reinstall the machine in a new configuration with additional components. Assume that the reinstallation, including the reconfiguration and the addition of components, is for an increase in capacity of the machine, and therefore is for a betterment to the machine under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, J must capitalize the costs of reinstalling the machine as an improvement to the machine under paragraphs (j) and (d)(1) of this section. J is also required to capitalize the costs of disassembling and moving the machine to Building B because these costs directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the improvement to the machine under paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

Example 11. Betterment; regulatory requirement. K owns a building that it uses in its business. In Year 1, City C passes an ordinance setting higher safety standards for buildings because of the hazardous conditions caused by earthquakes. To comply with the ordinance, K pays an amount to add expansion bolts to its building structure. These bolts anchor the wooden framing of K’s building to its cement foundation, providing additional structural support and resistance to seismic forces, making the building more resistant to damage from lateral movement. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The framing and foundation are part of the building structure as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Prior to the ordinance, the old building was in good condition but did not meet City C’s new requirements for earthquake resistance. The amount paid by K for the addition of the expansion bolts met City C’s new requirement, but also materially increased the strength of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Therefore, K must treat the amount paid to add the expansion bolts as a betterment to the building structure and must capitalize this amount as an improvement to building under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. City C’s new requirement that K’s building meet certain safety standards to continue to operate is not relevant in determining whether the amount paid improved the building. See paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

Example 12. Not a betterment; regulatory requirement. L owns a meat processing plant. After operating the plant for many years, L discovers that oil is seeping through the concrete walls of the plant. Federal inspectors advise L that it must correct the seepage problem or shut down its plant. To correct the problem, L pays an amount to add a concrete lining to the walls from the floor to a height of about four feet and also to add concrete to the floor of the plant. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The walls are part of the building structure as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. The condition necessitating the expenditure was the seepage of the oil into the plant. Prior to the seepage, the walls did not leak and were functioning for their intended use. L is not required to treat the amount paid as a betterment under paragraphs (j)(1)(ii) and (j)(2)(iv) of this section because it is not paid for a material addition to, or a material increase in the capacity of, the building’s structure as compared to the condition of the structure prior to the seepage of oil. Moreover, the amount paid is not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the building structure under paragraphs (j)(1)(iii) and (j)(2)(iv) as compared to the condition of the structure prior to the seepage of the oil. Therefore, L is not required to treat the amount paid to correct the seepage as a betterment to the building under paragraph (d)(1) or (j) of this section. The federal inspectors’ requirement that L correct the seepage to continue operating the plant is not relevant in determining whether the amount paid improves the plant.

Example 13. Not a betterment; new roof membrane. M owns a building that it uses for its retail business. Over time, the waterproof membrane (top layer) on the roof of M’s building begins to wear, and M began to experience water seepage and leaks throughout its retail premises. To eliminate the problems, a contractor recommends that M put a new rubber membrane on the worn membrane. Accordingly, M pays the contractor to add the new membrane. The new membrane is comparable to the worn membrane when it was originally placed in service by the taxpayer. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The roof is part of the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. The condition necessitating the expenditure was the normal wear of M’s roof. Under paragraph (j)(2)(iv) of this section, to determine whether the amounts are for a betterment, the condition of the building structure after the expenditure must be compared to the condition of the structure when M placed the building into service because M has not previously corrected the effects of normal wear and tear. Under these facts, the amount paid to add the new membrane to the roof is not for a material addition or a material increase in the capacity of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section as compared to the condition of the structure when it was placed in service. Moreover, the new membrane is not reasonably expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section as compared to the condition of the building structure when it was placed in service. Therefore, M is not required to treat the amount paid to add the new membrane as a betterment to the building under paragraph (d)(1) or (j) of this section.

Example 14. Material increase in capacity; building. N owns a factory building with a storage area on the second floor. N pays an amount to reinforce the columns and girders supporting the second floor to permit storage of supplies with a gross weight 50 percent greater than the previous load-carrying capacity of the storage area. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The columns and girders are part of the building structure defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. N must treat the amount paid to reinforce the columns and girders as a betterment under paragraphs (j)(1)(ii) and (j)(1)(iii) of this section because it materially increases the load-carrying capacity and the strength of the building structure. Therefore, N must capitalize this amount as an improvement to the building under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section.

Example 15. Material increase in capacity; channel. O owns harbor facilities consisting of a slip for the loading and unloading of barges and a channel leading from the slip to the river. At the time of purchase, the channel was 150 feet wide, 1,000 feet long, and 10 feet deep. Several years after purchasing the harbor facilities, to allow for ingress and egress and for the unloading of larger barges, O decides to deepen the channel to a depth of 20 feet. O pays a contractor to dredge the channel to 20 feet. Assume the channel is the unit of property. O must capitalize the amounts paid for the dredging as an improvement to the channel because they are for a material increase in the capacity of the unit of property under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section.

Example 16. Not a material increase in capacity; channel. Assume the same facts as in Example 15, except that the channel was susceptible to siltation and, after dredging to 20 feet, the channel depth had been reduced to 18 feet. O pays a contractor to redredge the channel to a depth of 20 feet. The expenditure was necessitated by the siltation of the channel. Both prior to the siltation and after the redredging, the depth of the channel was 20 feet. Applying the comparison rule under paragraph (j)(2)(iv) of this section, the amounts paid by O to redredge the channel are not for a betterment under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section because they are not for a material addition to, or a material increase in the capacity of, the unit of property as compared to the condition of the property prior to the siltation. Similarly, these amounts are not for a betterment under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section because the amounts are not reasonably expected to increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the unit of property as compared to the condition of the property before the siltation. Therefore, O is not required to capitalize these amounts as improvement under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section.

Example 17. Material increase in capacity; channel. Assume the same facts as in Example 16 except that after the redredging, there is more siltation, and the channel depth is reduced back to 18 feet. In addition, to allow for additional ingress and egress and for the unloading of even larger barges, O decides to deepen the channel to a depth of 25 feet. O pays a contractor to redredge the channel to 25 feet. O must capitalize the amounts paid for the dredging as an improvement to the channel because the amounts are for a material increase in the capacity of the unit of property under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section as compared to condition of the unit of property before the siltation. As part of this improvement, O is also required to capitalize the portion of the redredge costs allocable to restoring the depth lost to the siltation because, under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, these amounts directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the improvement to the unit of property.

Example 18. Not a material increase in capacity; building. P owns a building used in its trade or business. The first floor has a drop-ceiling. To fully expose windows on the first floor, P pays an amount to remove the drop-ceiling and repaint the original ceiling. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The ceiling is part of the building structure as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. P is not required to treat the amount paid to remove the drop-ceiling as a betterment to the building because it was not for a material addition or material increase in the capacity of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section and it was not reasonably expected to materially increase to the efficiency, strength, or quality of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. In addition, under paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section, because the effect on productivity and output of the building structure cannot be measured in this context, these factors are not relevant in determining whether there is a betterment to the building structure.

Example 19. Material increase in capacity; building. Q owns a building that it uses in its retail business. The building contains one floor of retail space with very high ceilings. Q pays an amount to add a stairway and a mezzanine for the purposes of adding additional selling space within its building. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The stairway and the mezzanine are part of the building structure as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Q is required to treat the amount paid to add the stairway and mezzanine as a betterment because it is for a material addition to, and an increase in the capacity of, the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section. Therefore, Q must capitalize this amount as an improvement to the building unit of property under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section.

Example 20. Not material increase in efficiency; HVAC system. R owns an office building that it uses to provide services to customers. The building contains an HVAC system that incorporates 10 roof-mounted units that provide heating and air conditioning for different parts of the building. The HVAC system also consists of controls for the entire system and duct work that distributes the heated or cooled air to the various spaces in the building’s interior. After many years of use of the HVAC system, R begins to experience climate control problems in various offices throughout the office building and consults with a contractor to determine the cause. The contractor recommends that R replace two of the roof-mounted units. R pays an amount to replace the two specified units. The two new units are expected to eliminate the climate control problems and to be 10 percent more energy efficient than the replaced units in their original condition. No work is performed on the other roof-mounted heating/cooling units, the duct work, or the controls. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The HVAC system, including the two-roof mounted units, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. The replacement of the two roof-mounted units is not a material addition to or a material increase in the capacity of the HVAC system under paragraphs (j)(1)(ii) and (j)(3)(ii) of this section as compared to the condition of the system prior to the climate control problems. In addition, given the 10 percent efficiency increase in two units of the entire HVAC system, the replacement is not expected to materially increase the productivity, efficiency, strength, quality, or output of the HVAC system under paragraphs (j)(1)(iii) and (j)(2)(iv) of this section as compared to the condition of the system prior to the climate control problems. Therefore, R is not required to capitalize the amounts paid for these replacements as betterments to the building unit of property under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section.

Example 21. Material increase in efficiency; building. S owns a building that it uses in its service business. S conducts an energy assessment and determines that it could significantly reduce its energy costs by adding insulation to its building. S pays an insulation contractor to apply a combination of loose-fill, spray foam, and blanket insulation throughout S’s building structure, including within the attic, walls, and crawl spaces. S reasonably expects the new insulation to make the building more energy efficient because the contractor indicated that the new insulation would reduce its annual energy and power costs by approximately 50 percent of its annual costs during the last five years. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. Therefore, under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section, S must capitalize as a betterment the amount paid to add the insulation because the insulation is reasonably expected to materially increase the efficiency of the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section.

Example 22. Material addition; building. T owns and operates a restaurant, which provides a variety of prepared foods to its customers. To better accommodate its customers and increase customer traffic, T decides to add a drive-through service area. As a result, T pays amounts to partition an area within its restaurant for a drive-through service counter, to construct a service window with necessary security features, to build an overhang for vehicles, and to construct a drive-up menu board. Assume that the drive-up menu board is section 1245 property that is a separate unit of property under paragraph (e)(3) of this section. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The amounts paid for the partition, service window and overhang are betterments to the building structure because they comprise a material addition (that is, a physical expansion, extension, and addition of a major component) to the building structure under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, T must capitalize as an improvement the amounts paid to add the partition, drive-through window, and overhang under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. T is also required to capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property in accordance with §1.263(a)-2(d)(1).

Example 23. Costs incurred during betterment. U owns a building that it uses in its service business. To accommodate new employees and equipment, U pays amounts to increase the load capacity of its electrical system by adding a second electrical panel with additional circuits and adding wiring and outlets throughout the electrical system of its building. To complete the upgrades to the electrical system, the contractor makes several holes in walls. As a result, U also incurs costs to patch the holes and repaint several walls. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (j)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building unit of property if the amount is paid for a betterment to the building structure or any building system. The amounts paid to upgrade the panel and wiring are for betterments to U’s electrical system because they increase the capacity of the electrical system under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section and increase the strength and output of the electrical system under paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, U is required to capitalize the costs of the upgrade to the electrical system as an improvement to the building unit of property under paragraphs (d)(1) and (j) of this section. Moreover, under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, U is required to capitalize the amounts paid to patch holes and repaint several walls in its building because these costs directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the improvement to U’s building unit of property.

(k) Capitalization of restorations—(1) In general. A taxpayer must capitalize as an improvement an amount paid to restore a unit of property, including an amount paid to make good the exhaustion for which an allowance is or has been made. An amount restores a unit of property only if it—

(i) Is for the replacement of a component of a unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly deducted a loss for that component, other than a casualty loss under §1.165-7;

(ii) Is for the replacement of a component of a unit of property for which the taxpayer has properly taken into account the adjusted basis of the component in realizing gain or loss resulting from the sale or exchange of the component;

(iii) Is for the restoration of damage to a unit of property for which the taxpayer is required to take a basis adjustment as a result of a casualty loss under section 165, or relating to a casualty event described in section 165, subject to the limitation in paragraph (k)(4) of this section;

(iv) Returns the unit of property to its ordinarily efficient operating condition if the property has deteriorated to a state of disrepair and is no longer functional for its intended use;

(v) Results in the rebuilding of the unit of property to a like-new condition after the end of its class life as defined in paragraph (i)(4) of this section (see paragraph (k)(5) of this section); or

(vi) Is for the replacement of a part or a combination of parts that comprise a major component or a substantial structural part of a unit of property (see paragraph (k)(6) of this section).

(2) Application of restorations to buildings. An amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid to restore (as defined under paragraph (k)(1) of this section) a property specified under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(B) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) (leased building or portion of building) of this section. For example, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid for the replacement of a part or combination of parts that comprise a major component or substantial structural part of the building structure or any one of its building systems (for example, the HVAC system). See paragraph (k)(6) of this section.

(3) Exception for losses based on salvage value. A taxpayer is not required to treat as a restoration amounts paid under paragraph (k)(1)(i) or paragraph (k)(1)(ii) of this section if the unit of property has been fully depreciated and the loss is attributable only to remaining salvage value as computed for federal income tax purposes.

(4) Restoration of damage from casualty—(i) Limitation. For purposes of paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section, the amount paid for restoration of damage to the unit of property that must be capitalized under this paragraph (k) is limited to the excess (if any) of—

(A) The amount prescribed by §1.1011-1 as the adjusted basis of the single, identifiable property (under §1.167-7(b)(2)(i)) for determining the loss allowable on account of the casualty, over

(B) The amount paid for restoration of damage to the unit of property under paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section that also constitutes an improvement under any other provision of paragraph (k)(1) of this section.

(ii) Amounts in excess of limitation. The amounts paid for restoration of damage to a unit of property as described in paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section, but that exceed the limitation provided in paragraph (k)(4)(i) of this section, must be treated in accordance with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations that are otherwise applicable. See, for example, §1.162-4 (repairs and maintenance); §1.263(a)-2 (costs to acquire and produce units of property); and §1.263(a)-3 (costs to improve units of property).

(5) Rebuild to like-new condition. For purposes of paragraph (k)(1)(v) of this section, a unit of property is rebuilt to a like-new condition if it is brought to the status of new, rebuilt, remanufactured, or a similar status under the terms of any federal regulatory guideline or the manufacturer’s original specifications. Generally, a comprehensive maintenance program, even though substantial, does not return a unit of property to a like-new condition.

(6) Replacement of a major component or a substantial structural part—(i) In general. To determine whether an amount is for the replacement of a part or a combination of parts that comprise a major component or a substantial structural part of the unit of property under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section, it is appropriate to consider all the facts and circumstances. These facts and circumstances include the quantitative and qualitative significance of the part or combination of parts in relation to the unit of property.

(A) Major component. A major component is a part or combination of parts that performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the unit of property. An incidental component of the unit of property, even though such component performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the unit of property, generally will not, by itself, constitute a major component.

(B) Substantial structural part. A substantial structural part is a part or combination of parts that comprises a large portion of the physical structure of the unit of property.

(ii) Major components and substantial structural parts of buildings. In the case of a building, an amount is for the replacement of a major component or a substantial structural part of the building unit of property if—

(A) The replacement includes a part or combination of parts that comprise a major component (as defined in paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section), or a significant portion of a major component, of any of the properties designated in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(B) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) (leased building or leased portion of a building) of this section; or

(B) The replacement includes a part or combination of parts that comprises a large portion of the physical structure of any of the properties designated in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(B) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) (leased building or portion of building) of this section.

(7) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (k) only and do not address whether capitalization is required under another provision of this section or another provision of the Code (for example, section 263A). Unless otherwise stated, assume that the taxpayer has not properly deducted a loss for, nor taken into account the adjusted basis on a sale or exchange of, any unit of property, asset, or component of a unit of property that is replaced.

Example 1. Replacement of loss component. A owns a manufacturing building containing various types of manufacturing equipment. A does a cost segregation study of the manufacturing building and properly determines that a walk-in freezer in the manufacturing building is section 1245 property as defined in section 1245(a)(3). The freezer is not part of the building structure or the HVAC system under paragraph (e)(2)(i) or (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. Several components of the walk-in freezer cease to function, and A decides to replace them. A abandons the old freezer components and properly recognizes a loss from the abandonment of the components. A replaces the abandoned freezer components with new components and incurs costs to acquire and install the new components. Under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, A must capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install the new freezer components because A replaced components for which it had properly deducted a loss.

Example 2. Replacement of sold component. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that A did not abandon the components but instead sold them to another party and properly recognized a loss on the sale. Under paragraph (k)(1)(ii) of this section, A must capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install the new freezer components because A replaced components for which it had properly taken into account the adjusted basis of the components in realizing a loss from the sale of the components.

Example 3. Restoration after casualty loss. B owns an office building that it uses in its trade or business. A storm damages the office building at a time when the building has an adjusted basis of $500,000. B deducts under section 165 a casualty loss in the amount of $50,000, and properly reduces its basis in the office building to $450,000. B hires a contractor to repair the damage to the building, including the repair of the building roof and the removal of debris from the building premises. B pays the contractor $50,000 for the work. Under paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section, B must treat the $50,000 amount paid to the contractor as a restoration of the building structure because B properly adjusted its basis in that amount as a result of a casualty loss under section 165, and the amount does not exceed the limit in paragraph (k)(4) of this section. Therefore, B must treat the amount paid as an improvement to the building unit of property and, under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must capitalize the amount paid.

Example 4. Restoration after casualty event. Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except that B receives insurance proceeds of $50,000 after the casualty to compensate for its loss. B cannot deduct a casualty loss under section 165 because its loss was compensated by insurance. However, B properly reduces its basis in the property by the amount of the insurance proceeds. Under paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section, B must treat the $50,000 amount paid to the contractor as a restoration of the building structure because B has properly taken a basis adjustment relating to a casualty event described in section 165, and the amount does not exceed the limit in paragraph (k)(4) of this section. Therefore, B must treat the amount paid as an improvement to the building unit of property and, under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must capitalize the amount paid.

Example 5. Restoration after casualty loss; limitation. (i) C owns a building that it uses in its trade or business. A storm damages the building at a time when the building has an adjusted basis of $500,000. C determines that the cost of restoring its property is $750,000, deducts a casualty loss under section 165 in the amount of $500,000, and properly reduces its basis in the building to $0. C hires a contractor to repair the damage to the building and pays the contractor $750,000 for the work. The work involves replacing the entire roof structure of the building at a cost of $350,000 and pumping water from the building, cleaning debris from the interior and exterior, and replacing areas of damaged dry wall and flooring at a cost of $400,000. Although resulting from the casualty event, the pumping, cleaning, and replacing damaged drywall and flooring, does not directly benefit and is not incurred by reason of the roof replacement.

(ii) Under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section, C must capitalize as an improvement the $350,000 amount paid to the contractor to replace the roof structure because the roof structure constitutes a major component and a substantial structural part of the building unit of property. In addition, under paragraphs (k)(1)(iii) and (k)(4)(i), C must treat as a restoration the remaining costs, limited to the excess of the adjusted basis of the building over the amounts paid for the improvement under paragraph (k)(1)(vi). Accordingly, C must treat as a restoration $150,000 ($500,000 - $350,000) of the $400,000 paid for the portion of the costs related to repairing and cleaning the building structure under paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section. Thus, in addition to the $350,000 to replace the roof structure, C must also capitalize the $150,000 as an improvement to the building unit of property under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. C is not required to capitalize the remaining $250,000 repair and cleaning costs under paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section.

Example 6. Restoration of property in a state of disrepair. D owns and operates a farm with several barns and outbuildings. D did not use or maintain one of the outbuildings on a regular basis, and the outbuilding fell into a state of disrepair. The outbuilding previously was used for storage but can no longer be used for that purpose because the building is not structurally sound. D decides to restore the outbuilding and pays an amount to shore up the walls and replace the siding. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid to restore the building structure or any building system. The walls and siding are part of the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section, D must treat the amount paid to shore up the walls and replace the siding as a restoration of the building structure because the amounts return the building structure to its ordinarily efficient operating condition after it had deteriorated to a state of disrepair and was no longer functional for its intended use. Therefore, D must treat the amount paid to shore up the walls and replace the siding as an improvement to the building unit of property and, under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must capitalize the amount paid.

Example 7. Rebuild of property to like-new condition before end of class life. E is a Class I railroad that owns a fleet of freight cars. Assume the freight cars have a recovery period of 7 years under section 168(c) and a class life of 14 years. Every 8 to 10 years, E rebuilds its freight cars. Ten years after E places the freight car in service, E performs a rebuild to the manufacturer’s original specification, which includes a complete disassembly, inspection, and reconditioning or replacement of components of the suspension and draft systems, trailer hitches, and other special equipment. E also modifies the car to upgrade various components to the latest engineering standards. The freight car is stripped to the frame, with all of its substantial components either reconditioned or replaced. The frame itself is the longest-lasting part of the car and is reconditioned. The walls of the freight car are replaced or are sandblasted and repainted. New wheels are installed on the car. All the remaining components of the car are restored before they are reassembled. At the end of the rebuild, the freight car has been restored to like-new condition under the manufacturer’s specifications. Assume the freight car is the unit of property. E is not required to treat as an improvement and capitalize the amounts paid to rebuild the freight car under paragraph (k)(1)(v) of this section because, although the amounts paid restore the freight car to like-new condition, the amounts were not paid after the end of the class life of the freight car. However, see paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(6) of this section to determine whether any amounts must be capitalized because they are paid for the replacement of a major component or a substantial structural part of the unit of property.

Example 8. Rebuild of property to like-new condition after end of class life. Assume the same facts as in Example 7, except that E rebuilds the freight car 15 years after E places it in service. Under paragraph (k)(1)(v) of this section, E must treat as an improvement and capitalize the amounts paid to rebuild the freight car because the amounts paid restore the freight car to like-new condition after the end of the class life of the freight car.

Example 9. Not a rebuild to a like-new condition. F is a commercial airline engaged in the business of transporting freight and passengers. To conduct its business, F owns several aircraft. As a condition of maintaining its airworthiness certificates, F is required by the FAA to establish and adhere to a continuous maintenance program for each aircraft in its fleet. F performs heavy maintenance on its airframes every 8 to 10 years. In Year 1, F purchased an aircraft for $15 million. In Year 16, F paid $2 million for the labor and materials necessary to perform the second heavy maintenance visit on the airframe of an aircraft. To perform the heavy maintenance visit, F extensively disassembles the airframe, removing items such as engines, landing gear, cabin and passenger compartment seats, side and ceiling panels, baggage stowage bins, galleys, lavatories, floor boards, cargo loading systems, and flight control surfaces. As specified by F’s maintenance manual for the aircraft, F then performs certain tasks on the disassembled airframe for the purpose of preventing deterioration of the inherent safety and reliability levels of the airframe. These tasks include lubrication and service, operational and visual checks, inspection and functional checks, reconditioning of minor parts and components, and removal, discard, and replacement of certain life-limited single cell parts, such as cartridges, canisters, cylinders, and disks. Reconditioning of parts includes burnishing corrosion, repairing cracks, dents, gouges, punctures, tightening or replacing loose or missing fasteners, replacing damaged seals, gaskets, or valves, and similar activities. In addition to the tasks described above, to comply with certain FAA airworthiness directives, F inspects specific skin locations, applies doublers over small areas where cracks were found, adds structural reinforcements, and replaces skin panels on a small section of the fuselage. However, the heavy maintenance does not include the replacement of any major components or substantial structural parts of the aircraft with new components. In addition, the heavy maintenance visit does not bring the aircraft to the status of new, rebuilt, remanufactured, or a similar status under FAA guidelines or the manufacturer’s original specifications. After the heavy maintenance, the aircraft was reassembled. Assume the aircraft, including the engines, is a unit of property and has a class life of 12 years under section 168(c). Although the heavy maintenance is performed after the end of the class life of the aircraft, F is not required to treat the heavy maintenance as a restoration and improvement of the unit of property under paragraph (k)(1)(v) of this section because, although extensive, the amounts paid do not restore the aircraft to like-new condition. See also paragraph (i)(1)(iii) of this section for the application of the safe harbor for routine maintenance.

Example 10. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; personal property. G is a common carrier that owns a fleet of petroleum hauling trucks. G pays amounts to replace the existing engine, cab, and petroleum tank with a new engine, cab, and tank. Assume the tractor of the truck (which includes the cab and the engine) is a single unit of property and that the trailer (which contains the petroleum tank) is a separate unit of property. The new engine and the cab each constitute a part or combination of parts that comprise a major component of G’s tractor, because they perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the tractor. In addition, the cab constitutes a part or combination of parts that comprise a substantial structural part of G’s tractor. Therefore, the amounts paid for the replacement of the engine and the cab must be capitalized under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section. Moreover, the new petroleum tank constitutes a part or combination of parts that comprise a major component and a substantial structural part of the trailer. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the replacement of the tank also must be capitalized under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section.

Example 11. Repair performed during restoration. Assume the same facts as in Example 10, except that, at the same time the engine and cab of the tractor are replaced, G pays amounts to paint the cab of the tractor with its company logo and to fix a broken taillight on the tractor. The repair of the broken taillight and the painting of the cab generally are deductible expenses under §1.162-4. However, under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, a taxpayer must capitalize all the direct costs of an improvement and all the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of an improvement. Repairs and maintenance that do not directly benefit or are not incurred by reason of an improvement are not required to be capitalized under section 263(a), regardless of whether they are made at the same time as an improvement. For the amounts paid to paint the logo on the cab, G’s need to paint the logo arose from the replacement of the cab with a new cab. Therefore, under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, G must capitalize the amounts paid to paint the cab as part of the improvement to the tractor because these amounts directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the restoration of the tractor. The amounts paid to repair the broken taillight are not for the replacement of a major component, do not directly benefit, and are not incurred by reason of the replacement of the cab or the engine under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, even though the repair was performed at the same time as these replacements. Thus, G is not required to capitalize the amounts paid to repair the broken taillight.

Example 12. Related amounts to replace major component or substantial structural part; personal property. (i) H owns a retail gasoline station, consisting of a paved area used for automobile access to the pumps and parking areas, a building used to market gasoline, and a canopy covering the gasoline pumps. The premises also consist of underground storage tanks (USTs) that are connected by piping to the pumps and are part of the gasoline pumping system used in the immediate retail sale of gas. The USTs are components of the gasoline pumping system. To comply with regulations issued by the Environmental Protection Agency, H is required to remove and replace leaking USTs. In Year 1, H hires a contractor to perform the removal and replacement, which consists of removing the old tanks and installing new tanks with leak detection systems. The removal of the old tanks includes removing the paving material covering the tanks, excavating a hole large enough to gain access to the old tanks, disconnecting any strapping and pipe connections to the old tanks, and lifting the old tanks out of the hole. Installation of the new tanks includes placement of a liner in the excavated hole, placement of the new tanks, installation of a leak detection system, installation of an overfill system, connection of the tanks to the pipes leading to the pumps, backfilling of the hole, and replacement of the paving. H also is required to pay a permit fee to the county to undertake the installation of the new tanks.

(ii) H pays the permit fee to the county on October 15, Year 1. On December 15, Year 1, the contractor completes the removal of the old USTs and bills H for the costs of removal. On January 15, Year 2, the contractor completes the installation of the new USTs and bills H for the remainder of the work. Assume that H computes its taxes on a calendar year basis and H’s gasoline pumping system is the unit of property. Under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section, H must capitalize the amounts paid to replace the USTs as a restoration to the gasoline pumping system because the USTs are parts or combinations of parts that comprise a major component and substantial structural part of the gasoline pumping system. Moreover, under paragraph (g)(2) of this section, H must capitalize the costs of removing the old USTs because H has not taken a loss on the disposition of the USTs, and the amounts to remove the USTs directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the restoration of, and improvement to, the gasoline pumping system. In addition, under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, H must capitalize the permit fees because they directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the improvement to the gasoline pumping system. Finally, under paragraph (g)(3) of this section, H must capitalize the related amounts paid to improve the gasoline pumping system, including the permit fees, the amount paid to remove the old USTs, and the amount paid to install the new USTs, even though the amounts were separately invoiced, paid to different parties, and incurred in different tax years.

