An Action on Decision (AOD) is a formal memorandum prepared by the IRS Office of Chief Counsel that announces the future litigation position the IRS will take with regard to the court decision addressed by the AOD.

The following list initially presents these documents in reverse chronological order, from the present back to calendar year 1997.

View information about downloading and printing, viewing or saving documents, or file formats.

  1. Enter a term in the Find box.
  2. Click the Search button.
Find Help
Number Decision Issue Release Date
2021-04 Mayo Clinic v. United States, 997 F.3d 789 (8th Cir. 2021), rev’g, 412 F.Supp.3d 1038 (D. Minn. 2019) Whether the primary function of an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code must be the presentation of formal instruction. 11/22/2021
2021-03 TriNet Group, Inc. v. United States of America, 979 F.3d 1311 (11th Cir. 2020) Whether a professional employer organization was the statutory employer under section 3401(d)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code for purposes of claiming the section 45B income tax credit. 06/14/2021
2021-02 Machacek v. Commissioner, 906 F.3d 429 (6th Cir. 2018), rev’g T.C. Memo. 2016-55 Whether the economic benefits of a compensatory split-dollar life insurance arrangement may be treated as a distribution with respect to stock under I.R.C. § 301. 05/24/2021
2021-01 Schieber v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2017-32, T.C. Docket No. 21690-14 Whether an interest in a defined benefit pension plan is an asset for purposes of applying the insolvency exclusion in I.R.C. § 108. 04/12/2021
2020-03 Rothkamm v. United States, 802 F.3d 699 (5th Cir. 2015), rev’g 2014 WL 4986884 (M.D. La. Sept. 15, 2014) Whether section 7811(d) of the Code suspends the running of the limitations periods for filing a wrongful levy claim and a wrongful levy suit. 04/20/2020
2020-02 Feigh v. Commissioner, 152 T.C. No. 15 (2019) T.C. Docket No. 20163-17 Whether certain Medicaid waiver payments that are treated as excludable from gross income under § 131 pursuant to Notice 2014-7 may be earned income for purposes of the credits under § 32 and § 24. 03/30/2020
2020-01 Paychex Business Solutions, LLC, et al., v. United States of America, 2017 WL 2692843 (M.D. Fla. 2017) Whether control over the bank account from which wage payments are made is sufficient for an entity to be a section 3401(d)(1)1 statutory employer. 03/16/2020
2019-03 GreenTeam Materials Recovery Facility PN, GreenWaste Recovery, Inc., Tax Matters Partner, et al. v. Commissioner Whether the transfer of a non-capital asset is treated under § 1253 as the sale or exchange of a capital asset if the transferor does not retain any significant power, right, or continuing interest. 10/15/2019
2019-02 Union Pacific Railroad Company v. United States, 865 F.3d 1045 (8th Cir. 2017), rev’g No. 8:14CV237 (D. Neb. July 1, 2016) Whether lump-sum payments made to unionized employees upon ratification of collective bargaining agreements are taxable compensation under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act ("RRTA"). 10/09/2019
2019-01 Jacobs v. Commissioner, 148 T.C. No. 24 (2017) Whether the IRS will follow the Tax Court’s decision in Jacobs v. Commissioner that Taxpayer’s expenses for provision of pregame meals at away city hotels to professional hockey players and team personnel were de minimis fringe benefits under § 132(e)(2) and were therefore exempt from the 50% deduction limit for meal and entertainment expenses under § 274(n)(1) . 02/21/2019
2017-07 Carol A. and Roy E. Stanley v. United States W.D. Ark. No:5:14-cv-5236 (2015) Nonacquiescence to holdings that mere possession of stock certificate constitutes ownership, and work performed in a rental real estate activity may constitute work in other activities under § 469. 10/31/2017
2017-06 Estate of George H. Bartell, Jr. v. Commissioner, 147 T.C 140 (2016) Nonacquiescence to the holding that a like-kind exchange qualifies under § 1031 even though the taxpayer acquired the benefits and burdens of ownership of the replacement property before the exchange. 08/23/2017
2017-05 Yosef A. Tsehay v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2016-200 Nonacquiescence to the holding that a taxpayer whose filing status is married filing separately is entitled to an earned income tax credit. 07/06/2017
2017-04 Scott Singer Installations, Inc. v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2016-161 Acquiescence in result only as to whether Taxpayer’s payment of personal expenses on behalf of its sole shareholder-corporate officer constitutes wages subject to Federal employment taxes. 04/12/2017
2017-03 Shea Homes, Inc. and Subs. v. Commissioner, 834 F.3d 1061 (9th Cir. 2016), aff’g 142 T.C. 60 (2014) Nonacquiescence to the holding that, under the completed contract method of accounting, taxpayer completed a home construction contract when it incurred 95 percent of the estimated cost of constructing an entire development. 04/12/2017
2017-02 Stine, LLC v. United States, No. 13-03224, 2015 WL 403146 (W.D. La. Jan. 27, 2015) Nonacquiescence to the holding that buildings built to operate as retail stores are placed in service for depreciation purposes when substantially completed to house and secure racks, shelving and merchandise 04/12/2017
