Understanding the Tax Exempt Bonds Examination Process


The primary objective of a tax-exempt bond examination is to determine if a municipal debt issuance complies with Internal Revenue Code provisions.

This page discusses general rules and procedures that we follow in examinations and how to correct certain compliance problems.

Selection of returns

TEB uses a centralized case selection and review process to enhance the consistency of our enforcement activities and to focus resources on the areas that will have the most positive impact on the compliance of municipal debt issuances. This process includes identifying areas of noncompliance, developing corrective strategies, and assisting with those strategies. The reasons your municipal debt issuance may be selected for examination include as a part of a market segment's statistical selection, project or referral.

Your role in the process

The issuer of the municipal debt is treated as the "taxpayer" throughout the examination process. You, any conduit borrower, and any other party to the transaction are responsible for maintaining and producing adequate records to substantiate the tax-exempt status of the bonds. If the requested information is organized and complete, we can conduct the examination in a timely and efficient manner.

For certain tax credit bonds where direct payment of the allowable credit has been elected, the issuer of the debt is the party subject to taxation. As the taxpayer, the general provisions of Publication 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for RefundPDF, including those dealing with assessments, collections, and appeals, apply to you.

Publication 556 may also be useful in understanding the examination process of tax-exempt bonds. Your examiner can answer questions about the difference between tax-exempt and tax credit bond examination processes.


If you choose to have someone represent you on the examination, your representative must be a person eligible to practice before the IRS. You can submit Form 2848, Power of Attorney and Declaration of RepresentativePDF, to authorize an individual to represent you before the IRS.

Your representative may have a conflict of interest if they also had a role in the issuance of your municipal debt, such as providing the approving opinion as to the qualifications of the municipal debt issuance, or is also representing other parties to the transaction, such as the conduit borrower. A representative with a conflict of interest may not represent a client before the IRS unless:

  1. The practitioner reasonably believes that the practitioner will be able to provide competent and diligent representation to each affected client,
  2. The representation is not prohibited by law, and
  3. Each affected client gives informed consent, confirmed in writing.

You may find it appropriate to permit direct communication between the examiner and any conduit borrower. If the TEB examiner agrees to conduct the examination in that manner, you must provide us with a Form 8821, Tax Information AuthorizationPDF. This form permits the examiner to discuss your tax matter with the conduit borrower.

During the examination, we may also need to contact various third parties, including underwriters, financial advisors, bond counsel, and any other parties (and their counsel) with a transactional relationship to the municipal debt issue.

The examination

A Tax Exempt Bonds examiner notifies you by phone or letter that a municipal debt issuance has been selected for examination. If the initial contact is by phone, a confirmation letter will follow. The letter details the required items for the examination and may indicate how the return was selected. We may request additional items at a later date.

The examination may include a comprehensive review of the municipal debt issuance, or focus only on specific aspects. The examination continues until the examiner is reasonably certain that the municipal debt issuance has met the applicable requirements.

The TEB examiner will discuss any potential compliance problems with you or your representative. In some instances, we may issue Form(s) 5701-TEB, Notice of Proposed Issue, and Form(s) 886-A, Explanation of Items, to identify any areas of noncompliance. Upon completion of the examination, all unresolved issues will be included in a Notice of Proposed Adverse Determination Letter and Form(s) 886-A, Explanation of Items.

Resolving qualification issues – the closing agreement process

With respect to tax-exempt bonds, a failure to comply with the federal tax laws that govern municipal debt issuances may result in the loss of the tax-exempt status of the bonds under examination. Holders of these bonds would be taxed on the interest they receive. With respect to tax credit bonds, a failure to comply with the federal tax laws that govern municipal debt issuances may result in the loss of the tax credit status of the bonds under examination. Holders of these bonds would lose the ability to claim tax credits with respect to the bonds.

However, in most situations, the IRS will allow the issuer to enter into a closing agreement where you agree to correct the compliance failures and pay a resolution amount to the U.S. Treasury. A violation corrected in a closing agreement will allow the bond interest that's payable to the holders of tax-exempt bonds to retain its tax exempt treatment or the holders of tax credit bonds to maintain the ability to claim tax credits.

Closing Letter

The final step in the examination process is a letter explaining the examiner's conclusions. Sometimes the conclusion results in a tax liability for related entities and/or individuals and may require coordination with other business units within the IRS.

Appeal rights

The Independent Office of Appeals settles unresolved issues. Your appeal rights are explained in detail in Publication 5, Your Appeal Rights and How to Prepare a Protest if You DisagreePDF. Appeal requests must be in writing and timely. If not, we will issue a Notice of Final Adverse Determination. Fast Track Settlement, an expedited appeals process, may be used in certain situations. You should discuss this with your examiner. For more information about the appeals process, see Revenue Procedure 2021-10.

Post-issuance compliance and the TEB Voluntary Closing Agreement Program

TEB encourages issuers and other parties involved in bond transactions to adopt and follow procedures for monitoring and achieving post-issuance compliance with federal tax requirements applicable to their tax-exempt and tax credit bonds. Monitoring post-issuance compliance will significantly improve the issuer's ability to identify noncompliance and prevent violations from occurring, or timely correct violations to ensure the continued tax-advantage status of the bonds.

TEB's Voluntary Closing Agreement Program is available to issuers who are not under exam and who have discovered a violation of the law associated with the issuance of tax-exempt or tax credit bonds. TEB VCAP allows you to correct violations as expeditiously as possible before the violations are discovered during an examination. Generally, an issuer will receive more favorable resolution terms under TEB VCAP than for the same tax violation discovered during an examination.

Additional resources