Example 13. Not replacement of major component; incidental. J owns a machine shop in which it makes dies used by manufacturers. In Year 1, J purchased a drill press for use in its production process. In Year 3, J discovers that the power switch assembly, which controls the supply of electric power to the drill press, has become damaged and cannot operate. To correct this problem, J pays amounts to replace the power switch assembly with comparable and commercially available replacement parts. Assume that the drill press is a unit of property under paragraph (e) of this section and the power switch assembly is a small component of the drill press that may be removed and installed with relative ease. The power switch assembly is not a major component of the unit of property under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section because, although the power assembly may affect the function of J’s drill press by controlling the supply of electric power, the power assembly is an incidental component of the drill press. In addition, the power assembly is not a substantial structural part of J’s drill press under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(B) of this section. Therefore, J is not required to capitalize the costs to replace the power switch assembly under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section.

Example 14. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; roof. K owns a manufacturing building. K discovers several leaks in the roof of the building and hires a contractor to inspect and fix the roof. The contractor discovers that a major portion of the decking has rotted and recommends the replacement of the entire roof. K pays the contractor to replace the entire roof, including the decking, insulation, asphalt, and various coatings. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid to restore the building structure or any building system. The roof is part of the building structure as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Because the entire roof performs a discrete and critical function in the building structure, the roof comprises a major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. In addition, because the roof comprises a large portion of the physical structure of the building structure, the roof comprises a substantial structural part of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under either analysis, K must treat the amount paid to replace the roof as a restoration of the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 15. Not replacement of major component or substantial structural part; roof membrane. L owns a building in which it conducts its retail business. The roof decking over L’s building is covered with a waterproof rubber membrane. Over time, the rubber membrane begins to wear, and L begins to experience leaks into its retail premises. However, the building is still functioning in L’s business. To eliminate the problems, a contractor recommends that L replace the membrane on the roof with a new rubber membrane. Accordingly, L pays the contractor to strip the original membrane and replace it with a new rubber membrane. The new membrane is comparable to the original membrane but corrects the leakage problems. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid to restore the building structure or any building system. The roof, including the membrane, is part of the building structure as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Because the entire roof performs a discrete and critical function in the building structure, the roof comprises a major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. Although the replacement membrane may aid in the function of the building structure, it does not, by itself, comprise a significant portion of the roof major component under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. In addition, the replacement membrane does not comprise a substantial structural part of L’s building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, L is not required to capitalize the amount paid to replace the membrane as a restoration of the building under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section.

Example 16. Not a replacement of major component or substantial structural part; HVAC system. M owns a building in which it operates an office that provides medical services. The building contains one HVAC system, which is comprised of three furnaces, three air conditioning units, and duct work that runs throughout the building to distribute the hot or cold air throughout the building. One furnace in M’s building breaks down, and M pays an amount to replace it with a new furnace. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid to restore the building structure or any building system. The HVAC system, including the furnaces, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. As the parts that provide the heating function in the system, the three furnaces, together, perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the HVAC system and are therefore a major component of the HVAC system under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section. However, the single furnace is not a significant portion of this major component of the HVAC system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, or a substantial structural part of the HVAC system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, M is not required to treat the amount paid to replace the furnace as a restoration of the building under paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section.

Example 17. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; HVAC system. N owns a large office building in which it provides consulting services. The building contains one HVAC system, which is comprised of one chiller unit, one boiler, pumps, duct work, diffusers, air handlers, outside air intake, and a cooling tower. The chiller unit includes the compressor, evaporator, condenser, and expansion valve, and it functions to cool the water used to generate air conditioning throughout the building. N pays an amount to replace the chiller with a comparable unit. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount is paid to restore the building structure or any building system. The HVAC system, including the chiller unit, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. The chiller unit performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the HVAC system because it provides the cooling mechanism for the entire system. Therefore, the chiller unit is a major component of the HVAC system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. Because the chiller unit comprises a major component of a building system, N must treat the amount paid to replace the chiller unit as a restoration to the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 18. Not replacement of major component or substantial structural part; HVAC system. O owns an office building that it uses to provide services to customers. The building contains a HVAC system that incorporates ten roof-mounted units that provide heating and air conditioning for the building. The HVAC system also consists of controls for the entire system and duct work that distributes the heated or cooled air to the various spaces in the building’s interior. O begins to experience climate control problems in various offices throughout the office building and consults with a contractor to determine the cause. The contractor recommends that O replace three of the roof-mounted heating and cooling units. O pays an amount to replace the three specified units. No work is performed on the other roof-mounted heating and cooling units, the duct work, or the controls. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The HVAC system, including the 10 roof-mounted heating and cooling units, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. As the components that generate the heat and the air conditioning in the HVAC system, the 10 roof-mounted units, together, perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the HVAC system and, therefore, are a major component of the HVAC system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. The three roof-mounted heating and cooling units are not a significant portion of a major component of the HVAC system under (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, or a substantial structural part of the HVAC system, under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Accordingly, O is not required to treat the amount paid to replace the three roof-mounted heating and cooling units as a restoration of the building under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section.

Example 19. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; fire protection system. P owns a building that it uses to operate its business. P pays an amount to replace the sprinkler system in the building with a new sprinkler system. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The fire protection and alarm system, including the sprinkler system, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(6) of this section. As the component that provides the fire suppression mechanism in the system, the sprinkler system performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the fire protection and alarm system and is therefore a major component of the system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. Because the sprinkler system comprises a major component of a building system, P must treat the amount paid to replace the sprinkler system as restoration to the building unit of property under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 20. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; electrical system. Q owns a building that it uses to operate its business. Q pays an amount to replace the wiring throughout the building with new wiring that meets building code requirements. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The electrical system, including the wiring, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(3) of this section. As the component that distributes the electricity throughout the system, the wiring performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the electrical system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. The wiring also comprises a large portion of the physical structure of the electrical system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Because the wiring comprises a major component and a substantial structural part of a building system, Q must treat the amount paid to replace the wiring as a restoration to the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 21. Not a replacement of major component or substantial structural part; electrical system. R owns a building that it uses to operate its business. R pays an amount to replace 30 percent of the wiring throughout the building with new wiring that meets building code requirements. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The electrical system, including the wiring, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(3) of this section. All the wiring in the building comprises a major component because it performs a discrete and critical function in the operation of the electrical system. However, the portion of the wiring that was replaced is not a significant portion of the wiring major component under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, nor does it comprise a substantial structural part of the electrical system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of 30 percent of the wiring is not the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of the building, and R is not required to treat the amount paid to replace 30 percent of the wiring as a restoration to the building under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section.

Example 22. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; plumbing system. S owns a building in which it conducts a retail business. The retail building has three floors. The retail building has men’s and women’s restrooms on two of the three floors. S decides to update the restrooms by paying an amount to replace the plumbing fixtures in all of the restrooms, including all the toilets and sinks, with modern style plumbing fixtures of similar quality and function. S does not replace the pipes connecting the fixtures to the building’s plumbing system. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The plumbing system, including the plumbing fixtures, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. All the toilets together perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the plumbing system, and all the sinks, together, also perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the plumbing system. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, all the toilets comprise a major component of the plumbing system, and all the sinks comprise a major component of the plumbing system. Accordingly, S must treat the amount paid to replace all of the toilets and all of the sinks as a restoration of the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 23. Not replacement of major component or substantial structural part; plumbing system. Assume the same facts as Example 22 except that S does not update all the bathroom fixtures. Instead, S only pays an amount to replace 8 of the total of 20 sinks located in the various restrooms. The 8 replaced sinks, by themselves, do not comprise a significant portion of a major component (the 20 sinks) of the plumbing system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section nor do they comprise a large portion of the physical structure of the plumbing system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of the eight sinks does not constitute the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of the building, and S is not required to treat the amount paid to replace the eight sinks as a restoration of a building under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section.

Example 24. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; plumbing system. (i) T owns and operates a hotel building. T decides that, to attract customers and to remain competitive, it needs to update the guest rooms in its facility. Accordingly, T pays amounts to replace the bathtubs, toilets, and sinks, and to repair, repaint, and retile the bathroom walls and floors, which is necessitated by the installation of the new plumbing components. The replacement bathtubs, toilets, sinks, and tile are new and in a different style, but are similar in function and quality to the replaced items. T also pays amounts to replace certain section 1245 property, such as the guest room furniture, carpeting, drapes, table lamps, and partition walls separating the bathroom area. T completes this work on two floors at a time, closing those floors and leaving the rest of the hotel open for business. In Year 1, T pays amounts to perform the updates for 4 of the 20 hotel room floors and expects to complete the renovation of the remaining rooms over the next two years.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The plumbing system, including the bathtubs, toilets, and sinks, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. All the bathtubs, together, all the toilets, together, and all the sinks together in the hotel building perform discrete and critical functions in the operation of the plumbing system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section and comprise a large portion of the physical structure of the plumbing system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6)(ii) of this section, these plumbing components comprise major components and substantial structural parts of the plumbing system, and T must treat the amount paid to replace these plumbing components as a restoration of, and improvement to, the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section. In addition, under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, T must treat the costs of repairing, repainting, and retiling the bathroom walls and floors as improvement costs because these costs directly benefit and are incurred by reason of the improvement to the building. Further, under paragraph (g)(3) of this section, T must treat the costs incurred in Years 1, 2, and 3 for the bathroom remodeling as improvement costs, even though they are incurred over a period of several taxable years, because they are related amounts paid to improve the building unit of property. Accordingly, under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, T must treat all the amounts it incurs to update its hotel restrooms as an improvement to the hotel building and capitalize these amounts. In addition, under §1.263(a)-2 of the regulations, T must capitalize the amounts paid to acquire and install each section 1245 property.

Example 25. Not replacement of major component or substantial structural part; windows. U owns a large office building that it uses to provide office space for employees that manage U’s operations. The building has 300 exterior windows that represent 25 percent of the total surface area of the building. In Year 1, U pays an amount to replace 100 of the exterior windows that had become damaged. At the time of these replacements, U has no plans to replace any other windows in the near future. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The exterior windows are part of the building structure as defined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. The 300 exterior windows perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the building structure and are, therefore, a major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section. However, the 100 windows do not comprise a significant portion of this major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section or a substantial structural part of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of the 100 windows does not constitute the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of the building, and U is not required to treat the amount paid to replace the 100 windows as restoration of the building under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section.

Example 26. Replacement of major component; windows. Assume the same facts as Example 25, except that that U replaces 200 of the 300 windows on the building. The 300 exterior windows perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the building structure and are, therefore, a major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section. The 200 windows comprise a significant portion of this major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of the 200 windows comprise the replacement of a major component of the building structure. Accordingly, U must treat the amount paid to replace the 200 windows as a restoration of the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 27. Replacement of substantial structural part; windows. Assume the same facts as Example 25, except that the building is a modern design and the 300 windows represent 90 percent of the total surface area of the building. U replaces 100 of the 300 windows on the building. The 300 exterior windows perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the building structure and are, therefore, a major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(A) of this section. The 100 windows do not comprise a significant portion of this major component of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, however, they do comprise a substantial structural part of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of the 100 windows comprise the replacement of a substantial structural part of the building structure. Accordingly, U must treat the amount paid to replace the 100 windows as a restoration of the building unit of property under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 28. Not replacement of major component or substantial structural part; floors. V owns and operates a hotel building. V decides to refresh the appearance of the hotel lobby by replacing the floors in the lobby. The hotel lobby comprises less than 10 percent of the square footage of the entire hotel building. V pays an amount to replace the wood flooring in the lobby with new wood flooring of a similar quality. V did not replace any other flooring in the building. Assume that the wood flooring constitutes section 1250 property. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The wood flooring is part of the building structure under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. All the floors in the hotel building comprise a major component of the building structure because they perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the building structure. However, the lobby floors are not a significant portion of a major component (that is, all the floors) under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, nor do the lobby floors comprise a substantial structural part of the building structure under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement of the lobby floors is not the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of the building unit of property, and V is not required to treat the amount paid for the replacement of the lobby floors as a restoration to the building under paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section.

Example 29. Replacement of major component or substantial structural part; floors. Assume the same facts as Example 28, except that V decides to refresh the appearance of all the public areas of the hotel building by replacing all the floors in the public areas. To that end, V pays an amount to replace all the wood floors in all the public areas of the hotel building with new wood floors. The public areas include the lobby, the hallways, the meeting rooms, the ballrooms, and other public rooms throughout the hotel interiors. The public areas comprise approximately 40 percent of the square footage of the entire hotel building. All the floors in the hotel building comprise a major component of the building structure because they perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of the building structure. The floors in all the public areas of the hotel comprise a significant portion of a major component (that is, all the building floors) of the building structure. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, the replacement of all the public area floors constitutes the replacement of a major component of the building structure. Accordingly, V must treat the amount paid to replace the public area floors as a restoration of the building unit of property under paragraphs (k)(1)(vi) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amounts as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

Example 30. Replacement with no disposition. (i) X owns an office building with four elevators serving all floors in the building. X replaces one of the elevators. The elevator is a structural component of the office building. X chooses to apply Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations. In accordance with Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(c)(4)(ii)(A) (September 19, 2013), the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for tax disposition purposes. X does not treat the structural components of the office building as assets under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(c)(4)(iii) (September 19, 2013). X also does not make the partial disposition election provided under Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d)(2) (September 19, 2013), for the elevator. Thus, the retirement of the replaced elevator is not a disposition under section 168, and no loss is taken into account for purposes of paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (k)(2) of this section, an amount is paid to improve a building if the amount restores the building structure or any building system. The elevator system, including all four elevators, is a building system under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B)(5) of this section. The replacement elevator does not perform a discrete and critical function in the operation of elevator system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(A) of this section nor does it comprise a large portion of the physical structure of the elevator system under paragraph (k)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (k)(6) of this section, the replacement elevator does not constitute the replacement of a major component or substantial structural part of the elevator system. Accordingly, X is not required to treat the amount paid to replace the elevator as a restoration to the building under either paragraph (k)(1)(i) or paragraph (k)(1)(vi) of this section.

Example 31. Replacement with disposition. The facts are the same as in Example 30, except X makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(d)(2) (September 19, 2013), for the elevator. Although the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes, the result of X making the partial disposition election for the elevator is that the retirement of the replaced elevator is a disposition. Thus, depreciation for the retired elevator ceases at the time of its retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and X recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Accordingly, X must treat the amount paid to replace the elevator as a restoration of the building under paragraphs (k)(1)(i) and (k)(2) of this section and must capitalize the amount paid as an improvement to the building under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. In addition, the replacement elevator is treated as a separate asset for tax disposition purposes pursuant to Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8(c)(4)(ii)(D) (September 19, 2013), and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

(l) Capitalization of amounts to adapt property to a new or different use—(1) In general. A taxpayer must capitalize as an improvement an amount paid to adapt a unit of property to a new or different use. In general, an amount is paid to adapt a unit of property to a new or different use if the adaptation is not consistent with the taxpayer’s ordinary use of the unit of property at the time originally placed in service by the taxpayer.

(2) Application of adaption rule to buildings. In the case of a building, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid to adapt to a new or different use a property specified under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (building), paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) (condominium), paragraph (e)(2)(iv)(B) (cooperative), or paragraph (e)(2)(v)(B) (leased building or leased portion of building) of this section. For example, an amount is paid to improve a building if it is paid to adapt the building structure or any one of its buildings systems to a new or different use.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (l) only and do not address whether capitalization is required under another provision of this section or under another provision of the Code (for example, section 263A). Unless otherwise stated, assume that the taxpayer has not properly deducted a loss for any unit of property, asset, or component of a unit of property that is removed and replaced.

Example 1. New or different use; change in building use. A is a manufacturer and owns a manufacturing building that it has used for manufacturing since Year 1, when A placed it in service. In Year 30, A pays an amount to convert its manufacturing building into a showroom for its business. To convert the facility, A removes and replaces various structural components to provide a better layout for the showroom and its offices. A also repaints the building interiors as part of the conversion. When building materials are removed and replaced, A uses comparable and commercially available replacement materials. Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve A’s manufacturing building if the amount adapts the building structure or any designated building system to a new or different use. Under paragraph (l)(1) of this section, the amount paid to convert the manufacturing building into a showroom adapts the building structure to a new or different use because the conversion to a showroom is not consistent with A’s ordinary use of the building structure at the time it was placed in service. Therefore, A must capitalize the amount paid to convert the building into a showroom as an improvement to the building under paragraphs (d)(3) and (l) of this section.

Example 2. Not a new or different use; leased building. B owns and leases out space in a building consisting of twenty retail spaces. The space was designed to be reconfigured; that is, adjoining spaces could be combined into one space. One of the tenants expands its occupancy by leasing two adjoining retail spaces. To facilitate the new lease, B pays an amount to remove the walls between the three retail spaces. Assume that the walls between spaces are part of the building and its structural components. Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve B’s building if it adapts the building structure or any of the building systems to a new or different use. Under paragraph (l)(1) of this section, the amount paid to convert three retail spaces into one larger space for an existing tenant does not adapt B’s building structure to a new or different use because the combination of retail spaces is consistent with B’s intended, ordinary use of the building structure. Therefore, the amount paid by B to remove the walls does not improve the building under paragraph (l) of this section and is not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

Example 3. Not a new or different use; preparing building for sale. C owns a building consisting of twenty retail spaces. C decides to sell the building. In anticipation of selling the building, C pays an amount to repaint the interior walls and to refinish the hardwood floors. Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve C’s building to a new or different use if it adapts the building structure or any of the building systems to a new or different use. Preparing the building for sale does not constitute a new or different use for the building structure under paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Therefore, the amount paid by C to prepare the building structure for sale does not improve the building under paragraph (l) of this section and is not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

Example 4. New or different use; land. D owns a parcel of land on which it previously operated a manufacturing facility. Assume that the land is the unit of property. During the course of D’s operation of the manufacturing facility, the land became contaminated with wastes from its manufacturing processes. D discontinues manufacturing operations at the site and decides to develop the property for residential housing. In anticipation of building residential property, D pays an amount to remediate the contamination caused by D’s manufacturing process. In addition, D pays an amount to regrade the land so that it can be used for residential purposes. Amounts that D pays to clean up wastes do not adapt the land to a new or different use, regardless of the extent to which the land was cleaned, because this cleanup merely returns the land to the condition it was in before the land was contaminated in D’s operations. Therefore, D is not required to capitalize the amount paid for the cleanup under paragraph (l)(1) of this section. However, the amount paid to regrade the land so that it can be used for residential purposes adapts the land to a new or different use that is inconsistent with D’s intended ordinary use of the property at the time it was placed in service. Accordingly, the amounts paid to regrade the land must be capitalized as improvements to the land under paragraphs (d)(3) and (l) of this section.

Example 5. New or different use; part of building. (i) E owns a building in which it operates a retail drug store. The store consists of a pharmacy for filling medication prescriptions and various departments where customers can purchase food, toiletries, home goods, school supplies, cards, over-the-counter medications, and other similar items. E decides to create a walk-in medical clinic where nurse practitioners and physicians’ assistants diagnose, treat, and write prescriptions for common illnesses and injuries, administer common vaccinations, conduct physicals and wellness screenings, and provide routine lab tests and services for common chronic conditions. To create the clinic, E pays amounts to reconfigure the pharmacy building. E incurs costs to build new walls creating an examination room, lab room, reception area, and waiting area. E installs additional plumbing, electrical wiring, and outlets to support the lab. E also acquires section 1245 property, such as computers, furniture, and equipment necessary for the new clinic. E treats the amounts paid for those units of property as costs of acquiring new units of property under §1.263(a)-2.

(ii) Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve E’s building if it adapts the building structure or any of the building systems to a new or different use. Under paragraph (l)(1) of this section, the amount paid to convert part of the retail drug store building structure into a medical clinic adapts the building structure to a new and different use, because the use of the building structure to provide clinical medical services is not consistent with E’s intended ordinary use of the building structure at the time it was placed in service. Similarly, the amounts paid to add to the plumbing system and the electrical systems to support the new medical services is not consistent with E’s intended ordinary use of these systems when the systems were placed in service. Therefore, E must treat the amount paid for the conversion of the building structure, plumbing system, and electrical system as an improvement to the building and capitalize the amount under paragraphs (d)(3) and (l) of this section.

Example 6. Not a new or different use; part of building. (i) F owns a building in which it operates a grocery store. The grocery store includes various departments for fresh produce, frozen foods, fresh meats, dairy products, toiletries, and over-the-counter medicines. The grocery store also includes separate counters for deli meats, prepared foods, and baked goods, often made to order. To better accommodate its customers’ shopping needs, F decides to add a sushi bar where customers can order freshly prepared sushi from the counter for take-home or to eat at the counter. To create the sushi bar, F pays amounts to add a sushi counter and chairs, add additional wiring and outlets to support the counter, and install additional pipes and a sink, to provide for the safe handling of the food. F also pays amounts to replace flooring and wall coverings in the sushi bar area with decorative coverings to reflect more appropriate décor. Assume the sushi counter and chairs are section 1245 property, and F treats the amounts paid for those units of property as costs of acquiring new units of property under §1.263(a)-2.

(ii) Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve F’s building if it adapts the building structure or any of the building systems to a new or different use. Under paragraph (l)(1) of this section, the amount paid to convert a part of F’s retail grocery into a sushi bar area does not adapt F’s building structure, plumbing system, or electrical system to a new or different use, because the sale of sushi is consistent with F’s intended, ordinary use of the building structure and these systems in its grocery sales business, which includes selling food to its customers at various specialized counters. Accordingly, the amount paid by F to replace the wall and floor finishes, add wiring, and add plumbing to create the sushi bar space does not improve the building unit of property under paragraph (l) of this section and is not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

Example 7. Not a new or different use; part of building. (i) G owns a hospital with various departments dedicated to the provision of clinical medical care. To better accommodate its patients’ needs, G decides to modify the emergency room space to provide both emergency care and outpatient surgery. To modify the space, G pays amounts to move interior walls, add additional wiring and outlets, replace floor tiles and doors, and repaint the walls. To complete the outpatient surgery center, G also pays amounts to install miscellaneous medical equipment necessary for the provision of surgical services. Assume the medical equipment is section 1245 property, and G treats the amounts paid for those units of property as costs of acquiring new units of property under §1.263(a)-2.

(ii) Under paragraphs (l)(2) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, an amount is paid to improve G’s building if it adapts the building structure or any of the building systems to a new or different use. Under paragraph (l)(1) of this section, the amount paid to convert part of G’s emergency room into an outpatient surgery center does not adapt G’s building structure or electrical system to a new or different use, because the provision of outpatient surgery is consistent with G’s intended, ordinary use of the building structure and these systems in its clinical medical care business. Accordingly, the amounts paid by G to relocate interior walls, add additional wiring and outlets, replace floor tiles and doors, and repaint the walls to create outpatient surgery space do not improve the building under paragraph (l) of this section and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(m) Optional regulatory accounting method—(1) In general. This paragraph (m) provides an optional simplified method (the regulatory accounting method) for regulated taxpayers to determine whether amounts paid to repair, maintain, or improve tangible property are to be treated as deductible expenses or capital expenditures. A taxpayer that uses the regulatory accounting method described in paragraph (m)(3) of this section must use that method for property subject to regulatory accounting instead of determining whether amounts paid to repair, maintain, or improve property are capital expenditures or deductible expenses under the general principles of sections 162(a), 212, and 263(a). Thus, the capitalization rules in paragraph (d) (and the routine maintenance safe harbor described in paragraph (i)) of this section do not apply to amounts paid to repair, maintain, or improve property subject to regulatory accounting by taxpayers that use the regulatory accounting method under this paragraph (m).

(2) Eligibility for regulatory accounting method. A taxpayer that is engaged in a trade or business in a regulated industry is a regulated taxpayer and may use the regulatory accounting method under this paragraph (m). For purposes of this paragraph (m), a taxpayer is in a regulated industry only if the taxpayer is subject to the regulatory accounting rules of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), or the Surface Transportation Board (STB).

(3) Description of regulatory accounting method. Under the regulatory accounting method, a taxpayer must follow the method of accounting for regulatory accounting purposes that it is required to follow for FERC, FCC, or STB (whichever is applicable) in determining whether an amount paid repairs, maintains, or improves property under this section. Therefore, a taxpayer must capitalize for Federal income tax purposes an amount paid that is capitalized as an improvement for regulatory accounting purposes. A taxpayer may not capitalize for Federal income tax purposes under this section an amount paid that is not capitalized as an improvement for regulatory accounting purposes. A taxpayer that uses the regulatory accounting method must use that method for all of its tangible property that is subject to regulatory accounting rules. The method does not apply to tangible property that is not subject to regulatory accounting rules. The method also does not apply to property for the taxable years in which the taxpayer elected to apply the repair allowance under §1.167(a)-11(d)(2). The regulatory accounting method is a method of accounting under section 446(a).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (m):

Example 1. Taxpayer subject to regulatory accounting rules of FERC. W is an electric utility company that operates a power plant that generates electricity and that owns and operates network assets to transmit and distribute the electricity to its customers. W is subject to the regulatory accounting rules of FERC, and W uses the regulatory accounting method under paragraph (m) of this section. W does not capitalize on its books and records for regulatory accounting purposes the cost of repairs and maintenance performed on its turbines or its network assets. Under the regulatory accounting method, W may not capitalize for Federal income tax purposes amounts paid for repairs performed on its turbines or its network assets.

Example 2. Taxpayer not subject to regulatory accounting rules of FERC. X is an electric utility company that operates a power plant to generate electricity. X previously was subject to the regulatory accounting rules of FERC, but currently X is not required to use FERC’s regulatory accounting rules. X cannot use the regulatory accounting method provided in this paragraph (m).

Example 3. Taxpayer subject to regulatory accounting rules of FCC. Y is a telecommunications company that is subject to the regulatory accounting rules of the FCC. Y uses the regulatory accounting method under this paragraph (m). Y’s assets include a telephone central office switching center, which contains numerous switches and various switching equipment. Y capitalizes on its books and records for regulatory accounting purposes the cost of replacing each switch. Under the regulatory accounting method, Y is required to capitalize for Federal income tax purposes amounts paid to replace each switch.

Example 4. Taxpayer subject to regulatory accounting rules of STB. Z is a Class I railroad that is subject to the regulatory accounting rules of the STB. Z uses the regulatory accounting method under this paragraph (m). Z capitalizes on its books and records for regulatory accounting purposes the cost of locomotive rebuilds. Under the regulatory accounting method, Z is required to capitalize for Federal income tax purposes amounts paid to rebuild its locomotives.

(n) Election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs—(1) In general. A taxpayer may elect to treat amounts paid during the taxable year for repair and maintenance (as defined under §1.162-4) to tangible property as amounts paid to improve that property under this section and as an asset subject to the allowance for depreciation if the taxpayer incurs these amounts in carrying on the taxpayer’s trade or business and if the taxpayer treats these amounts as capital expenditures on its books and records regularly used in computing income (“books and records”). A taxpayer that elects to apply this paragraph (n) in a taxable year must apply this paragraph to all amounts paid for repair and maintenance to tangible property that it treats as capital expenditures on its books and records in that taxable year. Any amounts for which this election is made shall not be treated as amounts paid for repair or maintenance under §1.162-4.

(2) Time and manner of election. A taxpayer makes this election under this paragraph (n) by attaching a statement to the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year in which the taxpayer pays amounts described under paragraph (n)(1) of this paragraph. See §§301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. The statement must be titled “Section 1.263(a)-3(n) Election” and include the taxpayer’s name, address, taxpayer identification number, and a statement that the taxpayer is making the election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs under §1.263(a)-3(n). In the case of a consolidated group filing a consolidated income tax return, the election is made for each member of the consolidated group by the common parent, and the statement must also include the names and taxpayer identification numbers of each member for which the election is made. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or partnership and not by the shareholders or partners. A taxpayer making this election for a taxable year must treat any amounts paid for repairs and maintenance during the taxable year that are capitalized on the taxpayer’s books and records as improvements to tangible property. The taxpayer must begin to depreciate the cost of such improvements amounts when they are placed in service by the taxpayer under the applicable provisions of the Code and regulations. An election may not be made through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to make a late election, by filing an amended Federal tax return. The time and manner of electing to capitalize repair and maintenance costs under this paragraph (n) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(3) Exception. This paragraph (n) does not apply to amounts paid for repairs or maintenance of rotable or temporary spare parts to which the taxpayer applies the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under §1.162-3(e).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (n):

Example 1. Election to capitalize routine maintenance on non-rotable part. (i) Q is a towboat operator that owns a fleet of towboats that it uses in its trade or business. Each towboat is equipped with two diesel-powered engines. Assume that each towboat, including its engines, is the unit of property and that a towboat has a class life of 18 years. Assume the towboat engines are not rotable spare parts under §1.162-3(c)(2). In Year 1, Q acquired a new towboat, including its two engines, and placed the towboat into service. In Year 4, Q pays amounts to perform scheduled maintenance on both engines in the towboat. Assume that none of the exceptions set out in paragraph (i)(3) of this section apply to the scheduled maintenance costs and that the scheduled maintenance on Q’s towboat is within the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance to its towboat engines in Year 4 are deemed not to improve the towboat and are not required to be capitalized under paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) On its books and records, Q treats amounts paid for scheduled maintenance on its towboat engines as capital expenditures. For administrative convenience, Q decides to account for these costs in the same way for Federal income tax purposes. Under paragraph (n) of this section, in Year 4, Q may elect to capitalize the amounts paid for the scheduled maintenance on its towboat engines. If Q elects to capitalize such amounts, Q must capitalize all amounts paid for repair and maintenance to tangible property that Q treats as capital expenditures on its books and records in Year 4.

Example 2. No election to capitalize routine maintenance. Assume the same facts as Example 1, except in Year 8, Q pays amounts to perform scheduled maintenance for a second time on the towboat engines. On its books and records, Q treats the amounts paid for this scheduled maintenance as capital expenditures. However, in Year 8, Q decides not to make the election to capitalize the amounts paid for scheduled maintenance under paragraph (n) of this section. Because Q does not make the election under paragraph (n) for Year 8, Q may apply the routine maintenance safe harbor under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section to the amounts paid in Year 8, and not treat these amounts as capital expenditures. Because the election is made for each taxable year, there is no effect on the scheduled maintenance costs capitalized by Q on its Federal tax return for Year 4.

Example 3. Election to capitalize replacement of building component. (i) R owns an office building that it uses to provide services to customers. The building contains a HVAC system that incorporates ten roof-mounted units that provide heating and air conditioning for different parts of the building. In Year 1, R pays an amount to replace 2 of the 10 units to address climate control problems in various offices throughout the office building. Assume that the replacement of the two units does not constitute an improvement to the HVAC system, and, accordingly, to the building unit of property under paragraph (d) of this section, and that R may deduct these amounts as repairs and maintenance under §1.162-4.

(ii) On its books and records, R treats amounts paid for the two HVAC components as capital expenditures. R determines that it would prefer to account for these amounts in the same way for Federal income tax purposes. Under this paragraph (n), in Year 1, R may elect to capitalize the amounts paid for the new HVAC components. If R elects to capitalize such amounts, R must capitalize all amounts paid for repair and maintenance to tangible property that R treats as capital expenditures on its books and records in Year 1.

(o) Treatment of capital expenditures. Amounts required to be capitalized under this section are capital expenditures and must be taken into account through a charge to capital account or basis, or in the case of property that is inventory in the hands of a taxpayer, through inclusion in inventory costs.

(p) Recovery of capitalized amounts. Amounts that are capitalized under this section are recovered through depreciation, cost of goods sold, or by an adjustment to basis at the time the property is placed in service, sold, used, or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer. Cost recovery is determined by the applicable Code and regulation provisions relating to the use, sale, or disposition of property.

(q) Accounting method changes. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to change its accounting method.

(r) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. Except for paragraphs (h), (m), and (n) of this section, this section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Paragraphs (h), (m), and (n) of this section apply to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (r)(2) and (r)(3) of this section, §1.263(a)-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section—(i) In general. Except for paragraphs (h), (m), and (n) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to apply this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraphs (h), (m), and (n) of this section to amounts paid in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(ii) Transition rule for certain elections on 2012 or 2013 returns. If under paragraph (r)(2)(i) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to make the election to apply the safe harbor for small taxpayers under paragraph (h) of this section or the election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs under paragraph (n) of this section for amounts paid in its taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (h)(6) or paragraph (n)(2) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (h)(6) or paragraph (n)(2) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing an amended Federal tax return (including the required statements) for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263(a)-3T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.263(a)-3T [Removed]

Par. 25. Section 1.263(a)-3T is removed.

Par. 26. Section 1.263(a)-6 is added to read as follows:

§1.263(a)-6 Election to deduct or capitalize certain expenditures.

(a) In general. Under certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), taxpayers may elect to treat capital expenditures as deductible expenses or as deferred expenses, or to treat deductible expenses as capital expenditures.

(b) Election provisions. The sections referred to in paragraph (a) of this section include:

(1) Section 173 (circulation expenditures);

(2) Section 174 (research and experimental expenditures);

(3) Section 175 (soil and water conservation expenditures; endangered species recovery expenditures);

(4) Section 179 (election to expense certain depreciable business assets);

(5) Section 179A (deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property);

(6) Section 179B (deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with environmental protection agency sulfur regulations);

(7) Section 179C (election to expense certain refineries);

(8) Section 179D (energy efficient commercial buildings deduction);

(9) Section 179E (election to expense advanced mine safety equipment);

(10) Section 180 (expenditures by farmers for fertilizer);

(11) Section 181 (treatment of certain qualified film and television productions);

(12) Section 190 (expenditures to remove architectural and transportation barriers to the handicapped and elderly);

(13) Section 193 (tertiary injectants);

(14) Section 194 (treatment of reforestation expenditures);

(15) Section 195 (start-up expenditures);

(16) Section 198 (expensing of environmental remediation costs);

(17) Section 198A (expensing of qualified disaster expenses);

(18) Section 248 (organization expenditures of a corporation);

(19) Section 266 (carrying charges);

(20) Section 616 (development expenditures); and

(21) Section 709 (organization and syndication fees of a partnership).

(c) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section, §1.263(a)-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014. For the effective dates of the enumerated election provisions, see those Code sections and the regulations under those sections.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263(a)-6T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.263(a)-6T [Removed]

Par. 27. Section 1.263(a)-6T is removed.

Par. 28. Section 1.263A-0 is amended by adding new entries in the outline for §1.263A-1(k) and (l) to read as follows:

§1.263A-0 Outline of the Regulations under Section 263A.

* * * * *

§1.263A-1 Uniform Capitalization of Costs.

* * * * *

(k) Change in method of accounting.

(1) In general.

(2) Scope limitations.

(3) Audit protection.

(4) Section 481(a) adjustment.

(5) Time for requesting change.

(l) Effective/applicability date.

(1) In general.

(2) Mixed service costs; self-constructed tangible personal property produced on a routine and repetitive basis.

(3) Materials and supplies.

(i) In general

(ii) Early application of this section.

(iii) Optional application of TD 9564.

* * * * *

Par. 29. Section 1.263A-1 is amended by:

1. Removing paragraphs (b)(14) and (m).

2. Revising paragraphs (c)(4), (e)(2)(i)(A), (e)(3)(ii)(E) and (l).

The revisions read as follows:

§1.263A-1 Uniform capitalization of costs.

* * * * *

(c) * * *

(4) Recovery of capitalized costs. Costs that are capitalized under section 263A are recovered through depreciation, amortization, cost of goods sold, or by an adjustment to basis at the time the property is used, sold, placed in service, or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer. Cost recovery is determined by the applicable Internal Revenue Code and regulation provisions relating to use, sale, or disposition of property.

* * * * *

(e) * * *

(2) * * *

(i) * * *

(A) Direct material costs. Direct materials costs include the cost of those materials that become an integral part of specific property produced and those materials that are consumed in the ordinary course of production and that can be identified or associated with particular units or groups of units of property produced. For example, a cost described in §1.162-3, relating to the cost of a material or supply, may be a direct material cost.

* * * * *

(3) * * *

(ii) * * *

(E) Indirect material costs. Indirect material costs include the cost of materials that are not an integral part of specific property produced and the cost of materials that are consumed in the ordinary course of performing production or resale activities that cannot be identified or associated with particular units of property. Thus, for example, a cost described in §1.162-3, relating to the cost of a material or supply, may be an indirect cost.

* * * * *

(l) Effective/applicability dates—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (l)(2) and (l)(3) of this section, the effective dates for this section are provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Mixed service costs; self-constructed tangible personal property produced on a routine and repetitive basis. Paragraphs (h)(2)(i)(D), (k), and (l)(2) of this section apply for taxable years ending on or after August 2, 2005.

(3) Materials and supplies—(i) In general. The last sentence of paragraphs (e)(2)(i)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(E) of this section, and paragraph (l)(3) of this section apply to amounts paid (to acquire or produce property) in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraph (l)(3)(ii) or paragraph (l)(3)(iii) of this section, section 1.263A-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(ii) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply the last sentence of paragraphs (e)(2)(i)(A) and (e)(2)(ii)(E) of this section, and paragraph (l)(3) of this section to amounts paid (to acquire or produce property) in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(iii) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.263A-1T(b)(14), the introductory phrase of §1.263A-1T(c)(4), the last sentence of §1.263A-1T(e)(2)(i)(A), the last sentence of §1.263A-1T(e)(2)(ii)(E), §1.263A-1T(l), and §1.263A-1T(m)(2), as these provisions are contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to amounts paid (to acquire or produce property) in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.263A-1T [Removed]

Par. 30. Section 1.263A-1T is removed.

Par. 31. Section 1.1016-3 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(1)(ii), (j)(1), and (j)(3) to read as follows:

§1.1016-3 Exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for periods since February 13, 1913.

(a)* * *

(1)* * *

(ii) The determination of the amount properly allowable for exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion must be made on the basis of facts reasonably known to exist at the end of the taxable year. A taxpayer is not permitted to take advantage in a later year of the taxpayer’s prior failure to take any such allowance or the taxpayer’s taking an allowance plainly inadequate under the known facts in prior years. In the case of depreciation, if in prior years the taxpayer has consistently taken proper deductions under one method, the amount allowable for such prior years may not be increased, even though a greater amount would have been allowable under another proper method. For rules governing losses on retirement or disposition of depreciable property, including rules for determining basis, see §1.167(a)-8, §1.168(i)-1T(e), §1.168(i)-8T, Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-1(e) (September 19, 2013), or Prop. Reg. §1.168(i)-8 (September 19, 2013), as applicable. The application of this paragraph is illustrated by the following example (for purposes of this example, assume section 167(f)(1) as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014):

Example. On July 1, 2014, A, a calendar-year taxpayer, purchased and placed in service “off-the-shelf” computer software at a cost of $36,000. This computer software is not an amortizable section 197 intangible. Pursuant to section 167(f)(1), the useful life of the computer software is 36 months. It has no salvage value. Computer software placed in service in 2014 is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction provided by section 168(k). A did not deduct any depreciation for the computer software for 2014 and deducted depreciation of $12,000 for the computer software for 2015. As a result, the total amount of depreciation allowed for the computer software as of December 31, 2015, was $12,000. However, the total amount of depreciation allowable for the computer software as of December 31, 2015, is $18,000 ($6,000 for 2014 + $12,000 for 2015). As a result, the unrecovered cost of the computer software as of December 31, 2015, is $18,000 (cost of $36,000 less the depreciation allowable of $18,000 as of December 31, 2015). Accordingly, depreciation for 2016 for the computer software is $12,000 (unrecovered cost of $18,000 divided by the remaining useful life of 18 months as of January 1, 2016, multiplied by 12 full months in 2016).

* * * * *

(j) Effective/applicability dates—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this section, this section applies on or after December 30, 2003. For the applicability of regulations before December 30, 2003, see §1.1016-3 in effect prior to December 30, 2003 (§1.1016-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2003).

* * * * *

(3) Application of §1.1016-3T(a)(1)(ii)—(i) In general. Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(3)(ii) and (j)(3)(iii) of this section, §1.1016-3(a)(1)(ii) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(ii) Early application of §1.1016-3(a)(1)(ii). A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(iii) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.1016-3T(a)(1)(ii) as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

§1.1016-3T [Removed]

Par. 32. Section 1.1016-3T is removed.

PART 602—OMB CONTROL NUMBERS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

Par. 33. The authority citation for part 602 continues to read as follows:

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805.

Par. 34. In §602.101, paragraph (b) is amended by adding the following entries to the table in numerical order to read as follows:

§602.101 OMB Control numbers.

* * * * *

(b) * * *

CFR part or section where Identified and described Current OMB control No.
* * * * *
1.263(a)-1 1545-2248
1.263(a)-3 1545-2248
* * * * *
Beth Tucker,
Deputy Commissioner for
Operations Support.

Approved August 15, 2013.

Mark J. Mazur,
Assistant Secretary
of the Treasury (Tax Policy).

Note

(Filed by the Office of the Federal Register on September 13, 2013, 11:15 a.m., and published in the issue of the Federal Register for September 19, 2013, 78 F.R. 57686)

Drafting Information

The principal authors of these regulations are Merrill D. Feldstein and Kathleen Reed, Office of the Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax and Accounting). Other personnel from the IRS and the Treasury Department have participated in their development.

* * * * *

Rev. Rul. 2013-21

Federal rates; adjusted federal rates; adjusted federal long-term rate and the long-term exempt rate. For purposes of sections 382, 642, 1274, 1288, and other sections of the Code, tables set forth the rates for October 2013.

This revenue ruling provides various prescribed rates for federal income tax purposes for October 2013 (the current month). Table 1 contains the short-term, mid-term, and long-term applicable federal rates (AFR) for the current month for purposes of section 1274(d) of the Internal Revenue Code. Table 2 contains the short-term, mid-term, and long-term adjusted applicable federal rates (adjusted AFR) for the current month for purposes of section 1288(b). Table 3 sets forth the adjusted federal long-term rate and the long-term tax-exempt rate described in section 382(f). Table 4 contains the appropriate percentages for determining the low-income housing credit described in section 42(b)(1) for buildings placed in service during the current month. However, under section 42(b)(2), the applicable percentage for non-federally subsidized new buildings placed in service after July 30, 2008, with respect to housing credit dollar amount allocations made before January 1, 2014, shall not be less than 9%. Finally, Table 5 contains the federal rate for determining the present value of an annuity, an interest for life or for a term of years, or a remainder or a reversionary interest for purposes of section 7520.

REV. RUL. 2013-21 TABLE 1
Applicable Federal Rates (AFR) for October 2013
Period for Compounding
Annual Semiannual Quarterly Monthly
Short-term
AFR .32% .32% .32% .32%
110% AFR .35% .35% .35% .35%
120% AFR .38% .38% .38% .38%
130% AFR .42% .42% .42% .42%
Mid-term
AFR 1.93% 1.92% 1.92% 1.91%
110% AFR 2.12% 2.11% 2.10% 2.10%
120% AFR 2.31% 2.30% 2.29% 2.29%
130% AFR 2.52% 2.50% 2.49% 2.49%
150% AFR 2.90% 2.88% 2.87% 2.86%
175% AFR 3.39% 3.36% 3.35% 3.34%
Long-term
AFR 3.50% 3.47% 3.46% 3.45%
110% AFR 3.86% 3.82% 3.80% 3.79%
120% AFR 4.20% 4.16% 4.14% 4.12%
130% AFR 4.56% 4.51% 4.48% 4.47%
REV. RUL. 2013-21 TABLE 2
Adjusted AFR for October 2013
Period for Compounding
Annual Semiannual Quarterly Monthly
Short-term adjusted AFR .32% .32% .32% .32%
Mid-term adjusted AFR 1.78% 1.77% 1.77% 1.76%
Long-term adjusted AFR 3.50% 3.47% 3.46% 3.45%
REV. RUL. 2013-21 TABLE 3
Rates Under Section 382 for October 2013
Adjusted federal long-term rate for the current month 3.50%
Long-term tax-exempt rate for ownership changes during the current month (the highest of the adjusted federal long-term rates for the current month and the prior two months.) 3.50%
REV. RUL. 2013-21 TABLE 4
Appropriate Percentages Under Section 42(b)(1) for October 2013
Note: Under section 42(b)(2), the applicable percentage for non-federally subsidized new buildings placed in service after July 30, 2008, with respect to housing credit dollar amount allocations made before January 1, 2014, shall not be less than 9%.
Appropriate percentage for the 70% present value low-income housing credit 7.63%
Appropriate percentage for the 30% present value low-income housing credit 3.27%
REV. RUL. 2013-21 TABLE 5
Rate Under Section 7520 for October 2013
Applicable federal rate for determining the present value of an annuity, an interest for life or a term of years, or a remainder or reversionary interest 2.4%

Part III. Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous

Rev. Proc. 2013-34

SECTION 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE

.01 Purpose. This revenue procedure provides guidance for a taxpayer seeking equitable relief from income tax liability under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) of the Internal Revenue Code (a “requesting spouse”). Section 4.01 of this revenue procedure provides the threshold requirements for any request for equitable relief. Section 4.02 of this revenue procedure sets forth the conditions under which the Internal Revenue Service will make streamlined relief determinations granting equitable relief under section 6015(f) from an understatement of income tax or an underpayment of income tax reported on a joint return, or the operation of community property law under section 66(c). Section 4.03 of this revenue procedure provides a nonexclusive list of factors for consideration in determining whether relief should be granted under section 6015(f) because it would be inequitable to hold a requesting spouse jointly and severally liable when the conditions of section 4.02 are not met. The factors in section 4.03 also will apply in determining whether to relieve a spouse from income tax liability resulting from the operation of community property law under the equitable relief provision of section 66(c).

.02 Scope. This revenue procedure applies to spouses who request either equitable relief from joint and several liability under section 6015(f), or equitable relief under section 66(c) from income tax liability resulting from the operation of community property law.

SECTION 2. BACKGROUND

.01 Section 6013(d)(3) provides that married taxpayers who file a joint return under section 6013 will be jointly and severally liable for the income tax arising from that joint return. For purposes of section 6013(d)(3) and this revenue procedure, the term “tax” includes penalties, additions to tax, and interest. See sections 6601(e)(1) and 6665(a)(2).

.02 Section 3201(a) of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-206, 112 Stat. 685, 734 (RRA), enacted section 6015, which provides relief in certain circumstances from the joint and several liability imposed by section 6013(d)(3). Section 6015(b) and (c) specify two sets of circumstances under which relief from joint and several liability is available in cases involving understatements of tax. Section 6015(b) is modeled after former section 6013(e), the prior innocent spouse statute, and section 6015(c) provides for separation of liability for taxpayers who are no longer married to, are legally separated from, or not living together with the person with whom they filed a joint return. If relief is not available under section 6015(b) or (c), section 6015(f) authorizes the Secretary to grant equitable relief if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, the Secretary determines that it is inequitable to hold a requesting spouse liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either).

Section 66(c) provides relief from income tax liability resulting from the operation of community property law to taxpayers domiciled in a community property state who do not file a joint return. Section 3201(b) of the RRA amended section 66(c) to add an equitable relief provision similar to section 6015(f).

.03 Section 6015 provides relief only from joint and several liability arising from a joint return. If an individual signs a joint return under duress, the election to file jointly is not valid and there is no valid return with respect to the requesting spouse. The individual is not jointly and severally liable for any income tax liabilities arising from that return. In that case, section 6015 does not apply and is not necessary for obtaining relief. If an individual files a claim for relief under section 6015, but also maintains that there is no valid joint return due to duress, the Service will first make a determination as to the validity of the joint return and may accordingly deny the request for section 6015 relief based on the fact that no joint return was filed (and thus, relief is not necessary). If it is ultimately determined that a valid joint return was filed, the Service will then consider whether the individual would be entitled to relief from joint and several liability on the merits.

.04 Under section 6015(b) and (c), relief is available only from an understatement or a deficiency. Section 6015(b) and (c) do not authorize relief from an underpayment of income tax reported on a joint return. Section 66(c) and section 6015(f) permit equitable relief from an underpayment of income tax or from a deficiency. The legislative history of section 6015 provides that Congress intended for the Secretary to exercise discretion in granting equitable relief from an underpayment of income tax if a requesting spouse “does not know, and had no reason to know, that funds intended for the payment of tax were instead taken by the other spouse for such other spouse’s benefit.” H.R. Conf. Rep. No. 105-599, at 254 (1998). Congress also intended for the Secretary to exercise the equitable relief authority under section 6015(f) in other situations if, “taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold an individual liable for all or part of any unpaid tax or deficiency arising from a joint return.” Id.

SECTION 3. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES

On January 5, 2012, the Department of Treasury and the Service released Notice 2012-8, 2012-4 I.R.B. 309, which set forth a proposed revenue procedure to update and revise Rev. Proc. 2003-61, 2003-2 C.B. 296. Notice 2012-8 also modified and clarified the criteria for equitable relief, and it eliminated the two-year rule for filing a claim for relief as set forth in Notice 2011-70, 2011-32 I.R.B. 135. Notice 2012-8 invited public comment regarding the proposed revenue procedure. A total of 54 comments were received, 45 of which were general comments either in support of the revisions, asking for assistance in specific cases, or totally unrelated to innocent spouse relief. The nine substantive comments ranged from discussing one or two discrete issues to commenting on all aspects of the proposed revenue procedure and innocent spouse relief in general. Treasury and the Service considered all comments received, and the proposed revenue procedure has been modified to take into account many of the concerns raised.

This revenue procedure supersedes Rev. Proc. 2003-61. The structure and format of this revenue procedure generally follows that of Rev. Proc. 2003-61 with the following significant changes:

.01 This revenue procedure gives greater deference to the presence of abuse than Rev. Proc. 2003-61. The Service recognizes that the issue of abuse can be relevant with respect to the analysis of other factors and can negate the presence of certain factors. This change is intended to give greater weight to the presence of abuse when its presence impacts the analysis of other factors.

.02 The timeliness threshold condition in section 4.01(3) of this revenue procedure provides that a request for equitable relief under section 6015(f) or section 66(c) must be filed before the expiration of the period of limitation for collection under section 6502 to the extent the taxpayer seeks relief from an outstanding liability, or before the expiration of the period of limitation for credit or refund under section 6511 to the extent the taxpayer seeks a refund of taxes paid. This is a significant change to the requirement in Rev. Proc. 2003-61, section 4.01(3), and Treas. Reg. § 1.6015-5(b)(1) (TD 9003), that the requesting spouse’s claim for equitable relief must be filed no later than two years after the date of the Service’s first collection activity. See Notice 2011-70. In response to a comment received with respect to Notice 2012-8, section 4.01(3)(a) refers to the period of limitation for collection as its commonly used IRS term — Collection Statute Expiration Date or CSED.

.03 The attribution threshold condition in section 4.01(7) of this revenue procedure adds a new exception in paragraph (e) to the requirement that the income tax liability must be attributable to an item of the nonrequesting spouse. Under section 4.01(7)(e) of the revenue procedure, relief would not be precluded for an item attributable to the requesting spouse if the nonrequesting spouse’s fraud gave rise to the understatement of tax or deficiency.

.04 Streamlined determinations under section 4.02 of this revenue procedure now apply to understatements of income tax instead of only underpayments as under Rev. Proc. 2003-61. Section 4.02 also now applies to claims for equitable relief under section 66(c).

.05 Section 4.03(2) of this revenue procedure clarifies that no one factor or a majority of factors necessarily controls the determination. Therefore, depending on the facts and circumstances of the case, relief may still be appropriate if the number of factors weighing against relief exceeds the number of factors weighing in favor of relief, or a denial of relief may still be appropriate if the number of factors weighing in favor of relief exceeds the number of factors weighing against relief.

.06 The economic hardship factor in section 4.03(2)(b) of this revenue procedure now provides minimum standards based on income, expenses, and assets, for determining whether the requesting spouse would suffer economic hardship if relief is not granted. Section 4.03(2)(b) also now provides that the lack of a finding of economic hardship does not weigh against relief, as it did under Rev. Proc. 2003-61, and instead will be neutral.

.07 The knowledge factor for understatement cases in section 4.03(2)(c)(i) of this revenue procedure clarifies how the factor works in cases involving equitable relief under section 66(c), in addition to cases involving equitable relief under section 6015(f). Section 4.03(2)(c)(i)(A) provides that actual knowledge of the item giving rise to an understatement or deficiency will no longer be weighed more heavily than other factors, as it did under Rev. Proc. 2003-61. Further, section 4.03(2)(c)(i)(A) clarifies that, for purposes of this factor, if the nonrequesting spouse abused the requesting spouse or maintained control over the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, and because of the abuse or financial control, the requesting spouse was not able to challenge the treatment of any items on the joint return for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, then that abuse or financial control will result in this factor weighing in favor of relief even if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the items giving rise to the understatement or deficiency.

.08 The knowledge factor for underpayment cases in section 4.03(2)(c)(ii) of this revenue procedure now provides that, in determining whether the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know that the nonrequesting spouse would not pay the tax reported as due on the return, the Service will consider whether the requesting spouse reasonably expected that the nonrequesting spouse would pay the tax liability at the time the return was filed or within a reasonable period of time after the filing of the return. In response to comments received with respect to Notice 2012-8, section 4.03(2)(c)(ii) provides that a requesting spouse may be presumed to have reasonably expected that the nonrequesting spouse would pay the liability if a request for an installment agreement to pay the tax was filed by the later of 90 days after the due date for payment of the tax, or 90 days after the return was filed. Further, section 4.03(2)(c)(ii) clarifies that for purposes of this factor, if the nonrequesting spouse abused the requesting spouse or maintained control over the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, and because of the abuse or financial control, the requesting spouse was not able to question the payment of the taxes reported as due on the return or challenge the nonrequesting spouse’s assurance regarding payment of the taxes for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, then that abuse or financial control will result in this factor weighing in favor of relief even if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know that the nonrequesting spouse would not pay the tax liability. Finally, section 4.03(2)(c)(ii) provides that if the requesting spouse did not reasonably expect that the nonrequesting spouse would pay the tax liability reported on an amended return that was based on items not properly reported on the original return, the Service will also consider whether the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the understatement on the original return.

.09 The legal obligation factor in section 4.03(2)(d) of this revenue procedure clarifies that a requesting spouse’s legal obligation to pay outstanding tax liabilities is a factor to consider in determining whether equitable relief should be granted, in addition to whether the nonrequesting spouse has a legal obligation to pay the tax liabilities.

.10 The significant benefit factor in section 4.03(2)(e) of this revenue procedure provides that any significant benefit a requesting spouse may have received from the unpaid tax or understatement will not weigh against relief (will be neutral) if the nonrequesting spouse abused the requesting spouse or maintained financial control and made the decisions regarding living a more lavish lifestyle. Further, section 4.03(2)(e) provides that if only the nonrequesting spouse significantly benefitted from the unpaid tax or understatement, and the requesting spouse had little or no benefit, or the nonrequesting spouse enjoyed the benefit to the requesting spouse’s detriment, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. Section 4.03(2)(e) also provides that if the amount of unpaid tax or understatement of tax was small such that neither spouse received a significant benefit, then this factor is neutral. In response to comments received with respect to Notice 2012-8, section 4.03(2)(e) provides that the determination that the tax liability was small such that neither spouse received a significant benefit will vary depending on the facts and circumstances of each case.

.11 The compliance with the income tax laws factor in section 4.03(2)(f) of this revenue procedure now provides that a requesting spouse’s subsequent compliance with all Federal income tax laws is a factor that may weigh in favor of relief, instead of always being neutral under Rev. Proc. 2003-61.

.12 Section 4.04 of this revenue procedure broadens the availability of refunds in cases involving deficiencies by eliminating the rule in section 4.04(1) of Rev. Proc. 2003-61 that limited refunds in cases involving deficiencies to payments made by the requesting spouse pursuant to an installment agreement.

SECTION 4. GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR RELIEF

.01 Eligibility for equitable relief. A requesting spouse must satisfy all of the following threshold conditions to be eligible to submit a request for equitable relief under section 6015(f). With the exception of conditions (1) and (2), a requesting spouse must satisfy all of the following threshold conditions to be eligible to submit a request for equitable relief under section 66(c). The Service may relieve a requesting spouse who satisfies all the applicable threshold conditions set forth below of all or part of the income tax liability under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, the Service determines that it would be inequitable to hold the requesting spouse liable for the income tax liability. The threshold conditions are as follows:

(1) The requesting spouse filed a joint return for the taxable year for which he or she seeks relief.

(2) Relief is not available to the requesting spouse under section 6015(b) or (c).

(3) The claim for relief is timely filed:

(a) If the requesting spouse is applying for relief from a liability or a portion of a liability that remains unpaid, the request for relief must be made on or before the Collection Statute Expiration Date (CSED). The CSED is the date the period of limitation on collection of the income tax liability expires, as provided in section 6502. Generally, that period expires 10 years after the assessment of tax, but it may be extended by other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(b) Claims for credit or refund of amounts paid must be made before the expiration of the period of limitation on credit or refund, as provided in section 6511. Generally, that period expires three years from the time the return was filed or two years from the time the tax was paid, whichever is later.

(4) No assets were transferred between the spouses as part of a fraudulent scheme by the spouses.

(5) The nonrequesting spouse did not transfer disqualified assets to the requesting spouse. For this purpose, the term “disqualified asset” has the meaning given the term by section 6015(c)(4)(B). If the nonrequesting spouse transferred disqualified assets to the requesting spouse, relief will be available only to the extent that the income tax liability exceeds the value of the disqualified assets. Even if there was a transfer of disqualified assets, the requesting spouse may be eligible for relief if the nonrequesting spouse abused the requesting spouse or maintained control over the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, or the requesting spouse did not have actual knowledge that disqualified assets were transferred.

(6) The requesting spouse did not knowingly participate in the filing of a fraudulent joint return.

(7) The income tax liability from which the requesting spouse seeks relief is attributable (either in full or in part) to an item of the nonrequesting spouse or an underpayment resulting from the nonrequesting spouse’s income. If the liability is partially attributable to the requesting spouse, then relief can only be considered for the portion of the liability attributable to the nonrequesting spouse. Nonetheless, the Service will consider granting relief regardless of whether the understatement, deficiency, or underpayment is attributable (in full or in part) to the requesting spouse if any of the following exceptions applies:

(a) Attribution solely due to the operation of community property law. If an item is attributable or partially attributable to the requesting spouse solely due to the operation of community property law, then for purposes of this revenue procedure, that item (or portion thereof) will be considered to be attributable to the nonrequesting spouse.

(b) Nominal ownership. If the item is titled in the name of the requesting spouse, the item is presumptively attributable to the requesting spouse. This presumption is rebuttable. For example, H opens an individual retirement account (IRA) in W’s name and forges W’s signature on the IRA in 2006. Thereafter, H makes contributions to the IRA and in 2008 takes a taxable distribution from the IRA. H and W file a joint return for the 2008 taxable year, but do not report the taxable distribution on their joint return. The Service later determines a deficiency relating to the taxable IRA distribution. W requests relief from joint and several liability under section 6015. W establishes that W did not contribute to the IRA, sign paperwork relating to the IRA, or otherwise act as if W were the owner of the IRA. W, thereby, rebuts the presumption that the IRA is attributable to W.

(c) Misappropriation of funds. If the requesting spouse did not know, and had no reason to know, that funds intended for the payment of tax were misappropriated by the nonrequesting spouse for the nonrequesting spouse’s benefit, the Service will consider granting equitable relief although the underpayment may be attributable in part or in full to an item of the requesting spouse. The Service will consider granting relief in this case only to the extent that the funds intended for the payment of tax were taken by the nonrequesting spouse.

(d) Abuse. If the requesting spouse establishes that he or she was the victim of abuse prior to the time the return was filed, and that, as a result of the prior abuse, the requesting spouse was not able to challenge the treatment of any items on the return, or was not able to question the payment of any balance due reported on the return, for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, the Service will consider granting equitable relief even though the deficiency or underpayment may be attributable in part or in full to an item of the requesting spouse.

(e) Fraud committed by nonrequesting spouse. The Service will consider granting relief notwithstanding that the item giving rise to the understatement or deficiency is attributable to the requesting spouse, if the requesting spouse establishes that the nonrequesting spouse’s fraud is the reason for the erroneous item. For example, W fraudulently accesses H’s brokerage account to sell stock that H had separately received from an inheritance. W deposits the funds from the sale in a separate bank account to which H does not have access. H and W file a joint Federal income tax return for the year, which does not report the income from the sale of the stock. The Service determines a deficiency based on the omission of the income from the sale of the stock. H requests relief from the deficiency under section 6015(f). The income from the sale of the stock normally would be attributable to H. Because W committed fraud with respect to H, however, and because this fraud was the reason for the erroneous item, the liability is properly attributable to W.

.02. Circumstances under which the Service will make streamlined determinations granting equitable relief under sections 66(c) and 6015(f).

If a requesting spouse who filed a joint return, or a requesting spouse who did not file a joint return in a community property state, satisfies the threshold conditions of section 4.01, the Service will consider whether the requesting spouse is entitled to a streamlined determination of equitable relief under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) under this section 4.02. If a requesting spouse is not entitled to a streamlined determination because the requesting spouse does not satisfy all the elements in this section 4.02, the requesting spouse is still entitled to be considered for relief under the equitable factors in section 4.03. The Service will make streamlined determinations granting equitable relief under section 66(c) or section 6015(f), in cases in which the requesting spouse establishes that the requesting spouse:

(1) Marital status. Is no longer married to the nonrequesting spouse as set forth in section 4.03(2)(a);

(2) Economic hardship. Would suffer economic hardship if relief were not granted as set forth in section 4.03(2)(b); and

(3) Knowledge or reason to know.

(a) Section 6015(f) cases. Did not know or have reason to know that there was an understatement or deficiency on the joint income tax return, as set forth in section 4.03(2)(c)(i), or did not know or have reason to know that the nonrequesting spouse would not or could not pay the underpayment of tax reported on the joint income tax return, as set forth in section 4.03(2)(c)(ii). If the nonrequesting spouse abused the requesting spouse or maintained control over the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, and because of the abuse or financial control, the requesting spouse was not able to challenge the treatment of any items on the joint return, or to question the payment of the taxes reported as due on the joint return or challenge the nonrequesting spouse’s assurance regarding payment of the taxes, for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, then the abuse or financial control will result in this factor being satisfied even if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the items giving rise to the understatement or deficiency or knew or had reason to know that the nonrequesting spouse would not pay the tax liability.

(b) Section 66(c) cases. Did not know or have reason to know of an item of community income properly includible in gross income, which, under the rules contained in section 879(a), would be treated as the income of the nonrequesting spouse.

.03. Factors for determining whether to grant equitable relief.

(1) Applicability. This section 4.03 applies to a requesting spouse who requests relief under section 66(c) or section 6015(f), and who satisfies the threshold conditions of section 4.01, but does not qualify for streamlined determinations granting relief under section 4.02.

(2) Factors. In determining whether it is inequitable to hold the requesting spouse liable for all or part of the unpaid income tax liability or deficiency, and whether full or partial equitable relief under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) should be granted, all the facts and circumstances of the case are to be taken into account. The factors listed below are designed as guides and not intended to comprise an exclusive list. Other factors relevant to a specific claim for relief may also be taken into account in making the determination. In evaluating a claim for relief, no one factor or a majority of factors necessarily determines the outcome. The degree of importance of each factor varies depending on the requesting spouse’s facts and circumstances. Abuse or the exercise of financial control by the nonrequesting spouse is a factor that may impact the other factors, as described below. Factors to consider include the following:

(a) Marital status. Whether the requesting spouse is no longer married to the nonrequesting spouse as of the date the Service makes its determination. If the requesting spouse is still married to the nonrequesting spouse, this factor is neutral. If the requesting spouse is no longer married to the nonrequesting spouse, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. For purposes of this section, a requesting spouse will be treated as being no longer married to the nonrequesting spouse only in the following situations:

(i) The requesting spouse is divorced from the nonrequesting spouse,

(ii) The requesting spouse is legally separated from the nonrequesting spouse under applicable state law,

(iii) The requesting spouse is a widow or widower and is not an heir to the nonrequesting spouse’s estate that would have sufficient assets to pay the tax liability, or

(iv) The requesting spouse has not been a member of the same household as the nonrequesting spouse at any time during the 12-month period ending on the date the Service makes its determination. For these purposes, a temporary absence ( e.g. , due to incarceration, illness, business, military service, or education) is not considered separation if the absent spouse is expected to return to the household. See Treas. Reg. § 1.6015-3(b)(3)(i). A requesting spouse is a member of the same household as the nonrequesting spouse for any period in which the spouses maintain the same residence.

(b) Economic hardship. Whether the requesting spouse will suffer economic hardship if relief is not granted. For purposes of this factor, an economic hardship exists if satisfaction of the tax liability in whole or in part will cause the requesting spouse to be unable to pay reasonable basic living expenses. Whether the requesting spouse will suffer economic hardship is determined based on rules similar to those provided in Treas. Reg. § 301.6343-1(b)(4), and the Service will take into consideration a requesting spouse’s current income and expenses and the requesting spouse’s assets. In determining the requesting spouse’s reasonable basic living expenses, the Service will consider whether the requesting spouse shares expenses or has expenses paid by another individual (such as a family member, including a current spouse). If denying relief from the joint and several liability will cause the requesting spouse to suffer economic hardship, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. If denying relief from the joint and several liability will not cause the requesting spouse to suffer economic hardship, this factor will be neutral.

In determining whether the requesting spouse would suffer economic hardship if relief is not granted, the Service will compare the requesting spouse’s income to the Federal poverty guidelines (as updated periodically in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of 42 U.S.C. § 9902(2)) for the requesting spouse’s family size and will determine by how much, if at all, the requesting spouse’s monthly income exceeds the spouse’s reasonable basic monthly living expenses. This factor will weigh in favor of relief if the requesting spouse’s income is below 250% of the Federal poverty guidelines, unless the requesting spouse has assets out of which the requesting spouse can make payments towards the tax liability and still adequately meet the requesting spouse’s reasonable basic living expenses. If the requesting spouse’s income exceeds 250% of the Federal poverty guidelines, this factor will still weigh in favor of relief if the requesting spouse’s monthly income exceeds the requesting spouse’s reasonable basic monthly living expenses by $300 or less, unless the requesting spouse has assets out of which the requesting spouse can make payments towards the tax liability and still adequately meet the requesting spouse’s reasonable basic living expenses. If the requesting spouse’s income exceeds 250% of the Federal poverty guidelines and monthly income exceeds monthly expenses by more than $300, or if the requesting spouse qualifies under either standard but has sufficient assets to make payments towards the tax liability and still adequately meet the requesting spouse’s reasonable basic living expenses, the Service will consider all facts and circumstances (including the size of the requesting spouse’s household) in determining whether the requesting spouse would suffer economic hardship if relief is not granted. If the requesting spouse is deceased, this factor is neutral.

(c) Knowledge or reason to know.

(i) Understatement cases.

(A) Section 6015(f) cases. Whether the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the item giving rise to the understatement or deficiency as of the date the joint return (including a joint amended return) was filed, or the date the requesting spouse reasonably believed the joint return was filed. If the requesting spouse did not know and had no reason to know of the item giving rise to the understatement, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. If the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the item giving rise to the understatement, this factor will weigh against relief. Actual knowledge of the item giving rise to the understatement or deficiency will not be weighed more heavily than any other factor. Depending on the facts and circumstances, if the requesting spouse was abused by the nonrequesting spouse (as described in section 4.03(2)(c)(iv)), or the nonrequesting spouse maintained control of the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, and because of the abuse or financial control, the requesting spouse was not able to challenge the treatment of any items on the joint return for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, this factor will weigh in favor of relief even if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the items giving rise to the understatement or deficiency.

(B) Section 66(c) cases. Whether the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of an item of community income properly includible in gross income, which, under the rules contained in section 879(a), would be treated as the income of the nonrequesting spouse.

(ii) Underpayment cases. In the case of an income tax liability that was properly reported but not paid, whether, as of the date the return was filed or the date the requesting spouse reasonably believed the return was filed, the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know that the nonrequesting spouse would not or could not pay the tax liability at that time or within a reasonable period of time after the filing of the return. This factor will weigh in favor of relief if the requesting spouse reasonably expected the nonrequesting spouse to pay the tax liability reported on the return. A reasonable expectation of payment will be presumed if the spouses submitted a request for an installment agreement to pay the tax reported as due on the return. To benefit from the presumption, the request for an installment agreement must be filed by the later of 90 days after the due date for payment of the tax, or 90 days after the return was filed. The request must detail the plan for paying the tax, interest, and penalties, satisfy the liability within a reasonable time, and it must not be unreasonable for the requesting spouse to believe that the nonrequesting spouse will be able to make the payments contemplated in the requested installment agreement.

This factor will weigh against relief if, based on the facts and circumstances of the case, it was not reasonable for the requesting spouse to believe that the nonrequesting spouse would or could pay the tax liability shown on the return. For example, if prior to the return being filed, or the date the requesting spouse reasonably believed the return was filed, the requesting spouse knew of the nonrequesting spouse’s prior bankruptcies, financial difficulties, or other issues with the Service or other creditors, or was otherwise aware of difficulties in timely paying bills, then this factor will generally weigh against relief.

Depending on the facts and circumstances, if the requesting spouse was abused by the nonrequesting spouse (as described in section 4.03(2)(c)(iv)), or the nonrequesting spouse maintained control of the household finances by restricting the requesting spouse’s access to financial information, and because of the abuse or financial control, the requesting spouse was not able to question the payment of the taxes reported as due on the return or challenge the nonrequesting spouse’s assurance regarding payment of the taxes for fear of the nonrequesting spouse’s retaliation, this factor will weigh in favor of relief even if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know about the nonrequesting spouse’s intent or ability to pay the taxes due.

With respect to an underpayment of tax on an amended return that reports a liability based on items not properly reported on the original return, the initial inquiry is whether, as of the date the amended return was filed, or the date the requesting spouse reasonably believed the amended return was filed, the requesting spouse reasonably expected that the nonrequesting spouse would pay the tax within a reasonable period of time. If so, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. However, if it was not reasonable for the requesting spouse to expect that the nonrequesting spouse would pay the tax, the requesting spouse’s knowledge or reason to know of the understatement on the original return will also be considered. If the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know of the item giving rise to the understatement on the original return, then this factor will weigh against relief. If the requesting spouse did not know or have reason to know of the item, then this factor will weigh in favor of relief.

(iii) Reason to know. The facts and circumstances that are considered in determining whether the requesting spouse had reason to know of an understatement, or reason to know whether the nonrequesting spouse could or would pay the reported tax liability, include, but are not limited to, the requesting spouse’s level of education, any deceit or evasiveness of the nonrequesting spouse, the requesting spouse’s degree of involvement in the activity generating the income tax liability, the requesting spouse’s involvement in business or household financial matters, the requesting spouse’s business or financial expertise, and any lavish or unusual expenditures compared with past spending levels.

(iv) Abuse by the nonrequesting spouse. For purposes of this revenue procedure, if the requesting spouse establishes that he or she was the victim of abuse (not amounting to duress, see Treas. Reg. § 1.6015-1(b)), then depending on the facts and circumstances of the requesting spouse’s situation, the abuse may result in certain factors weighing in favor of relief when otherwise the factor may have weighed against relief. Abuse comes in many forms and can include physical, psychological, sexual, or emotional abuse, including efforts to control, isolate, humiliate, and intimidate the requesting spouse, or to undermine the requesting spouse’s ability to reason independently and be able to do what is required under the tax laws. All the facts and circumstances are considered in determining whether a requesting spouse was abused. The impact of a nonrequesting spouse’s alcohol or drug abuse is also considered in determining whether a requesting spouse was abused. Depending on the facts and circumstances, abuse of the requesting spouse’s child or other family member living in the household may constitute abuse of the requesting spouse.

(d) Legal obligation. Whether the requesting spouse or the nonrequesting spouse has a legal obligation to pay the outstanding Federal income tax liability. For purposes of this factor, a legal obligation is an obligation arising from a divorce decree or other legally binding agreement. This factor will weigh in favor of relief if the nonrequesting spouse has the sole legal obligation to pay the outstanding income tax liability pursuant to a divorce decree or agreement. This factor, however, will be neutral if the requesting spouse knew or had reason to know, when entering into the divorce decree or agreement, that the nonrequesting spouse would not pay the income tax liability. This factor will weigh against relief if the requesting spouse has the sole legal obligation. The fact that the nonrequesting spouse has been relieved of liability for the taxes at issue as a result of a discharge in bankruptcy is disregarded in determining whether the requesting spouse has the sole legal obligation. This factor will be neutral if, based on an agreement or consent order, both spouses have a legal obligation to pay the outstanding income tax liability, the spouses are not separated or divorced, or the divorce decree or agreement is silent as to any obligation to pay the outstanding income tax liability.

(e) Significant benefit. Whether the requesting spouse significantly benefitted from the unpaid income tax liability or understatement. See Treas. Reg. § 1.6015-2(d). A significant benefit is any benefit in excess of normal support. For example, if the requesting spouse enjoyed the benefits of a lavish lifestyle, such as owning luxury assets and taking expensive vacations, this factor will weigh against relief. If, however, the nonrequesting spouse controlled the household and business finances or there was abuse (as described in section 4.03(2)(c)(iv)) such that the nonrequesting spouse made the decision on spending funds for a lavish lifestyle, then this mitigates this factor so that it is neutral. If only the nonrequesting spouse significantly benefitted from the unpaid tax or understatement, and the requesting spouse had little or no benefit, or the nonrequesting spouse enjoyed the benefit to the requesting spouse’s detriment, this factor will weigh in favor of relief. If the amount of unpaid tax or understatement was small such that neither spouse received a significant benefit, then this factor is neutral. Whether the amount of unpaid tax or understatement is small such that neither spouse received a significant benefit will vary depending on the facts and circumstances of each case.

(f) Compliance with income tax laws. Whether the requesting spouse has made a good faith effort to comply with the income tax laws in the taxable years following the taxable year or years to which the request for relief relates.

(i) If the requesting spouse is compliant for taxable years after being divorced from the nonrequesting spouse, then this factor will weigh in favor of relief. If the requesting spouse is not compliant, then this factor will weigh against relief. If the requesting spouse made a good faith effort to comply with the tax laws but was unable to fully comply, then this factor will be neutral. For example, if the requesting spouse timely filed an income tax return but was unable to fully pay the tax liability due to the requesting spouse’s poor financial or economic situation after the divorce, then this factor will be neutral.

(ii) If the requesting spouse remains married to the nonrequesting spouse, whether or not legally separated or living apart, and continues to file joint returns with the nonrequesting spouse after requesting relief, then this factor will be neutral if the joint returns are compliant with the tax laws, but will weigh against relief if the returns are not compliant.

(iii) If the requesting spouse remains married to the nonrequesting spouse but files separate returns, this factor will weigh in favor of relief if the requesting spouse is compliant with the tax laws and will weigh against relief if the requesting spouse is not compliant with the tax laws. If the requesting spouse made a good faith effort to comply with the tax laws but was unable to fully comply, then this factor will be neutral. For example, if the requesting spouse timely filed an income tax return but was unable to fully pay the tax liability due to the requesting spouse’s poor financial or economic situation as a result of being separated or living apart from the nonrequesting spouse, then this factor will be neutral.

(g) Mental or physical health. Whether the requesting spouse was in poor physical or mental health. This factor will weigh in favor of relief if the requesting spouse was in poor mental or physical health at the time the return or returns for which the request for relief relates were filed (or at the time the requesting spouse reasonably believed the return or returns were filed), or at the time the requesting spouse requested relief. The Service will consider the nature, extent, and duration of the condition, including the ongoing economic impact of the illness. If the requesting spouse was in neither poor physical nor poor mental health, this factor is neutral.

.04. Refunds. In both understatement and underpayment cases, a requesting spouse is eligible for a refund of separate payments made by the requesting spouse after July 22, 1998, if the requesting spouse establishes that the funds used to make the payment for which a refund is sought were provided by the requesting spouse. A requesting spouse is not eligible for refunds of payments made with the joint return, joint payments, or payments that the nonrequesting spouse made. A requesting spouse, however, may be eligible for a refund of the requesting spouse’s portion of the requesting and nonrequesting spouse’s joint overpayment from another tax year that was applied to the joint income tax liability to the extent that the requesting spouse can establish that the requesting spouse provided the funds for the overpayment. The availability of refunds is subject to the refund limitations of section 6511.

SECTION 5. PROCEDURE

A requesting spouse seeking equitable relief under section 66(c) or section 6015(f) must file Form 8857, Request for Innocent Spouse Relief (and Separation of Liability, and Equitable Relief), or other similar statement signed under penalties of perjury, within the applicable period of limitation as set forth in section 4.01(3) of this revenue procedure.

SECTION 6. EFFECT ON OTHER DOCUMENTS

Rev. Proc. 2003-61, 2003-2 C.B. 296, is modified and superseded.

SECTION 7. EFFECTIVE DATE

This revenue procedure is effective for requests for relief filed on or after September 16, 2013. In addition, this revenue procedure is effective for requests for equitable relief pending on September 16, 2013 whether with the Service, the Office of Appeals, or in a case docketed with a Federal court.

SECTION 8. DRAFTING INFORMATION

The principal authors of this revenue procedure are Nancy Rose and Sheida Lahabi of the Office of Associate Chief Counsel (Procedure and Administration). For further information regarding this revenue procedure contact Branches 1 or 2 of Procedure and Administration on (202) 622-4910 or (202) 622-4940 (not a toll free call).

Part IV. Items of General Interest

REG-110732-13

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Notice of Public Hearing Guidance Regarding Dispositions of Tangible Depreciable Property

AGENCY:

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury.

ACTION:

Notice of proposed rulemaking, notice of public hearing, and partial withdrawal of previously proposed regulations.

SUMMARY:

This document contains proposed regulations regarding dispositions of property subject to depreciation under section 168 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) property). The proposed regulations also amend the general asset account regulations under §1.168(i)-1 and the accounting for MACRS property regulations under §1.168(i)-7. The proposed regulations will affect all taxpayers that dispose of MACRS property. This document also provides notice of a public hearing on these proposed regulations and partially withdraws the proposed regulations published in the Federal Register on December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81128).

DATES:

Written and/or electronic comments must be received by November 18, 2013. Requests to speak and outlines of topics to be discussed at the public hearing scheduled for December 19, 2013, at 10 a.m. must be received by November 18, 2013.

ADDRESSES:

Send submissions to: CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG-110732-13), room 5205, Internal Revenue Service, P.O. Box 7604, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044. Submissions may be hand-delivered Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG-110732-13), Courier’s Desk, Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20224, or sent electronically, via the Federal eRulemaking Portal at www.regulations.gov (IRS REG-110732-13). The public hearing will be held in the IRS Auditorium, Internal Revenue Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Concerning the proposed regulations, Kathleen Reed and Patrick Clinton, Office of Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax and Accounting) (202) 622-4930; and concerning submission of comments, the hearing, and/or to be placed on the building access list to attend the hearing, Oluwafunmilayo (Funmi) Taylor, (202) 622-7180 (not toll-free numbers).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

On December 27, 2011, the IRS and the Treasury Department published in the Federal Register (76 FR 81060) temporary regulations (TD 9564) regarding the accounting for, and dispositions of, property subject to depreciation under section 168 (MACRS property). The temporary regulations also amended the general asset account regulations under §1.168(i)-1. On the same date, the IRS published in the Federal Register (76 FR 81128) a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-168745-03) cross-referencing the temporary regulations (2011 proposed regulations). The IRS and the Treasury Department received numerous written comments responding to the notice of proposed rulemaking and held a public hearing on May 9, 2012.

The temporary regulations generally apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. In response to the comments received and the statements made at the public hearing, the IRS and the Treasury Department released Notice 2012-73, 2012-51 I.R.B. 713, on November 20, 2012, announcing that, to help taxpayers transition to the final regulations, the IRS and the Treasury Department will change the applicability date of the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, while permitting taxpayers to choose to apply the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations. Notice 2012-73 also alerts taxpayers that the IRS and the Treasury Department intend to publish final regulations in 2013 and expect the final regulations to apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, but that the final regulations would permit taxpayers to apply the provisions of the final regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. On December 17, 2012, the IRS and the Treasury Department published in the Federal Register (77 FR 74583) a technical amendment to TD 9564, which amended the applicability date of the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, while permitting taxpayers to choose to apply the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations.

Notice 2012-73 also alerts taxpayers that the IRS and the Treasury Department intend to revise the disposition rules in the temporary regulations. After considering the comment letters and the statements made at the public hearing, the IRS and the Treasury Department decided to withdraw the 2011 proposed regulations under §§1.168(i)-1 and 1.168(i)-8 and to propose new regulations. This document contains the new proposed regulations under §§1.168(i)-1 and 1.168(i)-8 as well as new proposed regulations under §1.168(i)-7. The temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T are not revised and taxpayers continue to have the option of applying those temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations.

Summary of Comments and Explanation of Provisions

I. Overview

These proposed regulations under §§1.168(i)-1 and 1.168(i)-8 include many of the provisions contained in the 2011 proposed regulations and the temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T. However, these proposed regulations provide significant changes to the rules relating to the determination of the asset disposed of and a qualifying disposition of an asset in a general asset account, and the proposed regulations under §§1.168(i)-1, 1.168(i)-7, and 1.168(i)-8 provide new rules for partial dispositions of assets. The IRS and the Treasury Department intend to publish final regulations under §§1.168(i)-1, 1.168(i)-7, and 1.168(i)-8 later this year. Accordingly, these proposed regulations generally are proposed to apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

II. Disposition Rules for MACRS Property

The IRS and the Treasury Department received several comments on the disposition rules under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T. Most of the comments related to dispositions of structural components of a building, dispositions of assets in a general asset account, and determination of the unadjusted depreciable basis of a disposed asset in a multiple asset account or a general asset account.

A. Determination of Asset Disposed Of and Partial Dispositions

1. The temporary regulations

The temporary regulations under §1.168(i)-8T provide rules for determining gain or loss upon the disposition of MACRS property that are generally consistent with the disposition rules under §1.168-6 of the proposed regulations on the Accelerated Cost Recovery System of former section 168 (ACRS) (which have been generally applied to MACRS property). However, if an abandoned asset is subject to nonrecourse indebtedness, the temporary regulations clarify that the asset is treated in the same manner as an asset disposed of by sale.

Section 1.168-2(l)(1) of the proposed ACRS regulations provides that a disposition does not include the retirement of a structural component of a building and, consequently, §1.168-6(b) of the proposed ACRS regulations provides that no loss is recognized upon the retirement of a structural component of a building. The temporary regulations expand the definition of disposition for MACRS property to include the retirement of a structural component of a building and, accordingly, the temporary regulations allow the recognition of a loss upon such a retirement.

The temporary regulations under §1.168(i)-1T provide rules for establishing general asset accounts, for computing depreciation for general asset accounts, and for determining gain or loss upon the disposition of assets in general asset accounts. Section 1.168(i)-1T(e)(2) provides that, in general, no loss is recognized upon the disposition of an asset from a general asset account. However, §1.168-1T(e)(3)(iii) provides that a taxpayer may elect to recognize gain or loss upon the disposition of an asset in a general asset account if there is a qualifying disposition. The temporary regulations define the term “disposition” to include the retirement of a structural component of a building and define the term “qualifying disposition” to allow the recognition of gain or loss upon most dispositions of assets in general asset accounts. Thus, a taxpayer has the option of recognizing a loss on most dispositions of assets in general asset accounts under the temporary regulations.

The temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T also provide rules for determining the disposed asset. Those sections of the temporary regulations provide that the facts and circumstances of each disposition are considered in determining the appropriate disposed asset. In general, the asset for disposition purposes cannot be larger than the unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)(2), (e)(3), and (e)(5) or as otherwise provided in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. However, under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T, each building is the asset for disposition purposes, unless more than one building is treated as the asset under §1.1250-1(a)(2)(ii). If the building includes two or more condominium or cooperative units, then each condominium or cooperative unit (instead of the building) is the asset for disposition purposes. Consistent with including a retirement of a structural component of a building as a disposition, the temporary regulations provide that each structural component of a building, condominium unit, or cooperative unit is the asset for disposition purposes. Further, if a taxpayer properly includes an item in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 (1987-2 C.B. 674), (see 26 CFR 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b)) or classifies an item in one of the categories under section 168(e)(3) (other than a category that includes buildings or structural components; for example, retail motor fuels outlet and qualified leasehold improvement property), each item is the asset provided it is not larger than the unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)(3) or (e)(5). Consistent with section 168(i)(6), the temporary regulations also provide that if the taxpayer places in service an improvement or addition to an asset after the taxpayer placed the asset in service, the improvement or addition is a separate asset for depreciation purposes. The temporary regulations also provide that a taxpayer generally may use any reasonable, consistent method to treat each of an asset’s components as the asset for disposition purposes.

2. Comments on the temporary regulations

Several commenters stated that requiring taxpayers to treat the structural components of a building as assets separate from the underlying building increases administrative burdens for taxpayers because of the necessity to track the components. Further, while the temporary regulations permit taxpayers to define the asset for disposition purposes at the smallest component level, effectively allowing taxpayers the ability to recognize a loss on the partial retirement of a larger item, some commenters indicated that such an approach is unduly complicated and will pose significant administrative burdens for taxpayers. Other commenters suggested that the ability to use any reasonable, consistent method to treat each of an asset’s components as the asset for disposition purposes be expanded to assets classified in asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56, which accounts for the property that a taxpayer typically uses in its business (for example, office furniture, computers, cars, corporate jets, and land improvements (other than a building and its structural components)).

Several commenters suggested that the use of general asset accounts be the default rule to eliminate traps for taxpayers. Commenters stated that requiring taxpayers to make a general asset account election when structural components are placed in service to forgo the loss on dispositions of structural components occurring years later was a trap for taxpayers. For example, because a taxpayer that did not elect general asset account treatment cannot forgo a mandatory loss on a disposition of a structural component, the taxpayer would be required to capitalize the replacement of the structural component under §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i) even if the replacement of the structural component does not constitute the replacement of a major component, a significant portion of a major component, or a substantial structural part of the building unit of property under §§1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(vi) and 1.263(a)-3(k)(6)(ii). Further, because some structural components are defined in §1.48-1(e)(2) at a diminutive level (for example, one window in a building), commenters stated that absent including all structural components in a general asset account, taxpayers run the risk of failing to identify every disposition in a given taxable year.

The IRS and the Treasury Department do not think that the use of general asset accounts should be the default rule. However, the IRS and the Treasury Department agree that taxpayers that do not elect general asset account treatment should have the same flexibility to forgo a loss upon the disposition of a structural component as taxpayers that elect general asset account treatment. As discussed in this preamble, these proposed regulations make significant modifications to the disposition rules to allow this flexibility.

3. Structural components

These proposed regulations change the rule in the temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T that each structural component of a building, condominium, or cooperative is the asset for tax disposition purposes. The proposed regulations provide that a building (including its structural components), a condominium (including its structural components), or a cooperative (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes. This rule allows taxpayers to forgo a loss upon the disposition of a structural component of a building without making a general asset account election.

4. Partial dispositions

A. Assets not included in general asset accounts

The proposed regulations under §1.168(i)-8 also provide that the disposition rules apply to a partial disposition of an asset (for example, the disposition of a roof (or a portion of the roof)). This rule allows taxpayers to claim a loss upon the disposition of a structural component (or a portion thereof) of a building or upon the disposition of a component (or a portion thereof) of any other asset without identifying the component as an asset before the disposition event. The partial disposition rule also minimizes circumstances in which an original part and any subsequent replacements of the same part are required to be capitalized and depreciated simultaneously. These proposed regulations provide examples demonstrating the application of the partial disposition rule.

In many cases, the partial disposition rule is elective (“partial disposition election”). However, consistent with the operation of sections 165, 168(i)(7), 1031, and 1033, and because sales of a portion of an asset are common, the partial disposition rule is required to be applied to a disposition of a portion of an asset as a result of a casualty event described in section 165, to a disposition of a portion of an asset for which gain (determined without regard to section 1245 or 1250) is not recognized in whole or in part under section 1031 or 1033, to a transfer of a portion of an asset in a step-in-the-shoes transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B), or to a sale of a portion of an asset. Consequently, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset under these circumstances, even if the taxpayer does not make the partial disposition election for that disposed portion. For other transactions, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset only if the taxpayer makes the partial disposition election for that disposed portion.

A taxpayer may make the partial disposition election for the disposition of a portion of any type of MACRS property, including an asset that is properly included in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56. However, consistent with section 168(i)(6), a taxpayer making the partial disposition election for the disposition of a portion of an asset that is properly included in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 must classify the replacement portion of the asset under the same asset class as the disposed portion of the asset.

The partial disposition election is made on the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return, including extensions, for the taxable year in which the portion of the asset is disposed of by the taxpayer. This election may not be made or revoked by the filing of an application for a change in method of accounting. A taxpayer may revoke a partial disposition election by filing a request for a letter ruling and obtaining the consent of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to revoke this election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith, and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. In deciding whether to grant such a request, the Commissioner anticipates applying standards similar to the standards under 26 CFR 301.9100-3 for granting extensions of time for making regulatory elections. If a taxpayer chooses to apply these proposed regulations to its taxable year beginning in 2012 or 2013, these proposed regulations also provide rules for making the partial disposition election for the portion of an asset disposed of by the taxpayer during those taxable years.

These proposed regulations also provide a special partial disposition rule to address commenters’ concerns about the effect of an IRS disallowance of a taxpayer’s characterization of the replacement of a portion of an asset as a repair. When the IRS disallows a taxpayer’s repair deduction for the amount paid or incurred for the replacement of a portion of an asset and capitalizes such amount under §1.263(a)-2 or §1.263(a)-3, the taxpayer may make the partial disposition election for the disposition of the portion of the asset to which the IRS’s adjustment pertains by filing an application for change in accounting method, provided the asset of which the disposed portion was a part is owned by the taxpayer at the beginning of the year of change (as defined for purposes of section 446(e)).

B. Assets included in general asset accounts

Similarly, the proposed regulations under §1.168(i)-1 also provide that the disposition rules apply to a partial disposition of an asset included in a general asset account. Consequently, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset as a result of a casualty event described in section 165, a disposition of a portion of an asset for which gain (determined without regard to section 1245 or 1250) is not recognized in whole or in part under section 1031 or 1033, a transfer of a portion of an asset in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B), a sale of a portion of an asset, or a disposition of a portion of an asset in a transaction described under the anti-abuse rules applicable to general asset accounts. For other transactions, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset only if the taxpayer makes the election to terminate the general asset account upon the disposition of all assets, including that disposed portion, in that general asset account or makes the qualifying disposition election for that disposed portion. A separate partial disposition election is not provided for assets in a general asset account because a taxpayer can claim a loss upon the disposition of an asset (or a portion thereof) in a general asset account only when the taxpayer makes these two elections.

5. Components of an asset

Because the partial disposition rule under these proposed regulations allows taxpayers to treat the disposition of an asset’s component as a disposition, the IRS and the Treasury Department believe that the rule in §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T allowing taxpayers to use any reasonable, consistent method to treat an asset’s components as the asset for disposition purposes is no longer needed. Accordingly, these proposed regulations do not include that temporary regulations rule. The IRS and the Treasury Department request comments addressing whether the rule in §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T allowing taxpayers to use any reasonable, consistent method to treat an asset’s components as the asset for disposition purposes is still needed.

6. Disposition definition

Consistent with these changes, these proposed regulations modify the temporary regulations’ definition of a disposition under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T to provide that a disposition includes the disposition of a structural component (or a portion thereof) of a building only if the partial disposition rule applies to such structural component (or a portion thereof).

7. General asset accounts

Finally, these proposed regulations change the temporary regulation definition of a qualifying disposition under §1.168(i)-1T(e)(3)(iii). The purpose of a general asset account is to reduce the administrative burden of tracking depreciable assets. This purpose was accomplished in the final regulations for general asset accounts under §1.168(i)-1 (as in effect before the temporary regulations under §1.168(i)-1T) by allowing a taxpayer to group assets in one or more general asset accounts and by allowing a taxpayer to elect to terminate general asset account treatment only when the taxpayer disposes of all of the assets, or the last asset, in the account, or disposes of an asset in a qualifying disposition, which generally was a casualty or other extraordinary event. The temporary regulations under §1.168(i)-1T expand a qualifying disposition to include generally any disposition and, as a result, increased the administrative burden of tracking depreciable assets. To reduce this burden, the IRS and the Treasury Department have decided to change the definition of a qualifying disposition so that it is the same as it was under the final regulations for general asset accounts under §1.168(i)-1 (as in effect before the temporary regulations under §1.168(i)-1T). Accordingly, these proposed regulations provide that a qualifying disposition is a disposition that does not involve all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, remaining in a general asset account and that is: (1) a direct result of a fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft; (2) a charitable contribution for which a deduction is allowable under section 170; (3) a direct result of a cessation, termination, or disposition of a business, manufacturing, or other income producing process, operation, facility, plant, or other unit (other than by transfer to a supplies, scrap, or similar account); or (4) generally a transaction to which a nonrecognition section of the Code applies.

B. Determination of Basis and Identification of Disposed or Converted Asset

The temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T provide that if the disposed asset is in a general asset account, is in a multiple asset account, or is a component of a larger asset, and it is impracticable from the taxpayer’s records to determine the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed asset, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method that is consistently applied to the taxpayer’s general asset accounts, multiple asset accounts, or larger assets, as applicable.

Several commenters requested that one or more specific methodologies be provided. They suggested using replacement cost adjusted for inflation using an objective index, using third-party construction estimating and valuation services, or using relative fair market value of acquired components.

In response, these proposed regulations provide nonexclusive examples of reasonable methods. Such examples include: (1) discounting the cost of the replacement asset to its placed-in-service year cost using the Consumer Price Index; (2) a pro rata allocation of the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account or multiple asset account, as applicable, based on the replacement cost of the disposed asset and the replacement cost of all of the assets in the general asset account or multiple asset account, as applicable; and (3) a study allocating the cost of the asset to its individual components. The IRS and the Treasury Department expect that reasonable methods are available that use information readily available or known to the taxpayer and do not necessitate undertaking expensive studies.

As previously mentioned, these proposed regulations do not include the temporary regulation rule in §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T that allows taxpayers to use any reasonable, consistent method to treat an asset’s components as the asset for tax disposition purposes. Consistent with this change, these proposed regulations do not include the temporary regulation rules in §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T regarding the determination of the unadjusted depreciable basis, and identification, of the disposed component of a larger asset. However, these proposed regulations provide rules regarding the determination of the unadjusted depreciable basis, and identification, of the disposed portion of an asset when the partial disposition rule applies.

If the partial disposition rule applies, these proposed regulations provide that a taxpayer may use any reasonable method for determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed portion of the asset. Also, if a taxpayer disposes of more than one portion of the same asset, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method that is consistently applied to all portions of the same asset for purposes of determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of each disposed portion of the asset. These proposed regulations provide nonexclusive examples of reasonable methods.

If a taxpayer disposes of a portion of the asset and the partial disposition rule applies to that disposition, these proposed regulations provide rules regarding the identification of the asset. When it is impracticable from the taxpayer’s records to determine the particular taxable year in which the asset was placed in service by the taxpayer, the taxpayer must identify the asset by using the methods allowed when the asset is in a general asset account or a multiple asset account: the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, the modified FIFO method, a mortality dispersion table if the asset is a mass asset, or any other method designated by the Secretary in published guidance. A last-in, first-out (LIFO) method is not permitted.

C. Other Changes

The proposed regulations under §1.168(i)-8 provide that if a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and the partial disposition rule applies to that disposition, the taxpayer must account for the disposed portion in a single asset account beginning in the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. This new rule also is provided in the proposed regulations under §1.168(i)-7.

The proposed regulations under §§1.168(i)-1 and 1.168(i)-8 also provide examples demonstrating the interaction between the disposition rules and the capitalization of tangible property rules under §1.263(a)-3.

Proposed Effective Date

These regulations are proposed to apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. The regulations also permit taxpayers to rely on the provisions of the proposed regulations for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before the applicability date of the final regulations. The proposed regulations provide that taxpayers may apply the provisions of the final regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. The temporary regulations under §§1.168(i)-1T and 1.168(i)-8T allow taxpayers to apply the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, but the final regulations will provide that taxpayers may not apply the temporary regulations to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Special Analyses

It has been determined that this notice of proposed rulemaking is not a significant regulatory action as defined in Executive Order 12866, as supplemented by Executive Order 13563. Therefore, a regulatory assessment is not required. It also has been determined that section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 5) does not apply to these regulations, and because these regulations do not impose a collection of information on small entities, the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6) does not apply. Pursuant to section 7805(f) of the Code, this regulation has been submitted to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on its impact on small business.

Comments and Public Hearing

Before the proposed regulations are adopted as final regulations, consideration will be given to any comments that are submitted timely to the IRS as prescribed in this preamble under the “Addresses” heading. The IRS and the Treasury Department request comments on all aspects of these proposed rules. All comments will be available for public inspection and copying at www.regulations.gov or upon request.

A public hearing has been scheduled for December 19, 2013, beginning at 10 a.m. in the IRS Auditorium, Internal Revenue Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC. Due to building security procedures, visitors must enter at the Constitution Avenue entrance. In addition, all visitors must present photo identification to enter the building. Because of access restrictions, visitors will not be admitted beyond the immediate entrance area more than 30 minutes before the hearing starts. For information about having your name placed on the building access list to attend the hearing, see the “FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT” section of this preamble.

The rules of 26 CFR 601.601(a)(3) apply to the hearing. Persons who wish to present oral comments at the hearing must submit electronic or written comments, an outline of the topics to be discussed, and the time to be devoted to each topic (signed original and eight (8) copies) by November 18, 2013. A period of 10 minutes will be allotted to each person for making comments. An agenda showing the scheduling of the speakers will be prepared after the deadline for receiving outlines has passed. Copies of the agenda will be available free of charge at the hearing.

Statement of Availability for IRS Document

For copies of recently issued Revenue Procedures, Revenue Rulings, notices and other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or Cumulative Bulletin please visit the IRS website at http://www.irs.gov.

Partial Withdrawal of Proposed Amendments to the Regulations

Accordingly, under the authority of 26 U.S.C. 7805, §§1.168(i)-1 and 1.168(i)-8 of the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-168745-03) that was published in the Federal Register on December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81128), are withdrawn.

Proposed Amendment to the Regulations

Accordingly, 26 CFR part 1 is proposed to be amended as follows:

PART 1—INCOME TAXES

Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to read in part as follows:

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805 * * *

Section 1.168(i)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 168(i)(4). * * *

Par. 2. In §1.168(i)-0, the entries under §1.168(i)-1 are amended by:

1. Redesignating the entries for paragraphs (b)(4), (b)(5), and (b)(6) as newly-designated entries for paragraphs (b)(5), (b)(6), and (b)(7).

2. Adding entries for paragraphs (b)(4), (b)(8), and (b)(9).

3. Revising the entries for newly-designated paragraphs (b)(6) and (b)(7).

4. Revising entries for paragraphs (c)(3), (d)(2), (d)(3), (e), (e)(2)(v) through (viii), (e)(3)(vi), (h)(1), (i), and (m).

5. Removing the entry for paragraph (h)(2).

6. Redesignating the entries for paragraph (h)(3) as newly-designated entries for paragraph (h)(2).

The additions and revisions read as follows:

§1.168(i)-0 Table of contents for the general asset account rules.

* * * * *

§1.168(i)-1 General asset accounts.

* * * * *

(b) * * *

(4) Building.

* * *

(6) Mass assets.

(7) Portion of an asset.

(8) Remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account.

(9) Structural component.

(c) * * *

(3) Examples.

* * * * *

(d) * * *

(2) Assets in general asset account are eligible for additional first year depreciation deduction.

(3) No assets in general asset account are eligible for additional first year depreciation deduction.

* * * * *

(e) Dispositions from a general asset account.

* * * * *

(2) * * *

(v) Manner of disposition.

(vi) Disposition by transfer to a supplies account.

(vii) Leasehold improvements.

(viii) Determination of asset disposed of.

* * * * *

(3) * * *

(vi) Technical termination of a partnership.

* * * * *

(h) * * *

(1) Conversion to any personal use.

* * * * *

(i) Redetermination of basis.

* * * * *

(m) Effective/applicability date.

Par. 3. Section 1.168(i)-1 is amended by revising paragraphs (a) through (l)(1), and paragraph (m), to read as follows:

§1.168(i)-1 General asset accounts.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for general asset accounts under section 168(i)(4). The provisions of this section apply only to assets for which an election has been made under paragraph (l) of this section.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Unadjusted depreciable basis has the same meaning given such term in §1.168(b)-1(a)(3).

(2) Unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account is the sum of the unadjusted depreciable bases of all assets included in the general asset account.

(3) Adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account is the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account less the adjustments to basis described in section 1016(a)(2) and (3).

(4) Building has the same meaning as that term is defined in §1.48-1(e)(1).

(5) Expensed cost is the amount of any allowable credit or deduction treated as a deduction allowable for depreciation or amortization for purposes of section 1245 (for example, a credit allowable under section 30 or a deduction allowable under section 179, 179A, or 190). Expensed cost does not include any additional first year depreciation deduction.

(6) Mass assets is a mass or group of individual items of depreciable assets—

(i) That are not necessarily homogenous;

(ii) Each of which is minor in value relative to the total value of the mass or group;

(iii) Numerous in quantity;

(iv) Usually accounted for only on a total dollar or quantity basis;

(v) With respect to which separate identification is impracticable; and

(vi) Placed in service in the same taxable year.

(7) Portion of an asset is any part of an asset that is less than the entire asset as determined under paragraph (e)(2)(viii) of this section.

(8) Remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account is the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account less the amount of the additional first year depreciation deduction allowed or allowable, whichever is greater, for the general asset account.

(9) Structural component has the same meaning as that term is defined in §1.48-1(e)(2).

(c) Establishment of general asset accounts—(1) Assets eligible for general asset accounts—(i) General rules. Assets that are subject to either the general depreciation system of section 168(a) or the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) may be accounted for in one or more general asset accounts. An asset is included in a general asset account only to the extent of the asset’s unadjusted depreciable basis. However, an asset is not to be included in a general asset account if the asset is used both in a trade or business (or for the production of income) and in a personal activity at any time during the taxable year in which the asset is placed in service by the taxpayer or if the asset is placed in service and disposed of during the same taxable year.

(ii) Special rules for assets generating foreign source income. (A) Assets that generate foreign source income, both United States and foreign source income, or combined gross income of a foreign sales corporation (FSC) (as defined in former section 922), domestic international sales corporation (DISC) (as defined in section 992(a)), or possessions corporation (as defined in section 936) and its related supplier may be included in a general asset account if the requirements of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section are satisfied. If, however, the inclusion of these assets in a general asset account results in a substantial distortion of income, the Commissioner may disregard the general asset account election and make any reallocations of income or expense necessary to clearly reflect income.

(B) A general asset account shall be treated as a single asset for purposes of applying the rules in §1.861-9T(g)(3) (relating to allocation and apportionment of interest expense under the asset method). A general asset account that generates income in more than one grouping of income (statutory and residual) is a multiple category asset (as defined in §1.861-9T(g)(3)(ii)), and the income yield from the general asset account must be determined by applying the rules for multiple category assets as if the general asset account were a single asset.

(2) Grouping assets in general asset accounts—(i) General rules. If a taxpayer makes the election under paragraph (l) of this section, assets that are subject to the election are grouped into one or more general asset accounts. Assets that are eligible to be grouped into a single general asset account may be divided into more than one general asset account. Each general asset account must include only assets that—

(A) Have the same applicable depreciation method;

(B) Have the same applicable recovery period;

(C) Have the same applicable convention; and

(D) Are placed in service by the taxpayer in the same taxable year.

(ii) Special rules. In addition to the general rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the following rules apply when establishing general asset accounts—

(A) Assets subject to the mid-quarter convention may only be grouped into a general asset account with assets that are placed in service in the same quarter of the taxable year;

(B) Assets subject to the mid-month convention may only be grouped into a general asset account with assets that are placed in service in the same month of the taxable year;

(C) Passenger automobiles for which the depreciation allowance is limited under section 280F(a) must be grouped into a separate general asset account;

(D) Assets not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction (including assets for which the taxpayer elected not to deduct the additional first year depreciation) provided by, for example, section 168(k), 168(l), 168(m), 168(n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d), must be grouped into a separate general asset account;

(E) Assets eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction may only be grouped into a general asset account with assets for which the taxpayer claimed the same percentage of the additional first year depreciation (for example, 30 percent, 50 percent, or 100 percent);

(F) Except for passenger automobiles described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, listed property (as defined in section 280F(d)(4)) must be grouped into a separate general asset account;

(G) Assets for which the depreciation allowance for the placed-in-service year is not determined by using an optional depreciation table (for further guidance, see section 8 of Rev. Proc. 87-57, 1987-2 C.B. 687, 693 (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter)) must be grouped into a separate general asset account;

(H) Mass assets that are or will be subject to paragraph (j)(2)(i)(D) of this section (disposed of or converted mass asset is identified by a mortality dispersion table) must be grouped into a separate general asset account; and

(I) Assets subject to paragraph (h)(2)(iii)(A) of this section (change in use results in a shorter recovery period or a more accelerated depreciation method) for which the depreciation allowance for the year of change (as defined in §1.168(i)-4(a)) is not determined by using an optional depreciation table must be grouped into a separate general asset account.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (c). For purposes of these examples, assume that section 168 as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Example 1. In 2014, J, a proprietorship with a calendar year-end, purchases and places in service one item of equipment that costs $550,000. This equipment is section 179 property and also is 5-year property under section 168(e). On its Federal tax return for 2014, J makes an election under section 179 to expense $25,000 of the equipment’s cost and makes an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the equipment in a general asset account. As a result, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the equipment is $525,000. In accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, J must include only $525,000 of the equipment’s cost in the general asset account.

Example 2. In 2014, K, a proprietorship with a calendar year-end, purchases and places in service 100 items of equipment. All of these items are 5-year property under section 168(e), are not listed property, and are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. On its Federal tax return for 2014, K does not make an election under section 179 to expense the cost of any of the 100 items of equipment and does make an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the 100 items of equipment in a general asset account. K depreciates its 5-year property placed in service in 2014 using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. In accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, K includes all of the 100 items of equipment in one general asset account.

Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that K decides not to include all of the 100 items of equipment in one general asset account. Instead and in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, K establishes 100 general asset accounts and includes one item of equipment in each general asset account.

Example 4. L, a calendar-year corporation, is a wholesale distributer. In 2014, L places in service the following properties for use in its wholesale distribution business: computers, automobiles, and forklifts. On its Federal tax return for 2014, L does not make an election under section 179 to expense the cost of any of these items of equipment and does make an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include all of these items of equipment in a general asset account. All of these items are 5-year property under section 168(e) and are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. The computers are listed property, and the automobiles are listed property and are subject to section 280F(a). L depreciates its 5-year property placed in service in 2014 using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. Although the computers, automobiles, and forklifts are 5-year property, L cannot include all of them in one general asset account because the computers and automobiles are listed property. Further, even though the computers and automobiles are listed property, L cannot include them in one general asset account because the automobiles also are subject to section 280F(a). In accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, L establishes three general asset accounts: one for the computers, one for the automobiles, and one for the forklifts.

Example 5. M, a fiscal-year corporation with a taxable year ending June 30, purchases and places in service ten items of new equipment in October 2014, and purchases and places in service five other items of new equipment in February 2015. On its Federal tax return for the taxable year ending June 30, 2015, M does not make an election under section 179 to expense the cost of any of these items of equipment and does make an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include all of these items of equipment in a general asset account. All of these items of equipment are 7-year property under section 168(e), are not listed property, and are property described in section 168(k)(2)(B). All of the ten items of equipment placed in service in October 2014 are eligible for the 50-percent additional first year depreciation deduction provided by section 168(k)(1). All of the five items of equipment placed in service in February 2015 are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. M depreciates its 7-year property placed in service for the taxable year ending June 30, 2015, using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 7-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. Although the 15 items of equipment are depreciated using the same depreciation method, recovery period, and convention, M cannot include all of them in one general asset account because some of items of equipment are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. In accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, M establishes two general asset accounts: one for the ten items of equipment eligible for the 50-percent additional first year depreciation deduction and one for the five items of equipment not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction.

(d) Determination of depreciation allowance—(1) In general. Depreciation allowances are determined for each general asset account. The depreciation allowances must be recorded in a depreciation reserve account for each general asset account. The allowance for depreciation under this section constitutes the amount of depreciation allowable under section 167(a).

(2) Assets in general asset account are eligible for additional first year depreciation deduction. If all the assets in a general asset account are eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction, the taxpayer first must determine the allowable additional first year depreciation deduction for the general asset account for the placed-in-service year and then must determine the amount otherwise allowable as a depreciation deduction for the general asset account for the placed-in-service year and any subsequent taxable year. The allowable additional first year depreciation deduction for the general asset account for the placed-in-service year is determined by multiplying the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account by the additional first year depreciation deduction percentage applicable to the assets in the account (for example, 30 percent, 50 percent, or 100 percent). The remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account then is depreciated using the applicable depreciation method, recovery period, and convention for the assets in the account.

(3) No assets in general asset account are eligible for additional first year depreciation deduction. If none of the assets in a general asset account are eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction, the taxpayer must determine the allowable depreciation deduction for the general asset account for the placed-in-service year and any subsequent taxable year by using the applicable depreciation method, recovery period, and convention for the assets in the account.

(4) Special rule for passenger automobiles. For purposes of applying section 280F(a), the depreciation allowance for a general asset account established for passenger automobiles is limited for each taxable year to the amount prescribed in section 280F(a) multiplied by the excess of the number of automobiles originally included in the account over the number of automobiles disposed of during the taxable year or in any prior taxable year in a transaction described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii) (disposition of an asset in a qualifying disposition), (e)(3)(iv) (transactions subject to section 168(i)(7)), (e)(3)(v) (transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033), (e)(3)(vi) (technical termination of a partnership), (e)(3)(vii) (anti-abuse rule), (g) (assets subject to recapture), (h)(1) (conversion to personal use), or (h)(2) (business or income-producing use percentage changes) of this section.

(e) Dispositions from a general asset account—(1) Scope and Definition—(i) In general. This paragraph (e) provides rules applicable to dispositions of assets included in a general asset account. For purposes of this paragraph (e), an asset in a general asset account is disposed of when ownership of the asset is transferred or when the asset is permanently withdrawn from use either in the taxpayer’s trade or business or in the production of income. A disposition includes the sale, exchange, retirement, physical abandonment, or destruction of an asset. A disposition also occurs when an asset is transferred to a supplies, scrap, or similar account, or when a portion of an asset is disposed of as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. If a structural component (or a portion thereof) of a building is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, a disposition also includes the disposition of such structural component (or such portion thereof).

(ii) Disposition of a portion of an asset. For purposes of applying paragraph (e) of this section, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset in a general asset account as a result of a casualty event described in section 165, a disposition of a portion of an asset in a general asset account for which gain (determined without regard to section 1245 or section 1250) is not recognized in whole or in part under section 1031 or section 1033, a transfer of a portion of an asset in a general asset account in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B), a sale of a portion of an asset in a general asset account, or a disposition of a portion of an asset in a general asset account in a transaction is described in paragraph (e)(3)(vii)(B) of this section. For other transactions, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset in a general asset account only if the taxpayer makes the election under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section to terminate the general asset account in which that disposed portion is included or makes the election under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section for that disposed portion.

(2) General rules for a disposition—(i) No immediate recovery of basis. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, immediately before a disposition of any asset in a general asset account or a disposition of a portion of such asset as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the asset or the portion of the asset, as applicable, is treated as having an adjusted depreciable basis (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(4)) of zero for purposes of section 1011. Therefore, no loss is realized upon the disposition of an asset from the general asset account or upon the disposition of a portion of such asset as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. Similarly, where an asset or a portion of an asset, as applicable, is disposed of by transfer to a supplies, scrap, or similar account, the basis of the asset or the portion of the asset, as applicable, in the supplies, scrap, or similar account will be zero.

(ii) Treatment of amount realized. Any amount realized on a disposition is recognized as ordinary income (notwithstanding any other provision of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code) to the extent the sum of the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account and any expensed cost (as defined in paragraph (b)(5) of this section) for assets in the account exceeds any amounts previously recognized as ordinary income upon the disposition of other assets in the account or upon the disposition of portions of such assets as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. The recognition and character of any excess amount realized are determined under other applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (other than sections 1245 and 1250 or provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that treat gain on a disposition as subject to section 1245 or 1250).

(iii) Effect of disposition on a general asset account. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, the unadjusted depreciable basis and the depreciation reserve of the general asset account are not affected as a result of a disposition of an asset from the general asset account or of a disposition of a portion of such asset as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Coordination with nonrecognition provisions. For purposes of determining the basis of an asset or a portion of an asset, as applicable, acquired in a transaction, other than a transaction described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iv) (pertaining to transactions subject to section 168(i)(7)), (e)(3)(v) (pertaining to transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033), and (e)(3)(vi) (pertaining to technical terminations of partnerships) of this section, to which a nonrecognition section of the Internal Revenue Code applies (determined without regard to this section), the amount of ordinary income recognized under this paragraph (e)(2) is treated as the amount of gain recognized on the disposition.

(v) Manner of disposition. The manner of disposition (for example, normal retirement, abnormal retirement, ordinary retirement, or extraordinary retirement) is not taken into account in determining whether a disposition occurs or gain or loss is recognized.

(vi) Disposition by transfer to a supplies account. If a taxpayer made an election under §1.162-3(d) to treat the cost of any rotable spare part, temporary spare part, or standby emergency spare part (as defined in §1.162-3(c)) as a capital expenditure subject to the allowance for depreciation and also made an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include that rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part in a general asset account, the taxpayer can dispose of the rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part by transferring it to a supplies account only if the taxpayer has obtained the consent of the Commissioner to revoke the §1.162-3(d) election. See §1.162-3(d)(3) for the procedures for revoking a §1.162-3(d) election.

(vii) Leasehold improvements. The rules of paragraph (e) of this section also apply to—

(A) A lessor of leased property that made an improvement to that property for the lessee of the property, has a depreciable basis in the improvement, made an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the improvement in a general asset account, and disposes of the improvement (or disposes of a portion of the improvement as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section) before or upon the termination of the lease with the lessee. See section 168(i)(8)(B); and

(B) A lessee of leased property that made an improvement to that property, has a depreciable basis in the improvement, made an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the improvement in a general asset account, and disposes of the improvement (or disposes of a portion of the improvement as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section) before or upon the termination of the lease.

(viii) Determination of asset disposed of—(A) General rules. For purposes of applying paragraph (e) of this section to the disposition of an asset in a general asset account (instead of the disposition of the general asset account), the facts and circumstances of each disposition are considered in determining what is the appropriate asset disposed of. The asset for disposition purposes may not consist of items placed in service by the taxpayer on different dates. For purposes of determining what is the appropriate asset disposed of, the unit of property determination under §1.263(a)-3(e) or in published guidance in the Internal Revenue Bulletin under section 263(a) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) does not apply.

(B) Special rules. In addition to the general rules in paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(A) of this section, the following rules apply for purposes of applying paragraph (e) of this section to the disposition of an asset in a general asset account (instead of the disposition of the general asset account):

(1) Each building (including its structural components) is the asset except as provided in §1.1250-1(a)(2)(ii) or in paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(2) or paragraph (e)(2)(viii) (B)(4) of this section.

(2) If a building has two or more condominium or cooperative units, each condominium or cooperative unit (including its structural components) is the asset except as provided in §1.1250-1(a)(2)(ii) or in paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(4) of this section.

(3) If a taxpayer properly includes an item in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 (1987-2 C.B. 674) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) or properly classifies an item in one of the categories under section 168(e)(3) (except for a category that includes buildings or structural components; for example, retail motor fuels outlet, qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property), each item is the asset provided paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(4) of this section does not apply to the item. For example, each desk is the asset, each computer is the asset, and each qualified smart electric meter is the asset.

(4) If the taxpayer places in service an improvement or addition to an asset after the taxpayer placed the asset in service, the improvement or addition is a separate asset.

(ix) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e)(2). For purposes of these examples, assume that section 168 as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Example 1. A, a calendar-year partnership, maintains one general asset account for one office building that cost $10 million. A discovers a leak in the roof of the building and decides to replace the entire roof. The roof is a structural component of the building. In accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(1) of this section, the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes. The retirement of the replaced roof is not a disposition of a portion of an asset as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. Thus, the retirement of the replaced roof is not a disposition under paragraph (e)(1) of this section. As a result, A continues to depreciate the $10 million cost of the general asset account. If A must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement roof pursuant to §1.263(a)-3, the replacement roof is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(4) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 2. B, a calendar-year commercial airline company, maintains one general asset account for five aircraft that cost a total of $500 million. These aircraft are described in asset class 45.0 of Rev. Proc. 87-56. B replaces the existing engines on one of the aircraft with new engines. Assume each aircraft is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)(3) and each engine of an aircraft is a major component or substantial structural part of the aircraft as determined under §1.263(a)-3(k)(6). Assume also that B treats each aircraft as the asset for disposition purposes in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(viii) of this section. The retirement of the replaced engines is not a disposition of a portion of an asset as described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. Thus, the retirement of the replaced engines is not a disposition under paragraph (e)(1) of this section. As a result, B continues to depreciate the $500 million cost of the general asset account. If B must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement engines pursuant to §1.263(a)-3, the replacement engines are a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(4) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 3. (i) R, a calendar-year corporation, maintains one general asset account for ten machines. The machines cost a total of $10,000 and are placed in service in June 2014. Of the ten machines, one machine costs $8,200 and nine machines cost a total of $1,800. Assume R depreciates this general asset account using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and a half-year convention. R does not make a section 179 election for any of the machines, and all of the machines are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. As of January 1, 2015, the depreciation reserve of the account is $2,000 ($10,000 x 20%).

(ii) On February 8, 2015, R sells the machine that cost $8,200 to an unrelated party for $9,000. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, this machine has an adjusted depreciable basis of zero.

(iii) On its 2015 tax return, R recognizes the amount realized of $9,000 as ordinary income because such amount does not exceed the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account ($10,000), plus any expensed cost for assets in the account ($0), less amounts previously recognized as ordinary income ($0). Moreover, the unadjusted depreciable basis and depreciation reserve of the account are not affected by the disposition of the machine. Thus, the depreciation allowance for the account in 2015 is $3,200 ($10,000 x 32%).

Example 4. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 3. In addition, on June 4, 2016, R sells seven machines to an unrelated party for a total of $1,100. In accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, these machines have an adjusted depreciable basis of zero.

(ii) On its 2016 tax return, R recognizes $1,000 as ordinary income (the unadjusted depreciable basis of $10,000, plus the expensed cost of $0, less the amount of $9,000 previously recognized as ordinary income). The recognition and character of the excess amount realized of $100 ($1,100-$1,000) are determined under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code other than section 1245 (such as section 1231). Moreover, the unadjusted depreciable basis and depreciation reserve of the account are not affected by the disposition of the machines. Thus, the depreciation allowance for the account in 2016 is $1,920 ($10,000 x 19.2%).

(3) Special rules—(i) In general. This paragraph (e)(3) provides the rules for terminating general asset account treatment upon certain dispositions. While the rules under paragraphs (e)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section are optional rules, the rules under paragraphs (e)(3)(iv), (v), (vi), and (vii) of this section are mandatory rules. A taxpayer elects to apply paragraph (e)(3)(ii) or paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section by reporting the gain, loss, or other deduction on the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. A taxpayer may revoke the election to apply paragraph (e)(3)(ii) or paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith, and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. See generally §301.9100-3 of this chapter. The election to apply paragraph (e)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section may not be made or revoked through the filing of an application for change in accounting method. For purposes of applying paragraph (e)(3)(iii) through (vii) of this section, see paragraph (j) of this section for identifying an asset disposed of and its unadjusted depreciable basis. Solely for purposes of applying paragraphs (e)(3)(iii), (e)(3)(iv)(C), (e)(3)(v)(B), and (e)(3)(vii) of this section, the term asset is:

(A) The asset as determined under paragraph (e)(2)(viii) of this section, or

(B) The portion of such asset that is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Disposition of all assets remaining in a general asset account—(A) Optional termination of a general asset account. Upon the disposition of all of the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in a general asset account, a taxpayer may apply this paragraph (e)(3)(ii) to recover the adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account (rather than having paragraph (e)(2) of this section apply). Under this paragraph (e)(3)(ii), the general asset account terminates and the amount of gain or loss for the general asset account is determined under section 1001(a) by taking into account the adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account at the time of the disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the general asset account). The recognition and character of the gain or loss are determined under other applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, except that the amount of gain subject to section 1245 (or section 1250) is limited to the excess of the depreciation allowed or allowable for the general asset account, including any expensed cost (or the excess of the additional depreciation allowed or allowable for the general asset account), over any amounts previously recognized as ordinary income under paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(B) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii). For purposes of these examples, assume that section 168 as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Example 1. (i) T, a calendar-year corporation, maintains a general asset account for 1,000 calculators. The calculators cost a total of $60,000 and are placed in service in 2014. Assume T depreciates this general asset account using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and a half-year convention. T does not make a section 179 election for any of the calculators, and all of the calculators are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. In 2015, T sells 200 of the calculators to an unrelated party for a total of $10,000 and recognizes the $10,000 as ordinary income in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(ii) On March 26, 2016, T sells the remaining calculators in the general asset account to an unrelated party for $35,000. T elects to apply paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section. As a result, the account terminates and gain or loss is determined for the account.

(iii) On the date of disposition, the adjusted depreciable basis of the account is $23,040 (unadjusted depreciable basis of $60,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $36,960). Thus, in 2016, T recognizes gain of $11,960 (amount realized of $35,000 less the adjusted depreciable basis of $23,040). The gain of $11,960 is subject to section 1245 to the extent of the depreciation allowed or allowable for the account (plus the expensed cost for assets in the account) less the amounts previously recognized as ordinary income ($36,960 + $0 - $10,000 = $26,960). As a result, the entire gain of $11,960 is subject to section 1245.

Example 2. (i) J, a calendar-year corporation, maintains a general asset account for one item of equipment. This equipment costs $2,000 and is placed in service in 2014. Assume J depreciates this general asset account using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and a half-year convention. J does not make a section 179 election for the equipment, and it is not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. In June 2016, J sells the equipment to an unrelated party for $1,000. J elects to apply paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section. As a result, the account terminates and gain or loss is determined for the account.

(ii) On the date of disposition, the adjusted depreciable basis of the account is $768 (unadjusted depreciable basis of $2,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $1,232). Thus, in 2016, J recognizes gain of $232 (amount realized of $1,000 less the adjusted depreciable basis of $768). The gain of $232 is subject to section 1245 to the extent of the depreciation allowed or allowable for the account (plus the expensed cost for assets in the account) less the amounts previously recognized as ordinary income ($1,232 + $0 - $0 = $1,232). As a result, the entire gain of $232 is subject to section 1245.

(iii) Disposition of an asset in a qualifying disposition—(A) Optional determination of the amount of gain, loss, or other deduction. In the case of a qualifying disposition (described in paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(B) of this section) of an asset, a taxpayer may elect to apply this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) (rather than having paragraph (e)(2) of this section apply). Under this paragraph (e)(3)(iii), general asset account treatment for the asset terminates as of the first day of the taxable year in which the qualifying disposition occurs, and the amount of gain, loss, or other deduction for the asset is determined under §1.168(i)-8 or §1.168(i)-8T, as applicable, by taking into account the asset’s adjusted depreciable basis at the time of the disposition. The adjusted depreciable basis of the asset at the time of the disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the general asset account in which the asset was included) equals the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset less the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset, computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account in which the asset was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the general asset account that is attributable to the asset disposed of. The recognition and character of the gain, loss, or other deduction are determined under other applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, except that the amount of gain subject to section 1245 (or section 1250) is limited to the lesser of—

(1) The depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset, including any expensed cost (or the additional depreciation allowed or allowable) for the asset; or

(2) The excess of—

(i) The original unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account plus, in the case of section 1245 property originally included in the general asset account, any expensed cost; over

(ii) The cumulative amounts of gain previously recognized as ordinary income under either paragraph (e)(2) of this section or section 1245 (or section 1250).

(B) Qualifying dispositions. A qualifying disposition is a disposition that does not involve all the assets, or the last asset, remaining in a general asset account and that is—

(1) A direct result of a fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft;

(2) A charitable contribution for which a deduction is allowable under section 170;

(3) A direct result of a cessation, termination, or disposition of a business, manufacturing or other income producing process, operation, facility, plant, or other unit (other than by transfer to a supplies, scrap, or similar account); or

(4) A transaction, other than a transaction described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv) (pertaining to transactions subject to section 168(i)(7)), (v) (pertaining to transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033), (vi) (pertaining to technical terminations of partnerships), or (vii) (anti-abuse rule) of this section, to which a nonrecognition section of the Internal Revenue Code applies (determined without regard to this section).

(C) Effect of a qualifying disposition on a general asset account. If the taxpayer elects to apply this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) to a qualifying disposition of an asset, then—

(1) The asset is removed from the general asset account as of the first day of the taxable year in which the qualifying disposition occurs. For that taxable year, the taxpayer accounts for the asset in a single asset account in accordance with the rules under §1.168(i)-7(b) or §1.168(i)-7T(b), as applicable;

(2) The unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account is reduced by the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset as of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs;

(3) The depreciation reserve of the general asset account is reduced by the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset as of the end of the taxable year immediately preceding the year of disposition, computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account in which the asset was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the general asset account that is attributable to the asset disposed of; and

(4) For purposes of determining the amount of gain realized on subsequent dispositions that is subject to ordinary income treatment under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, the amount of any expensed cost with respect to the asset is disregarded.

(D) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e)(3)(iii). For purposes of these examples, assume that section 168 as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Example 1. (i) Z, a calendar-year corporation, maintains one general asset account for 12 machines. Each machine costs $15,000 and is placed in service in 2014. Of the 12 machines, nine machines that cost a total of $135,000 are used in Z’s Kentucky plant, and three machines that cost a total of $45,000 are used in Z’s Ohio plant. Assume Z depreciates this general asset account using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. Z does not make a section 179 election for any of the machines, and all of the machines are not eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction. As of December 31, 2015, the depreciation reserve for the account is $93,600.

(ii) On May 27, 2016, Z sells its entire manufacturing plant in Ohio to an unrelated party. The sales proceeds allocated to each of the three machines at the Ohio plant is $5,000. This transaction is a qualifying disposition under paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(B)(3) of this section and Z elects to apply paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section.

(iii) For Z’s 2016 return, the depreciation allowance for the account is computed as follows. As of December 31, 2015, the depreciation allowed or allowable for the three machines at the Ohio plant is $23,400. Thus, as of January 1, 2016, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the account is reduced from $180,000 to $135,000 ($180,000 less the unadjusted depreciable basis of $45,000 for the three machines), and, as of December 31, 2015, the depreciation reserve of the account is decreased from $93,600 to $70,200 ($93,600 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $23,400 for the three machines as of December 31, 2015). Consequently, the depreciation allowance for the account in 2016 is $25,920 ($135,000 x 19.2%).

(iv) For Z’s 2016 return, gain or loss for each of the three machines at the Ohio plant is determined as follows. The depreciation allowed or allowable in 2016 for each machine is $1,440 (($15,000 x 19.2%)/ 2). Thus, the adjusted depreciable basis of each machine under section 1011 is $5,760 (the adjusted depreciable basis of $7,200 removed from the account less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $1,440 in 2016). As a result, the loss recognized in 2016 for each machine is $760 ($5,000 - $5,760), which is subject to section 1231.

Example 2. (i) A, a calendar-year partnership, maintains one general asset account for one office building that cost $20 million and was placed in service in July 2011. A depreciates this general asset account using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the straight-line method, a 39-year recovery period, and the mid-month convention. As of January 1, 2014, the depreciation reserve for the account is $1,261,000.

(ii) In May 2014, a tornado occurs where the building is located and damages the roof of the building. A decides to replace the entire roof. The roof is replaced in June 2014. The roof is a structural component of the building. Because the roof was damaged as a result of a casualty event described in section 165, the partial disposition rule provided under paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section applies to the roof. Although the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes, the partial disposition rule provides that the retirement of the replaced roof is a disposition under paragraph (e)(1) of this section. This retirement is a qualifying disposition under paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section and A elects to apply paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section for the retirement of the damaged roof.

(iii) Of the $20 million cost of the office building, assume $1 million is the cost of the retired roof.

(iv) For A’s 2014 return, the depreciation allowance for the account is computed as follows. As of December 31, 2013, the depreciation allowed or allowable for the retired roof is $63,050. Thus, as of January 1, 2014, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the account is reduced from $20,000,000 to $19,000,000 ($20,000,000 less the unadjusted depreciable basis of $1,000,000 for the retired roof), and the depreciation reserve of the account is decreased from $1,261,000 to $1,197,950 ($1,261,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $63,050 for the retired roof as of December 31, 2013). Consequently, the depreciation allowance for the account in 2014 is $487,160 ($19,000,000 x 2.564%).

(v) For A’s 2014 return, gain or loss for the retired roof is determined as follows. The depreciation allowed or allowable in 2014 for the retired roof is $11,752 (($1,000,000 x 2.564%) x 5.5/12). Thus, the adjusted depreciable basis of the retired roof under section 1011 is $925,198 (the adjusted depreciable basis of $936,950 removed from the account less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $11,752 in 2014). As a result, the loss recognized in 2014 for the retired roof is $925,198, which is subject to section 1231.

(vi) If A must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement roof under §1.263(a)-3, the replacement roof is a separate asset for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6). If A includes the replacement roof in a general asset account, the replacement roof is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(viii)(B)(4) of this section. If A includes the replacement roof in a single asset account or a multiple asset account under §1.168(i)-7, the replacement roof is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to §1.168(i)-8(c)(4)(ii)(D).

(iv) Transactions subject to section 168(i)(7)—(A) In general. If a taxpayer transfers one or more assets in a general asset account (or a portion of such asset) in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B) (pertaining to treatment of transferees in certain nonrecognition transactions), the taxpayer (the transferor) and the transferee must apply this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) to the asset (or the portion of such asset) (instead of applying paragraph (e)(2), (e)(3)(ii), or (e)(3)(iii) of this section). The transferee is bound by the transferor’s election under paragraph (l) of this section for the portion of the transferee’s basis in the asset (or the portion of such asset) that does not exceed the transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account or the asset (or the portion of such asset), as applicable (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(B)(2) or paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) of this section, as applicable).

(B) All assets remaining in general asset account are transferred. If a taxpayer transfers all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in a general asset account in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B)—

(1) The taxpayer (the transferor) must terminate the general asset account on the date of the transfer. The allowable depreciation deduction for the general asset account for the transferor’s taxable year in which the section 168(i)(7)(B) transaction occurs is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account. This allowable depreciation deduction is allocated between the transferor and the transferee on a monthly basis. This allocation is made in accordance with the rules in §1.168(d)-1(b)(7)(ii) for allocating the depreciation deduction between the transferor and the transferee;

(2) The transferee must establish a new general asset account for all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in the taxable year in which the section 168(i)(7)(B) transaction occurs for the portion of its basis in the assets that does not exceed the transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account in which all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, were included. The transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of this general asset account is equal to the adjusted depreciable basis of that account as of the beginning of the transferor’s taxable year in which the transaction occurs, decreased by the amount of depreciation allocable to the transferor for the year of the transfer (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(B)(1) of this section). The transferee is treated as the transferor for purposes of computing the allowable depreciation deduction for the new general asset account under section 168. The new general asset account must be established in accordance with the rules in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the unadjusted depreciable bases of all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, and the greater of the depreciation allowed or allowable for all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset (including the amount of depreciation for the transferred assets that is allocable to the transferor for the year of the transfer), are included in the newly established general asset account. Consequently, this general asset account in the year of the transfer will have a beginning balance for both the unadjusted depreciable basis and the depreciation reserve of the general asset account; and

(3) For purposes of section 168 and this section, the transferee treats the portion of its basis in the assets that exceeds the transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account in which all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, were included (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(B)(2) of this section) as a separate asset that the transferee placed in service on the date of the transfer. The transferee accounts for this asset under §1.168(i)-7 or §1.168(i)-7T, as applicable, or may make an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the asset in a general asset account.

(C) Not all assets remaining in general asset account are transferred. If a taxpayer transfers an asset in a general asset account in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B) and if paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(B) of this section does not apply to this asset—

(1) The taxpayer (the transferor) must remove the transferred asset from the general asset account in which the asset is included, as of the first day of the taxable year in which the section 168(i)(7)(B) transaction occurs. In addition, the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(2) through (4) of this section must be made. The allowable depreciation deduction for the asset for the transferor’s taxable year in which the section 168(i)(7)(B) transaction occurs is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account in which the asset was included. This allowable depreciation deduction is allocated between the transferor and the transferee on a monthly basis. This allocation is made in accordance with the rules in §1.168(d)-1(b)(7)(ii) for allocating the depreciation deduction between the transferor and the transferee;

(2) The transferee must establish a new general asset account for the asset in the taxable year in which the section 168(i)(7)(B) transaction occurs for the portion of its basis in the asset that does not exceed the transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of the asset. The transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of this asset is equal to the adjusted depreciable basis of the asset as of the beginning of the transferor’s taxable year in which the transaction occurs, decreased by the amount of depreciation allocable to the transferor for the year of the transfer (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(1) of this section). The transferee is treated as the transferor for purposes of computing the allowable depreciation deduction for the new general asset account under section 168. The new general asset account must be established in accordance with the rules in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset, and the greater of the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset (including the amount of depreciation for the transferred asset that is allocable to the transferor for the year of the transfer), are included in the newly established general asset account. Consequently, this general asset account in the year of the transfer will have a beginning balance for both the unadjusted depreciable basis and the depreciation reserve of the general asset account; and

(3) For purposes of section 168 and this section, the transferee treats the portion of its basis in the asset that exceeds the transferor’s adjusted depreciable basis of the asset (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) of this section) as a separate asset that the transferee placed in service on the date of the transfer. The transferee accounts for this asset under §1.168(i)-7 or §1.168(i)-7T, as applicable, or may make an election under paragraph (l) of this section to include the asset in a general asset account.

(v) Transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033—(A) Like-kind exchange or involuntary conversion of all assets remaining in a general asset account. If all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in a general asset account are transferred by a taxpayer in a like-kind exchange (as defined under §1.168-6(b)(11)) or in an involuntary conversion (as defined under §1.168-6(b)(12)), the taxpayer must apply this paragraph (e)(3)(v)(A) (instead of applying paragraph (e)(2), (e)(3)(ii), or (e)(3)(iii) of this section). Under this paragraph (e)(3)(v)(A), the general asset account terminates as of the first day of the year of disposition (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(5)) and—

(1) The amount of gain or loss for the general asset account is determined under section 1001(a) by taking into account the adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account at the time of disposition (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(3)). The depreciation allowance for the general asset account in the year of disposition is determined in the same manner as the depreciation allowance for the relinquished MACRS property (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(2)) in the year of disposition is determined under §1.168(i)-6. The recognition and character of gain or loss are determined in accordance with paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(A) of this section (notwithstanding that paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section is an optional rule); and

(2) The adjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account at the time of disposition is treated as the adjusted depreciable basis of the relinquished MACRS property.

(B) Like-kind exchange or involuntary conversion of less than all assets remaining in a general asset account. If an asset in a general asset account is transferred by a taxpayer in a like-kind exchange or in an involuntary conversion and if paragraph (e)(3)(v)(A) of this section does not apply to this asset, the taxpayer must apply this paragraph (e)(3)(v)(B) (instead of applying paragraph (e)(2), (e)(3)(ii), or (e)(3)(iii) of this section). Under this paragraph (e)(3)(v)(B), general asset account treatment for the asset terminates as of the first day of the year of disposition (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(5)), and—

(1) The amount of gain or loss for the asset is determined by taking into account the asset’s adjusted depreciable basis at the time of disposition (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(3)). The adjusted depreciable basis of the asset at the time of disposition equals the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset less the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset, computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account in which the asset was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the general asset account that is attributable to the relinquished asset. The depreciation allowance for the asset in the year of disposition is determined in the same manner as the depreciation allowance for the relinquished MACRS property (as defined in §1.168(i)-6(b)(2)) in the year of disposition is determined under §1.168(i)-6. The recognition and character of the gain or loss are determined in accordance with paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(A) of this section (notwithstanding that paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section is an optional rule); and

(2) As of the first day of the year of disposition, the taxpayer must remove the relinquished asset from the general asset account and make the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(2) through (4) of this section.

(vi) Technical termination of a partnership. In the case of a technical termination of a partnership under section 708(b)(1)(B), the terminated partnership must apply this paragraph (e)(3)(vi) (instead of applying paragraph (e)(2), (e)(3)(ii), or (e)(3)(iii) of this section). Under this paragraph (e)(3)(vi), all of the terminated partnership’s general asset accounts terminate as of the date of its termination under section 708(b)(1)(B). The terminated partnership computes the allowable depreciation deduction for each of its general asset accounts for the taxable year in which the technical termination occurs by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the general asset account. The new partnership is not bound by the terminated partnership’s election under paragraph (l) of this section.

(vii) Anti-abuse rule—(A) In general. If an asset in a general asset account is disposed of by a taxpayer in a transaction described in paragraph (e)(3)(vii)(B) of this section, general asset account treatment for the asset terminates as of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. Consequently, the taxpayer must determine the amount of gain, loss, or other deduction attributable to the disposition in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(A) of this section (notwithstanding that paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(A) of this section is an optional rule) and must make the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(1) through (4) of this section.

(B) Abusive transactions. A transaction is described in this paragraph (e)(3)(vii)(B) if the transaction is not described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv), (e)(3)(v), or (e)(3)(vi) of this section, and if the transaction is entered into, or made, with a principal purpose of achieving a tax benefit or result that would not be available absent an election under this section. Examples of these types of transactions include—

(1) A transaction entered into with a principal purpose of shifting income or deductions among taxpayers in a manner that would not be possible absent an election under this section to take advantage of differing effective tax rates among the taxpayers; or

(2) An election made under this section with a principal purpose of disposing of an asset from a general asset account to utilize an expiring net operating loss or credit if the transaction is not a bona fide disposition. The fact that a taxpayer with a net operating loss carryover or a credit carryover transfers an asset to a related person or transfers an asset pursuant to an arrangement where the asset continues to be used (or is available for use) by the taxpayer pursuant to a lease (or otherwise) indicates, absent strong evidence to the contrary, that the transaction is described in this paragraph (e)(3)(vii)(B).

(f) Assets generating foreign source income—(1) In general. This paragraph (f) provides the rules for determining the source of any income, gain, or loss recognized, and the appropriate section 904(d) separate limitation category or categories for any foreign source income, gain, or loss recognized on a disposition (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(1) of this section) of an asset in a general asset account that consists of assets generating both United States and foreign source income. These rules apply only to a disposition to which paragraphs (e)(2) (general disposition rules), (e)(3)(ii) (disposition of all assets remaining in a general asset account), (e)(3)(iii) (disposition of an asset in a qualifying disposition), (e)(3)(v) (transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033), or (e)(3)(vii) (anti-abuse rule) of this section applies. Solely for purposes of applying this paragraph (f), the term asset is:

(i) The asset as determined under paragraph (e)(2)(viii) of this section, or

(ii) The portion of such asset that is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) Source of ordinary income, gain, or loss—(i) Source determined by allocation and apportionment of depreciation allowed. The amount of any ordinary income, gain, or loss that is recognized on the disposition of an asset in a general asset account must be apportioned between United States and foreign sources based on the allocation and apportionment of the—

(A) Depreciation allowed for the general asset account as of the end of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs if paragraph (e)(2) of this section applies to the disposition;

(B) Depreciation allowed for the general asset account as of the time of disposition if the taxpayer applies paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section to the disposition of all assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in the general asset account, or if all the assets, the last asset, or the remaining portion of the last asset, in the general asset account are disposed of in a transaction described in paragraph (e)(3)(v)(A) of this section; or

(C) Depreciation allowed for the asset disposed of for only the taxable year in which the disposition occurs if the taxpayer applies paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section to the disposition of the asset in a qualifying disposition, if the asset is disposed of in a transaction described in paragraph (e)(3)(v)(B) of this section (like-kind exchange or involuntary conversion), or if the asset is disposed of in a transaction described in paragraph (e)(3)(vii) of this section (anti-abuse rule).

(ii) Formula for determining foreign source income, gain, or loss. The amount of ordinary income, gain, or loss recognized on the disposition that shall be treated as foreign source income, gain, or loss must be determined under the formula in this paragraph (f)(2)(ii). For purposes of this formula, the allowed depreciation deductions are determined for the applicable time period provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. The formula is:

Foreign Source Income, Gain, or Loss from the Disposition of an Asset = Total Ordinary Income, Gain, or Loss from the Disposition of an Asset X Allowed Depreciation Deductions Allocated and Apportioned to Foreign Source Income/Total Allowed Depreciation Deductions for the General Asset Account or for the Asset Disposed of (as applicable)

(3) Section 904(d) separate categories. If the assets in the general asset account generate foreign source income in more than one separate category under section 904(d)(1) or another section of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, income treated as foreign source income under section 904(g)(10)), or under a United States income tax treaty that requires the foreign tax credit limitation to be determined separately for specified types of income, the amount of “foreign source income, gain, or loss from the disposition of an asset” (as determined under the formula in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section) must be allocated and apportioned to the applicable separate category or categories under the formula in this paragraph (f)(3). For purposes of this formula, the allowed depreciation deductions are determined for the applicable time period provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. The formula is:

Foreign Source Income, Gain, or Loss in a Separate Category = Foreign Source Income, Gain, or Loss from The Disposition of an Asset X Allowed Depreciation Deductions Allocated and Apportioned to a Separate Category Total/Allowed Depreciation Deductions and Apportioned to Foreign Source Income

(g) Assets subject to recapture. If the basis of an asset in a general asset account is increased as a result of the recapture of any allowable credit or deduction (for example, the basis adjustment for the recapture amount under section 30(d)(2), 50(c)(2), 168(l)(7), 168(n)(4), 179(d)(10), 179A(e)(4), or 1400N(d)(5)), general asset account treatment for the asset terminates as of the first day of the taxable year in which the recapture event occurs. Consequently, the taxpayer must remove the asset from the general asset account as of that day and must make the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(2) through (4) of this section.

(h) Changes in use—(1) Conversion to any personal use. An asset in a general asset account becomes ineligible for general asset account treatment if a taxpayer uses the asset in any personal activity during a taxable year. Upon a conversion to any personal use, the taxpayer must remove the asset from the general asset account as of the first day of the taxable year in which the change in use occurs (the year of change) and must make the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(2) through (4) of this section.

(2) Change in use results in a different recovery period or depreciation method—(i) No effect on general asset account election. A change in the use described in §1.168(i)-4(d) (change in use results in a different recovery period or depreciation method) of an asset in a general asset account shall not cause or permit the revocation of the election made under this section.

(ii) Asset is removed from the general asset account. Upon a change in the use described in §1.168(i)-4(d), the taxpayer must remove the asset from the general asset account as of the first day of the year of change (as defined in §1.168(i)-4(a)) and must make the adjustments to the general asset account described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii)(C)(2) through (4) of this section. If, however, the result of the change in use is described in §1.168(i)-4(d)(3) (change in use results in a shorter recovery period or a more accelerated depreciation method) and the taxpayer elects to treat the asset as though the change in use had not occurred pursuant to §1.168(i)-4(d)(3)(ii), no adjustment is made to the general asset account upon the change in use.

(iii) New general asset account is established—(A) Change in use results in a shorter recovery period or a more accelerated depreciation method. If the result of the change in use is described in §1.168(i)-4(d)(3) (change in use results in a shorter recovery period or a more accelerated depreciation method) and adjustments to the general asset account are made pursuant to paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, the taxpayer must establish a new general asset account for the asset in the year of change in accordance with the rules in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the adjusted depreciable basis of the asset as of the first day of the year of change is included in the general asset account. For purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the applicable depreciation method, recovery period, and convention are determined under §1.168(i)-4(d)(3)(i).

(B) Change in use results in a longer recovery period or a slower depreciation method. If the result of the change in use is described in §1.168(i)-4(d)(4) (change in use results in a longer recovery period or a slower depreciation method), the taxpayer must establish a separate general asset account for the asset in the year of change in accordance with the rules in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset, and the greater of the depreciation of the asset allowed or allowable in accordance with section 1016(a)(2), as of the first day of the year of change are included in the newly established general asset account. Consequently, this general asset account as of the first day of the year of change will have a beginning balance for both the unadjusted depreciable basis and the depreciation reserve of the general asset account. For purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the applicable depreciation method, recovery period, and convention are determined under §1.168(i)-4(d)(4)(ii).

(i) Redetermination of basis. If, after the placed-in-service year, the unadjusted depreciable basis of an asset in a general asset account is redetermined due to a transaction other than that described in paragraph (g) of this section (for example, due to contingent purchase price or discharge of indebtedness), the taxpayer’s election under paragraph (l) of this section for the asset also applies to the increase or decrease in basis resulting from the redetermination. For the taxable year in which the increase or decrease in basis occurs, the taxpayer must establish a new general asset account for the amount of the increase or decrease in basis in accordance with the rules in paragraph (c) of this section. For purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the applicable recovery period for the increase or decrease in basis is the recovery period of the asset remaining as of the beginning of the taxable year in which the increase or decrease in basis occurs, the applicable depreciation method and applicable convention for the increase or decrease in basis are the same depreciation method and convention applicable to the asset that applies for the taxable year in which the increase or decrease in basis occurs, and the increase or decrease in basis is deemed to be placed in service in the same taxable year as the asset.

(j) Identification of disposed or converted asset—(1) In general. The rules of this paragraph (j) apply when an asset in a general asset account is disposed of or converted in a transaction described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii) (disposition of an asset in a qualifying disposition), (e)(3)(iv)(B) (transactions subject to section 168(i)(7)), (e)(3)(v)(B) (transactions subject to section 1031 or section 1033), (e)(3)(vii) (anti-abuse rule), (g) (assets subject to recapture), or (h)(1) (conversion to any personal use) of this section.

(2) Identifying which asset is disposed of or converted—(i) In general. For purposes of identifying which asset in a general asset account is disposed of or converted, a taxpayer must identify the disposed of or converted asset by using—

(A) The specific identification method of accounting. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer can determine the particular taxable year in which the disposed of or converted asset was placed in service by the taxpayer;

(B) A first-in, first-out method of accounting if the taxpayer can readily determine from its records the total dispositions of assets with the same recovery period during the taxable year but the taxpayer cannot readily determine from its records the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed of or converted asset. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the general asset account with the earliest placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the disposed of or converted asset and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition or conversion, and the taxpayer treats the disposed of or converted asset as being from that general asset account. To determine which general asset account has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition or conversion, the taxpayer reduces the number of assets originally included in the account by the number of assets disposed of or converted in any prior taxable year in a transaction to which this paragraph (j) applies;

(C) A modified first-in, first-out method of accounting if the taxpayer can readily determine from its records the total dispositions of assets with the same recovery period during the taxable year and the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed of or converted asset. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the general asset account with the earliest placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the disposed of or converted asset and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition or conversion with the same unadjusted depreciable basis as the disposed of or converted asset, and the taxpayer treats the disposed of or converted asset as being from that general asset account. To determine which general asset account has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition or conversion, the taxpayer reduces the number of assets originally included in the account by the number of assets disposed of or converted in any prior taxable year in a transaction to which this paragraph (j) applies;

(D) A mortality dispersion table if the asset is a mass asset accounted for in a separate general asset account in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(H) of this section and if the taxpayer can readily determine from its records the total dispositions of assets with the same recovery period during the taxable year. The mortality dispersion table must be based upon an acceptable sampling of the taxpayer’s actual disposition and conversion experience for mass assets or other acceptable statistical or engineering techniques. To use a mortality dispersion table, the taxpayer must adopt recordkeeping practices consistent with the taxpayer’s prior practices and consonant with good accounting and engineering practices; or

(E) Any other method as the Secretary may designate by publication in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) on or after September 19, 2013. See paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section regarding the last-in, first-out method of accounting.

(ii) Disposition of a portion of an asset. If a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section applies to that disposition, the taxpayer may identify the asset by using any applicable method provided in paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section (after taking into account paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section).

(iii) Last-in, first-out method of accounting. For purposes of paragraph (j)(2) of this section, a last-in, first-out method of accounting may not be used. Under a last-in, first-out method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the general asset account with the most recent placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the disposed of or converted asset and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition or conversion, and the taxpayer treats the disposed of or converted asset as being from that general asset account.

(3) Basis of disposed of or converted asset. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (j)(3), the term asset is the asset as determined under paragraph (e)(2)(viii) of this section or the portion of such asset that is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. After identifying which asset in a general asset account is disposed of or converted, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method that is consistently applied to all assets in the same general asset account for purposes of determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed of or converted asset in that general asset account. Examples of a reasonable method include, but are not limited to, discounting the cost of the replacement asset to its placed-in-service year cost using the Consumer Price Index, a pro rata allocation of the unadjusted depreciable basis of the general asset account based on the replacement cost of the disposed asset and the replacement cost of all of the assets in the general asset account, and a study allocating the cost of the asset to its individual components.

(k) Effect of adjustments on prior dispositions. The adjustments to a general asset account under paragraphs (e)(3)(iii), (e)(3)(iv), (e)(3)(v), (e)(3)(vii), (g), or (h) of this section have no effect on the recognition and character of prior dispositions subject to paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(l) Election—(1) Irrevocable election. If a taxpayer makes an election under this paragraph (l), the taxpayer consents to, and agrees to apply, all of the provisions of this section to the assets included in a general asset account. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii)(A), (e)(3), (g), or (h) of this section or except as otherwise expressly provided by other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), an election made under this section is irrevocable and will be binding on the taxpayer for computing taxable income for the taxable year for which the election is made and for all subsequent taxable years. An election under this paragraph (l) is made separately by each person owning an asset to which this section applies (for example, by each member of a consolidated group, at the partnership level (and not by the partner separately), or at the S corporation level (and not by the shareholder separately)).

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(m) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (m)(2), (m)(3), and (m)(4) of this section, §1.168(i)-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply the provisions of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Early application of regulation project REG-110732-13. A taxpayer may rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(4) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.168(i)-1T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not apply §1.168(i)-1T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(5) Change in method of accounting. A change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending on or after December 30, 2003, is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. A taxpayer also may treat a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending before December 30, 2003, as a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. This paragraph (m)(5) does not apply to a change to comply with paragraphs (e)(3)(ii), (e)(3)(iii), or paragraph (l) of this section.

Par. 4. Section 1.168(i)-7 is amended by:

1. Adding a new sentence at end of paragraph (b).

2. Revising paragraph (e).

The addition and revision read as follows:

§1.168(i)-7 Accounting for MACRS property.

* * * * *

(b) * * * If a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and §1.168(i)-8(d)(1) applies to that disposition, the taxpayer must account for the disposed portion in a single asset account beginning in the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. See §1.168(i)-8(h)(3)(i).

* * * * *

(e) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply the provisions of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Early application of regulation project REG-110732-13. A taxpayer may rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(4) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.168(i)-7T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not apply §1.168(i)-7T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(5) Change in method of accounting. A change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending on or after December 30, 2003, is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. A taxpayer also may treat a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending before December 30, 2003, as a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply.

Par. 5. Section 1.168(i)-8 is added to read as follows:

§1.168(i)-8 Dispositions of MACRS property.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules applicable to dispositions of MACRS property (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(2)) or to depreciable property (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(1)) that would be MACRS property but for an election made by the taxpayer either to expense all or some of the property’s cost under section 179, 179A, 179B, 179C, 179D, or 1400I(a)(1), or any similar provision, or to amortize all or some of the property’s cost under section 1400I(a)(2) or any similar provision. This section also applies to dispositions described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section of a portion of such property. Except as provided in §1.168(i)-1(e)(iii), this section does not apply to dispositions of assets included in a general asset account. For rules applicable to dispositions of assets included in a general asset account, see §1.168(i)-1(e) or §1.168(e)-1T, as applicable.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Building has the same meaning as that term is defined in §1.48-1(e)(1).

(2) Disposition occurs when ownership of the asset is transferred or when the asset is permanently withdrawn from use either in the taxpayer’s trade or business or in the production of income. A disposition includes the sale, exchange, retirement, physical abandonment, or destruction of an asset. A disposition also occurs when an asset is transferred to a supplies, scrap, or similar account, or when a portion of an asset is disposed of as described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. If a structural component (or a portion thereof) of a building is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, a disposition also includes the disposition of such structural component (or such portion thereof).

(3) Mass assets is a mass or group of individual items of depreciable assets—

(i) That are not necessarily homogenous;

(ii) Each of which is minor in value relative to the total value of the mass or group;

(iii) Numerous in quantity;

(iv) Usually accounted for only on a total dollar or quantity basis;

(v) With respect to which separate identification is impracticable; and

(vi) Placed in service in the same taxable year.

(4) Portion of an asset is any part of an asset that is less than the entire asset as determined under paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(5) Structural component has the same meaning as that term is defined in §1.48-1(e)(2).

(6) Unadjusted depreciable basis of the multiple asset account or pool is the sum of the unadjusted depreciable bases (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(3)) of all assets included in the multiple asset account or pool.

(c) Special rules—(1) Manner of disposition. The manner of disposition (for example, normal retirement, abnormal retirement, ordinary retirement, or extraordinary retirement) is not taken into account in determining whether a disposition occurs or gain or loss is recognized.

(2) Disposition by transfer to a supplies account. If a taxpayer made an election under §1.162-3(d) to treat the cost of any rotable spare part, temporary spare part, or standby emergency spare part (as defined in §1.162-3(c)) as a capital expenditure subject to the allowance for depreciation, the taxpayer can dispose of the rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part by transferring it to a supplies account only if the taxpayer has obtained the consent of the Commissioner to revoke the §1.162-3(d) election. See §1.162-3(d)(3) for the procedures for revoking a §1.162-3(d) election.

(3) Leasehold improvements. This section also applies to—

(i) A lessor of leased property that made an improvement to that property for the lessee of the property, has a depreciable basis in the improvement, and disposes of the improvement before or upon the termination of the lease with the lessee. See section 168(i)(8)(B); and

(ii) A lessee of leased property that made an improvement to that property, has a depreciable basis in the improvement, and disposes of the improvement before or upon the termination of the lease.

(4) Determination of asset disposed of—(i) General rules. For purposes of applying this section, the facts and circumstances of each disposition are considered in determining what is the appropriate asset disposed of. The asset for disposition purposes may not consist of items placed in service by the taxpayer on different dates. For purposes of determining what is the appropriate asset disposed of, the unit of property determination under §1.263(a)-3(e) or in published guidance in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) under section 263(a) does not apply.

(ii) Special rules. In addition to the general rules in paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section, the following rules apply for purposes of applying this section:

(A) Each building (including its structural components) is the asset except as provided in §1.1250-1(a)(2)(ii) or in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(B) or paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section.

(B) If a building has two or more condominium or cooperative units, each condominium or cooperative unit (including its structural components) is the asset except as provided in §1.1250-1(a)(2)(ii) or in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section.

(C) If a taxpayer properly includes an item in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 (1987-2 C.B. 674) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) or properly classifies an item in one of the categories under section 168(e)(3) (except for a category that includes buildings or structural components; for example, retail motor fuels outlet, qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property), each item is the asset provided paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section does not apply to the item. For example, each desk is the asset, each computer is the asset, and each qualified smart electric meter is the asset.

(D) If the taxpayer places in service an improvement or addition to an asset after the taxpayer placed the asset in service, the improvement or addition is a separate asset.

(d) Disposition of a portion of an asset—(1) In general. For purposes of applying this section, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset as a result of a casualty event described in section 165, a disposition of a portion of an asset for which gain (determined without regard to section 1245 or section 1250) is not recognized in whole or in part under section 1031 or section 1033, a transfer of a portion of an asset in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7)(B), or a sale of a portion of an asset, even if the taxpayer does not make the election under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section for that disposed portion. For other transactions, a disposition includes a disposition of a portion of an asset only if the taxpayer makes the election under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section for that disposed portion.

(2) Partial disposition election—(i) In general. A taxpayer may make an election under this paragraph (d)(2) to apply this section to a disposition of a portion of an asset. If the asset is properly included in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 (1987-2 C.B. 674) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), a taxpayer may make an election under this paragraph (d)(2) to apply this section to a disposition of a portion of such asset only if the taxpayer classifies the replacement portion of the asset under the same asset class as the disposed portion of the asset.

(ii) Time and manner for making election—(A) Time for making election. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) or paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section, a taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section by the due date (including extensions) of the original Federal tax return for the taxable year in which the portion of an asset is disposed of by the taxpayer.

(B) Manner of making election. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) or paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section, a taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section by applying the provisions of this section for the taxable year in which the portion of an asset is disposed of by the taxpayer, by reporting the gain, loss, or other deduction on the taxpayer’s timely filed (including extensions) original Federal tax return for that taxable year, and, if the asset is properly included in one of the asset classes 00.11 through 00.4 of Rev. Proc. 87-56 (1987-2 C.B. 674) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), by classifying the replacement portion of such asset under the same asset class as the disposed portion of the asset in the taxable year in which the replacement portion is placed in service by the taxpayer. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) or paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section may not be made through the filing of an application for change in accounting method.

(iii) Special rule for subsequent Internal Revenue Service adjustment. This paragraph (d)(2)(iii) applies when a taxpayer deducted the amount paid or incurred for the replacement of a portion of an asset as a repair under §1.162-4, the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section for the disposed portion of that asset within the time and in the manner under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) or paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section, and as a result of an examination of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return, the Internal Revenue Service disallows the taxpayer’s repair deduction for the amount paid or incurred for the replacement of the portion of that asset and instead capitalizes such amount under §1.263(a)-2 or §1.263(a)-3. If this paragraph (d)(2)(iii) applies, the taxpayer may make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section for the disposition of the portion of the asset to which the Internal Revenue Service’s adjustment pertains by filing an application for change in accounting method, provided the asset of which the disposed portion was a part is owned by the taxpayer at the beginning of the year of change (as defined for purposes of section 446(e)).

(iv) Special rules for 2012 or 2013 returns. If, under paragraph (j)(2) or paragraph (j)(3) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to apply the provisions of this section to a taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, including extensions, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing either—

(A) An amended Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer’s Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date; or

(B) An application for change in accounting method with the taxpayer’s timely filed original Federal tax return for the first or second taxable year succeeding the applicable taxable year.

(v) Revocation. A taxpayer may revoke the election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner’s consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith, and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. See generally §301.9100-3 of this chapter. The election specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section may not be revoked through the filing of an application for change in accounting method.

(e) Gain or loss on dispositions. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (e), the term asset is an asset within the scope of this section or the portion of such asset that is disposed of in a disposition described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Except as provided by section 280B and §1.280B-1, the following rules apply when an asset is disposed of during a taxable year:

(1) If an asset is disposed of by sale, exchange, or involuntary conversion, gain or loss must be recognized under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2) If an asset is disposed of by physical abandonment, loss must be recognized in the amount of the adjusted depreciable basis (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(4)) of the asset at the time of the abandonment (taking into account the applicable convention). However, if the abandoned asset is subject to nonrecourse indebtedness, paragraph (e)(1) of this section applies to the asset (instead of this paragraph (e)(2)). For a loss from physical abandonment to qualify for recognition under this paragraph (e)(2), the taxpayer must intend to discard the asset irrevocably so that the taxpayer will neither use the asset again nor retrieve it for sale, exchange, or other disposition.

(3) If an asset is disposed of other than by sale, exchange, involuntary conversion, physical abandonment, or conversion to personal use (as, for example, when the asset is transferred to a supplies or scrap account), gain is not recognized. Loss must be recognized in the amount of the excess of the adjusted depreciable basis of the asset at the time of the disposition (taking into account the applicable convention) over the asset’s fair market value at the time of the disposition (taking into account the applicable convention).

(f) Basis of asset disposed of—(1) In general. The adjusted basis of an asset disposed of for computing gain or loss is its adjusted depreciable basis at the time of the asset’s disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the asset).

(2) Assets disposed of are in multiple asset accounts. If the taxpayer accounts for the asset disposed of in a multiple asset account or pool and it is impracticable from the taxpayer’s records to determine the unadjusted depreciable basis (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(3)) of the asset disposed of, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method that is consistently applied to all assets in the same multiple asset account or pool for purposes of determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of assets disposed of. Examples of a reasonable method include, but are not limited to, discounting the cost of the replacement asset to its placed-in-service year cost using the Consumer Price Index, a pro rata allocation of the unadjusted depreciable basis of the multiple asset account or pool based on the replacement cost of the disposed asset and the replacement cost of all of the assets in the multiple asset account or pool, and a study allocating the cost of the asset to its individual components. To determine the adjusted depreciable basis of an asset disposed of in a multiple asset account, the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset disposed of is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the multiple asset account or pool in which the asset disposed of was included and by including the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset disposed of.

(3) Disposition of a portion of an asset. This paragraph (f)(3) applies only when a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to that disposition. For computing gain or loss, the adjusted basis of the disposed portion of the asset is the adjusted depreciable basis of that disposed portion at the time of its disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the asset). The taxpayer may use any reasonable method for purposes of determining the unadjusted depreciable basis (as defined in §1.168(b)-1(a)(3)) of the disposed portion of the asset. If a taxpayer disposes of more than one portion of the same asset and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to more than one of those dispositions, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method that is consistently applied to all portions of the same asset for purposes of determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of each disposed portion of the asset. Examples of a reasonable method include, but are not limited to, discounting the cost of the replacement portion of the asset to its placed-in-service year cost using the Consumer Price Index, a pro rata allocation of the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset based on the replacement cost of the disposed portion of the asset and the replacement cost of the asset, and a study allocating the cost of the asset to its individual components. To determine the adjusted depreciable basis of the disposed portion of the asset, the depreciation allowed or allowable for the disposed portion is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the asset in which the disposed portion was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset that is attributable to the disposed portion.

(g) Identification of asset disposed of—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) or paragraph (g)(3) of this section, a taxpayer must use the specific identification method of accounting to identify which asset is disposed of by the taxpayer. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer can determine the particular taxable year in which the asset disposed of was placed in service by the taxpayer.

(2) Asset disposed of is in a multiple asset account. If a taxpayer accounts for the asset disposed of in a multiple asset account or pool and the total dispositions of assets with the same recovery period during the taxable year are readily determined from the taxpayer’s records, but it is impracticable from the taxpayer’s records to determine the particular taxable year in which the asset disposed of was placed in service by the taxpayer, the taxpayer must identify the asset disposed of by using—

(i) A first-in, first-out method of accounting if the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset disposed of cannot be readily determined from the taxpayer’s records. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the multiple asset account or pool with the earliest placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the asset disposed of and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition, and the taxpayer treats the asset disposed of as being from that multiple asset account or pool;

(ii) A modified first-in, first-out method of accounting if the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset disposed of can be readily determined from the taxpayer’s records. Under this method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the multiple asset account or pool with the earliest placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the asset disposed of and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition with the same unadjusted depreciable basis as the asset disposed of, and the taxpayer treats the asset disposed of as being from that multiple asset account or pool;

(iii) A mortality dispersion table if the asset disposed of is a mass asset. The mortality dispersion table must be based upon an acceptable sampling of the taxpayer’s actual disposition experience for mass assets or other acceptable statistical or engineering techniques. To use a mortality dispersion table, the taxpayer must adopt recordkeeping practices consistent with the taxpayer’s prior practices and consonant with good accounting and engineering practices; or

(iv) Any other method as the Secretary may designate by publication in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) on or after September 19, 2013. See paragraph (g)(4) of this section regarding the last-in, first-out method of accounting.

(3) Disposition of a portion of an asset. If a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to that disposition, but it is impracticable from the taxpayer’s records to determine the particular taxable year in which the asset was placed in service, the taxpayer must identify the asset by using any applicable method provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section (after taking into account paragraph (g)(4) of this section).

(4) Last-in, first-out method of accounting. For purposes of paragraph (g)(2) of this section, a last-in, first-out method of accounting may not be used. Under a last-in, first-out method of accounting, the taxpayer identifies the multiple asset account or pool with the most recent placed-in-service year that has the same recovery period as the asset disposed of and that has assets at the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition, and the taxpayer treats the asset disposed of as being from that multiple asset account or pool.

(h) Accounting for asset disposed of—(1) Depreciation ends. Depreciation ends for an asset at the time of the asset’s disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the asset). See §1.167(a)-10(b). If the asset disposed of is in a single asset account initially or as a result of §1.168(i)-8(h)(2)(i) or §1.168(i)-8(h)(3)(i), the single asset account terminates at the time of the asset’s disposition (as determined under the applicable convention for the asset). If a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to that disposition, depreciation ends for that disposed portion of the asset at the time of the disposition of the disposed portion (as determined under the applicable convention for the asset).

(2) Asset disposed of in a multiple asset account or pool. If the taxpayer accounts for the asset disposed of in a multiple asset account or pool, then—

(i) As of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs, the asset disposed of is removed from the multiple asset account or pool and is placed into a single asset account. See §1.168(i)-7(b) or §1.168(i)-7T(b), as applicable;

(ii) The unadjusted depreciable basis of the multiple asset account or pool must be reduced by the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset disposed of as of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. See paragraph (f)(2) of this section for determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset disposed of;

(iii) The depreciation reserve of the multiple asset account or pool must be reduced by the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset disposed of as of the end of the taxable year immediately preceding the year of disposition, computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the multiple asset account or pool in which the asset disposed of was included and by including the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset disposed of; and

(iv) In determining the adjusted depreciable basis of the asset disposed of at the time of disposition (taking into account the applicable convention), the depreciation allowed or allowable for the asset disposed of is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the multiple asset account or pool in which the asset disposed of was included and by including the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset disposed of.

(3) Disposition of a portion of an asset. This paragraph (h)(3) applies only when a taxpayer disposes of a portion of an asset and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to that disposition. In this case—

(i) As of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs, the disposed portion is placed into a single asset account. See §1.168(i)-7(b);

(ii) The unadjusted depreciable basis of the asset must be reduced by the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed portion of the first day of the taxable year in which the disposition occurs. See paragraph (f)(3) of this section for determining the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed portion;

(iii) The depreciation reserve of the asset must be reduced by the depreciation allowed or allowable for the disposed portion as of the end of the taxable year immediately preceding the year of disposition, computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the asset in which the disposed portion was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset that is attributable to the disposed portion; and

(iv) In determining the adjusted depreciable basis of the disposed portion at the time of disposition (taking into account the applicable convention), the depreciation allowed or allowable for the disposed portion is computed by using the depreciation method, recovery period, and convention applicable to the asset in which the disposed portion was included and by including the portion of the additional first year depreciation deduction claimed for the asset that is attributable to the disposed portion.

(i) Examples. The application of this section is illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples, assume that section 168 as in effect on September 19, 2013, applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

Example 1. A owns an office building with four elevators. A replaces one of the elevators. The elevator is a structural component of the office building. In accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A) of this section, the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes. A does not make the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the elevator. Thus, the retirement of the replaced elevator is not a disposition. As a result, depreciation continues for the cost of the building (including the cost of the retired elevator and the building’s other structural components), and A does not recognize a loss for this retired elevator. If A must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement elevator pursuant to §1.263(a)-3, the replacement elevator is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except A accounts for each structural component of the office building as a separate asset in its fixed asset system. Although A treats each structural component as a separate asset in its records, the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A) of this section. Accordingly, the result is the same as in Example 1.

Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except A makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the elevator. Although the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes, the result of A making the partial disposition election for the elevator is that the retirement of the replaced elevator is a disposition. Thus, depreciation for the retired elevator ceases at the time of its retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and A recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Further, A must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement elevator pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i), and the replacement elevator is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 4. B, a calendar-year commercial airline company, owns several aircraft that are used in the commercial carrying of passengers and described in asset class 45.0 of Rev. Proc. 87-56. B replaces the existing engines on one of the aircraft with new engines. Assume each aircraft is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)(3) and each engine of an aircraft is a major component or substantial structural part of the aircraft as determined under §1.263(a)-3(k)(6). Assume also that B treats each aircraft as the asset for disposition purposes in accordance with paragraph (c)(4) of this section. B makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the engines in the aircraft. Although the aircraft is the asset for disposition purposes, the result of B making the partial disposition election for the engines is that the retirement of the replaced engines is a disposition. Thus, depreciation for the retired engines ceases at the time of their retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and B recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Further, B must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement engines pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i), and the replacement engines are a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 5. The facts are the same as in Example 4, except B does not make the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the engines. Thus, the retirement of the replaced engines on one of the aircraft is not a disposition. As a result, depreciation continues for the cost of the aircraft (including the cost of the retired engines), and B does not recognize a loss for these retired engines. If B must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement engines pursuant to §1.263(a)-3, the replacement engines are a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 6. C, a corporation, owns several trucks that are used in its trade or business and described in asset class 00.241 of Rev. Proc. 87-56. C replaces the engine on one of the trucks with a new engine. Assume each truck is a unit of property as determined under §1.263(a)-3(e)(3) and each engine is a major component or substantial structural part of the truck as determined under §1.263(a)-3(k)(6). Because the trucks are described in asset class 00.241 of Rev. Proc. 87-56, C must treat each truck as the asset for disposition purposes. C does not make the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the engine. Thus, the retirement of the replaced engine on the truck is not a disposition. As a result, depreciation continues for the cost of the truck (including the cost of the retired engine), and C does not recognize a loss for this retired engine. If C must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement engine pursuant to §1.263(a)-3, the replacement engine is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 7. D owns a retail building. D replaces 60 percent of the roof of this building. In accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A) of this section, the retail building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes. Assume D must capitalize the costs incurred for replacing 60 percent of the roof pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(vi). D makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the 60 percent of the replaced roof. Thus, the retirement of 60 percent of the roof is a disposition. As a result, depreciation for 60 percent of the roof ceases at the time of its retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and D recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Further, D must capitalize the amount paid for the 60 percent of the roof pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i) and (vi) and the replacement 60 percent of the roof is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 8. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 7. Ten years after replacing 60 percent of the roof, D replaces 55 percent of the roof of the building. In accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A) and (D) of this section, for disposition purposes, the retail building (including its structural components except the replacement 60 percent of the roof) is an asset and the replacement 60 percent of the roof is a separate asset. Assume D must capitalize the costs incurred for replacing 55 percent of the roof pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(vi). D makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the 55 percent of the replaced roof. Thus, the retirement of 55 percent of the roof is a disposition.

(ii) However, D cannot determine from its records whether the replaced 55 percent is part of the 60 percent of the roof replaced ten years ago or whether the replaced 55 percent is part of the remaining 40 percent of the original roof. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(3) of this section, D identifies which asset it disposed of by using the first-in, first-out method of accounting. As a result, D disposed of the remaining 40 percent of the original roof and 25 percent of the 60 percent of the roof replaced ten years ago.

(iii) Thus, depreciation for the remaining 40 percent of the original roof ceases at the time of its retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and D recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Further, depreciation for 25 percent of the 60 percent of the roof replaced ten years ago ceases at the time of its retirement (taking into account the applicable convention), and D recognizes a loss upon this retirement. Also, D must capitalize the amount paid for the 55 percent of the roof pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i) and (vi), and the replacement 55 percent of the roof is a separate asset for disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 9. (i) On July 1, 2011, E, a calendar-year taxpayer, purchased and placed in service a multi-story office building that costs $20,000,000. The cost of each structural component of the building was not separately stated. E accounts for the building in its records as a single asset with a cost of $20,000,000. E depreciates the building as nonresidential real property and uses the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the straight-line method, a 39-year recovery period, and the mid-month convention. As of January 1, 2014, the depreciation reserve for the building is $1,261,000.

(ii) On June 30, 2014, E replaces one of the office building’s elevators. E did not dispose of any other structural components of this building in 2014. E makes the partial disposition election provided under paragraph (d)(2) of this section for this elevator. Although the office building (including its structural components) is the asset for disposition purposes, the result of E making the partial disposition election for the elevator is that the retirement of the replaced elevator is a disposition. Because E cannot identify the cost of the structural components of the office building from its records, E determines the cost of any disposed structural component of this building by discounting the cost of the replacement structural component to its placed-in-service year cost using the Consumer Price Index. Using this reasonable method, E determines the cost of the retired elevator by discounting the cost of the replacement elevator to its cost in 2011 (the placed-in-service year) using the Consumer Price Index, resulting in $150,000 of the $20,000,000 purchase price for the building to be the cost of the retired elevator. Using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the straight-line method, a 39-year recovery period, and the mid-month convention, the depreciation allowed or allowable for the retired elevator as of December 31, 2013, is $9,457.50.

(iii) For E’s 2014 Federal tax return, the loss for the retired elevator is determined as follows. The depreciation allowed or allowable for 2014 for the retired elevator is $1,763 ((unadjusted depreciable basis of $150,000 x depreciation rate of 2.564% for 2014) x 5.5/12 months). Thus, the adjusted depreciable basis of the retired elevator is $138,779.50 (the adjusted depreciable basis of $140,542.50 removed from the building cost less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $1,763 for 2014). As a result, E recognizes a loss of $138,779.50 for the retired elevator in 2014, which is subject to section 1231.

(iv) For E’s 2014 Federal tax return, the depreciation allowance for the building is computed as follows. As of January 1, 2014, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the building is reduced from $20,000,000 to $19,850,000 ($20,000,000 less the unadjusted depreciable basis of $150,000 for the retired elevator), and the depreciation reserve of the building is reduced from $1,261,000 to $1,251,542.50 ($1,261,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $9,457.50 for the retired elevator as of December 31, 2013). Consequently, the depreciation allowance for the building for 2014 is $508,954 ($19,850,000 x depreciation rate of 2.564% for 2014).

(v) E also must capitalize the amount paid for the replacement elevator pursuant to §1.263(a)-3(k)(1)(i). The replacement elevator is a separate asset for tax disposition purposes pursuant to paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section and for depreciation purposes pursuant to section 168(i)(6).

Example 10. (i) Since 2005, F, a calendar year taxpayer, has accounted for items of MACRS property that are mass assets in pools. Each pool includes only the mass assets that have the same depreciation method, recovery period, and convention, and are placed in service by F in the same taxable year. None of the pools are general asset accounts under section 168(i)(4) and the regulations under section 168(i)(4). F identifies any dispositions of these mass assets by specific identification.

(ii) During 2014, F sells 10 items of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period each for $100. Under the specific identification method, F identifies these mass assets as being from the pool established by F in 2012 for mass assets with a 5-year recovery period. Assume F depreciates this pool using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. F elected not to deduct the additional first year depreciation provided by section 168(k) for 5-year property placed in service during 2012. As of January 1, 2014, this pool contains 100 similar items of mass assets with a total cost of $25,000 and a total depreciation reserve of $13,000. Because all the items of mass assets in the pool are similar, F allocates the cost and depreciation allowed or allowable for the pool ratably among each item in the pool. Using this reasonable method (because all the items of mass assets in the pool are similar), F allocates a cost of $250 ($25,000 x (1/100)) to each disposed of mass asset and depreciation allowed or allowable of $130 ($13,000 x (1/100)) to each disposed of mass asset. The depreciation allowed or allowable in 2014 for each disposed of mass asset is $24 (($250 x 19.2%) / 2). As a result, the adjusted depreciable basis of each disposed of mass asset under section 1011 is $96 ($250 - $130 - $24). Thus, F recognizes a gain of $4 for each disposed of mass asset in 2014, which is subject to section 1245.

(iii) Further, as of January 1, 2014, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the 2012 pool of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period is reduced from $25,000 to $22,500 ($25,000 less the unadjusted depreciable basis of $2,500 for the 10 disposed of items), and the depreciation reserve of this 2012 pool is reduced from $13,000 to $11,700 ($13,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $1,300 for the 10 disposed of items as of December 31, 2013). Consequently, as of January 1, 2014, the 2012 pool of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period has 90 items with a total cost of $22,500 and a depreciation reserve of $11,700. Thus, the depreciation allowance for this pool for 2014 is $4,320 ($22,500 x 19.2%).

Example 11. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 10. Because of changes in F’s recordkeeping in 2015, it is impracticable for F to continue to identify disposed of mass assets using specific identification and to determine the unadjusted depreciable basis of the disposed of mass assets. As a result, F files a Form 3115, Application for Change in Accounting Method, to change to a first-in, first-out method beginning with the taxable year beginning on January 1, 2015, on a modified cut-off basis. See §1.446-1(e)(2)(ii)(d)(2)(vii). Under the first-in, first-out method, the mass assets disposed of in a taxable year are deemed to be from the pool with the earliest placed-in-service year that has assets as of the beginning of the taxable year of the disposition with the same recovery period as the asset disposed of. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue consents to this change in method of accounting.

(ii) During 2015, F sells 20 items of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period each for $50. As of January 1, 2015, the 2008 pool is the pool with the earliest placed-in-service year for mass assets with a 5-year recovery period, and this pool contains 25 items of mass assets with a total cost of $10,000 and a total depreciation reserve of $10,000. Thus, F allocates a cost of $400 ($10,000 x (1/25)) to each disposed of mass asset and depreciation allowed or allowable of $400 to each disposed of mass asset. As a result, the adjusted depreciable basis of each disposed of mass asset is $0. Thus, F recognizes a gain of $50 for each disposed of mass asset in 2015, which is subject to section 1245.

(iii) Further, as of January 1, 2015, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the 2008 pool of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period is reduced from $10,000 to $2,000 ($10,000 less the unadjusted depreciable basis of $8,000 for the 20 disposed of items ($400 x 20)), and the depreciation reserve of this 2008 pool is reduced from $10,000 to $2,000 ($10,000 less the depreciation allowed or allowable of $8,000 for the 20 disposed of items as of December 31, 2014). Consequently, as of January 1, 2015, the 2008 pool of mass assets with a 5-year recovery period has 5 items with a total cost of $2,000 and a depreciation reserve of $2,000.

(j) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(2) Early application of this section. A taxpayer may choose to apply the provisions of this section to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.

(3) Early application of regulation project REG-110732-13. A taxpayer may rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not rely on the provisions of this section in regulation project REG-110732-13 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(4) Optional application of TD 9564. A taxpayer may choose to apply §1.168(i)-8T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. However, a taxpayer may not apply §1.168(i)-8T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

(5) Change in method of accounting. A change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending on or after December 30, 2003, is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. A taxpayer also may treat a change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed in service in a taxable year ending before December 30, 2003, as a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of section 446(e) and the regulations under section 446(e) apply. This paragraph (j)(5) does not apply to a change to comply with paragraph (d)(2) of this section (except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) or (d)(2)(iv)(B) of this section).

Beth Tucker,
Deputy Commissioner for
Operations Support
.

Note

(Filed by the Office of the Federal Register on September 13, 2013, 11:15 a.m., and published in the issue of the Federal Register for September 19, 2013, 78 F.R. 57547)

Drafting Information

The principal author of these regulations is Kathleen Reed, Office of the Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax and Accounting). However, other personnel from the IRS and the Treasury Department participated in their development.

* * * * *

Definition of Terms and Abbreviations

Definition of Terms

Amplified describes a situation where no change is being made in a prior published position, but the prior position is being extended to apply to a variation of the fact situation set forth therein. Thus, if an earlier ruling held that a principle applied to A, and the new ruling holds that the same principle also applies to B, the earlier ruling is amplified. (Compare with modified, below).

Clarified is used in those instances where the language in a prior ruling is being made clear because the language has caused, or may cause, some confusion. It is not used where a position in a prior ruling is being changed.

Distinguished describes a situation where a ruling mentions a previously published ruling and points out an essential difference between them.

Modified is used where the substance of a previously published position is being changed. Thus, if a prior ruling held that a principle applied to A but not to B, and the new ruling holds that it applies to both A and B, the prior ruling is modified because it corrects a published position. (Compare with amplified and clarified, above).

Obsoleted describes a previously published ruling that is not considered determinative with respect to future transactions. This term is most commonly used in a ruling that lists previously published rulings that are obsoleted because of changes in laws or regulations. A ruling may also be obsoleted because the substance has been included in regulations subsequently adopted.

Revoked describes situations where the position in the previously published ruling is not correct and the correct position is being stated in a new ruling.

Superseded describes a situation where the new ruling does nothing more than restate the substance and situation of a previously published ruling (or rulings). Thus, the term is used to republish under the 1986 Code and regulations the same position published under the 1939 Code and regulations. The term is also used when it is desired to republish in a single ruling a series of situations, names, etc., that were previously published over a period of time in separate rulings. If the new ruling does more than restate the substance of a prior ruling, a combination of terms is used. For example, modified and superseded describes a situation where the substance of a previously published ruling is being changed in part and is continued without change in part and it is desired to restate the valid portion of the previously published ruling in a new ruling that is self contained. In this case, the previously published ruling is first modified and then, as modified, is superseded.

Supplemented is used in situations in which a list, such as a list of the names of countries, is published in a ruling and that list is expanded by adding further names in subsequent rulings. After the original ruling has been supplemented several times, a new ruling may be published that includes the list in the original ruling and the additions, and supersedes all prior rulings in the series.

Suspended is used in rare situations to show that the previous published rulings will not be applied pending some future action such as the issuance of new or amended regulations, the outcome of cases in litigation, or the outcome of a Service study.

Revenue rulings and revenue procedures (hereinafter referred to as “rulings”) that have an effect on previous rulings use the following defined terms to describe the effect:

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations in current use and formerly used will appear in material published in the Bulletin.

A—Individual.

Acq.—Acquiescence.

B—Individual.

BE—Beneficiary.

BK—Bank.

B.T.A.—Board of Tax Appeals.

C—Individual.

C.B.—Cumulative Bulletin.

CFR—Code of Federal Regulations.

CI—City.

COOP—Cooperative.

Ct.D.—Court Decision.

CY—County.

D—Decedent.

DC—Dummy Corporation.

DE—Donee.

Del. Order—Delegation Order.

DISC—Domestic International Sales Corporation.

DR—Donor.

E—Estate.

EE—Employee.

E.O.—Executive Order.

ER—Employer.

ERISA—Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

EX—Executor.

F—Fiduciary.

FC—Foreign Country.

FICA—Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

FISC—Foreign International Sales Company.

FPH—Foreign Personal Holding Company.

F.R.—Federal Register.

FUTA—Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

FX—Foreign corporation.

G.C.M.—Chief Counsel’s Memorandum.

GE—Grantee.

GP—General Partner.

GR—Grantor.

IC—Insurance Company.

I.R.B.—Internal Revenue Bulletin.

LE—Lessee.

LP—Limited Partner.

LR—Lessor.

M—Minor.

Nonacq.—Nonacquiescence.

O—Organization.

P—Parent Corporation.

PHC—Personal Holding Company.

PO—Possession of the U.S.

PR—Partner.

PRS—Partnership.

PTE—Prohibited Transaction Exemption.

Pub. L.—Public Law.

REIT—Real Estate Investment Trust.

Rev. Proc.—Revenue Procedure.

Rev. Rul.—Revenue Ruling.

S—Subsidiary.

S.P.R.—Statement of Procedural Rules.

Stat.—Statutes at Large.

T—Target Corporation.

T.C.—Tax Court.

T.D. —Treasury Decision.

TFE—Transferee.

TFR—Transferor.

T.I.R.—Technical Information Release.

TP—Taxpayer.

TR—Trust.

TT—Trustee.

U.S.C.—United States Code.

X—Corporation.

Y—Corporation.

Z —Corporation.

Numerical Finding List

Numerical Finding List

A cumulative list of all revenue rulings, revenue procedures, Treasury decisions, etc., published in Internal Revenue Bulletins 2013-1 through 2013-26 is in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2013-26, dated June 24, 2013.

Bulletins 2013-27 through 2013-43

Announcements

Article Issue Link Page
2013-35 2013-27 I.R.B. 2013-27 46
2013-36 2013-33 I.R.B. 2013-33 142
2013-37 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 155
2013-38 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 185
2013-39 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 167
2013-40 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 226
2013-41 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 322


Notices

Article Issue Link Page
2013-41 2013-29 I.R.B. 2013-29 60
2013-42 2013-29 I.R.B. 2013-29 61
2013-43 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 113
2013-44 2013-29 I.R.B. 2013-29 62
2013-45 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 116
2013-46 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 117
2013-47 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 120
2013-48 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 120
2013-49 2013-32 I.R.B. 2013-32 127
2013-50 2013-32 I.R.B. 2013-32 133
2013-51 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 153
2013-52 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 159
2013-53 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2013-54 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 287
2013-55 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 207
2013-56 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 262
2013-57 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 293
2013-58 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 294
2013-59 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 297


Proposed Regulations

Article Issue Link Page
132251-11 2013-37 I.R.B. 2013-37 191
111753-12 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 302
112815-12 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 162
114122-12 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 163
136630-12 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 303
140789-12 2013-32 I.R.B. 2013-32 136
144990-12 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 264
110732-13 2013-43 I.R.B. 2013-43
111837-13 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 266
113792-13 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 211
115300-13 2013-37 I.R.B. 2013-37 197


Revenue Procedures

Article Issue Link Page
2013-28 2013-27 I.R.B. 2013-27 28
2013-29 2013-33 I.R.B. 2013-33 141
2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2013-31 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 208
2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
2013-33 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 209
2013-34 2013-43 I.R.B. 2013-43


Revenue Rulings

Article Issue Link Page
2013-13 2013-32 I.R.B. 2013-32 124
2013-15 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 47
2013-16 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 275
2013-17 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 201
2013-18 2013-37 I.R.B. 2013-37 186
2013-19 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 240
2013-20 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 272
2013-21 2013-43 I.R.B. 2013-43


Treasury Decisions

Article Issue Link Page
9620 2013-27 I.R.B. 2013-27 1
9621 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 49
9622 2013-30 I.R.B. 2013-30 64
9623 2013-30 I.R.B. 2013-30 73
9624 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 86
9625 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 147
9626 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 149
9627 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 156
9628 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 169
9629 2013-37 I.R.B. 2013-37 188
9630 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 199
9631 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 205
9632 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 241
9633 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 227
9634 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 272
9635 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 273
9636 2013-43 I.R.B. 2013-43


Effect of Current Actions on Previously Published Items

Finding List of Current Actions on Previously Published Items

A cumulative list of current actions on previously published items in Internal Revenue Bulletins 2013-1 through 2013-26 is in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2013-26, dated June 24, 2013.

Bulletins 2013-27 through 2013-43

Notices

Old Article Action New Article Issue Link Page
2004-23 Clarified by Notice 2013-57 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 293
2004-50 Clarified by Notice 2013-57 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 293
2005-70 Obsoleted by T.D. 9633 2013-39 I.R.B. 2013-39 227
2012-74 Obsoleted by Notice 2013-51 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 153
2013-16 Superseded by Notice 2013-55 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 207
2013-36 Appendix updated by Notice 2013-55 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 207
2013-36 Superseded by Notice 2013-55 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 207
2013-39 Amplified by Notice 2013-47 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 120
2013-40 Amplified by Notice 2013-47 2013-31 I.R.B. 2013-31 120


Revenue Procedures

Old Article Action New Article Issue Link Page
81-60 Modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
83-59 Modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
86-42 Modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
90-52 Modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
96-30 Modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
97-48 Situation 1 superseded, Situation 2 obsoleted by Rev. Proc. 2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2003-43 Modified and superseded by Rev. Proc. 2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2003-48 Obsoleted in part and superseded in part by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
2003-61 Superseded by Rev. Proc. 2013-34 2013-43 I.R.B. 2013-43
2004-34 Modified and clarified by Rev. Proc. 2013-29 2013-33 I.R.B. 2013-33 141
2004-48 Modified and superseded by Rev. Proc. 2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2004-49 Sections 4.01 & 4.02 modified and superseded, Section 4.03 obsoleted by Rev. Proc. 2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2007-44 Modified by Ann. 2013-37 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 155
2007-62 Modified and superseded by Rev. Proc. 2013-30 2013-36 I.R.B. 2013-36 173
2009-25 Pilot program discontinued by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
2011-18 Modified and clarified by Rev. Proc. 2013-29 2013-33 I.R.B. 2013-33 141
2011-49 Modified by Ann. 2013-37 2013-34 I.R.B. 2013-34 155
2012-25 Obsoleted in part by Rev. Proc. 2013-28 2013-27 I.R.B. 2013-27 28
2013-1 Amplified and modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55
2013-3 Amplified and modified by Rev. Proc. 2013-32 2013-28 I.R.B. 2013-28 55


Revenue Rulings

Old Article Action New Article Issue Link Page
58-66 Amplified and clarified by Rev. Rul. 2013-17 2013-38 I.R.B. 2013-38 201


Treasury Decisions

Old Article Action New Article Issue Link Page
9610 Corrected by by Ann. 2013-41 2013-40 I.R.B. 2013-40 322
9612 Corrected by Ann. 2013-35 2013-27 I.R.B. 2013-27 46
9622 Corrected by Ann. 2013-39 2013-35 I.R.B. 2013-35 167


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