2017-01 Burnett Ranches, Ltd v. United States, 753 F.3d 143 (5th Cir. 2014), aff’g 113 A.F.T.R.2d (RIA) 2014-2178 (N.D. Tex. 2012) Nonacquiescence to the holding that a limited partnership was not a farming syndicate because the sole shareholder of a limited partner S Corporation actively participated in the farming business. 02/13/2017
2016-03 Giant Eagle, Inc. v. Commissioner, 822 F.3d 666 (3rd Cir. 2016), rev’g T.C. Memo 2014-146 Nonacquiescence to the holding that all events fixing a liability for federal income tax purposes occur when discount fuel purchase coupons are issued to a customer for retail grocery purchases. 10/05/2016
2016-02 Voss v. Commissioner, 796 F.3d 1051 (9th Cir. 2015), rev’g Sophy v. Commissioner, 138 T.C. 204 (2012) Acquiescence relating to the holding that the section 163(h)(3) limitations apply on a per taxpayer basis, allowing each taxpayer to deduct interest on mortgage indebtedness of up to $1.1 million. 08/01/2016
2016-01 Cosentino v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2014-186 Nonacquiescence relating to the holding that an amount the taxpayers received, to settle a claim that they incurred additional income tax liability because of the tax professional's advice that they enter into an abusive tax shelter, is excludible from their gross income as a restoration of lost capital. 04/01/2016
2015-02 Morehouse v. Commissioner, 769 F.3d 616 (8th Cir. 2014) rev'g 140 T.C. 350 (2013) Nonacquiescence relating to the court’s holding that conservation reserve program payments
constituted rentals from real estate for purposes of section 1402(a)(1) and are't subject to selfemployment tax.
09/23/2015
2015-01 Gracia v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2004-147, Estate of Martinez v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2004-150, Mirarchi v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2004-148, Price v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2004-149 Nonacquiescence regarding the holding that a general partner who was not in bankruptcy individually may exclude under section 108(a) partnership debt cancelled in a title 11 case of the partnership. 02/09/2015
2014-01 Dixon v. Commissioner, 141 T.C. No. 3 (2013) Nonacquiescence relating to whether the Service is obligated to honor an employer’s designation of delinquent employment tax payments toward a specific employee’s income tax liability. 09/15/2014
2012-08 Media Space, Inc. v. Commissioner, 135 T. C. 424 (2010), vacated, 477 Fed. Appx. 857 (2nd Cir. 2012) Whether the taxpayer’s forbearance payments to its preferred shareholders were (1) ordinary and necessary business expenses that were not required to be capitalized under section 263(a), (2) not nondeductible distributions to the shareholders under section 301, and (3) not pursuant to a reacquisition or an exchange of stock to which section 162(k) or section 361(c)(1) applied. 08/05/2013
2012-07 Wilson v. Commissioner, 705 F.3d 980 (9th Cir. 2013), aff’g T.C. Memo. 2010-134 Whether I.R.C. § 6015(e)(1) provides both a de novo standard and a de novo scope of review in section 6015(f) cases petitioned to the Tax Court. 06/17/2013
2012-06 Zapara v. Commissioner, 652 F.3d 1042 (9th Cir. 2011) Whether in a post-jeopardy levy Collection Due Process hearing, the Tax Court has the authority to order a credit to the taxpayer for the Service’s failure to comply with I.R.C. § 6335(f). 03/18/2013
2012-05 Patel v. Commissioner, 138 T.C. No. 23 (June 27, 2012) Whether a finding that the state of the law is uncertain at the time of the filing of a return, without a finding regarding whether the taxpayer made reasonable inquiry as to the state of the law, is an appropriate factor in determining whether the taxpayer acted with reasonable cause and in good faith for purposes of avoiding an accuracy-related penalty. 06/27/2012
2012-03 Decision: L & S Industrial & Marine, Inc. v. United States, 633 F.Supp.2d 727 (D. Minn. 2009) Whether L & S Industrial & Marine, Inc.’s (Taxpayer) vessels engaged in “commercial waterway transportation” as defined in § 4042(d)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). 09/12/2012
2012-02 International Business Machines Corp. v. United States, 343 F.2d 914 (Ct. Cl. 1965), cert. denied, 382 U.S. 1028 (1966) Whether I.R.C. § 7805(b) requires the Service to apply an adverse ruling only prospectively if its retroactive application would treat a taxpayer who requested the ruling differently from a taxpayer who received a favorable ruling on the same subject. 09/12/2012
2012-01 Baer Revoc.Trust v. U.S.,105 AFTR 2d 1544, 2 (D. Neb. 2010) Whether the stock includible in Decedent’s gross estate qualifies for the marital deduction under Sec. 2056(b)(7) when the stock is subject to contingent bequests. 04/09/2012
2011-06 Ronald A. Mayo and Leslie A. Mayo v. Comm., 136 T.C. 81 (2011) Are expenses incurred by a taxpayer in the trade or business of gambling “losses from wagering transactions” subject to the limitation on deductions in Sec. 165(d) of the I.R.C? 12/20/2011
2011-05 William & Sharon Norris v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 2011-161 Whether the Tax Court erred when, in evaluating evidence of fraud, it weighed each of eleven badges of fraud equally, tallied the number “for,” “against” or “neutral,” and concluded that the Service did not establish fraud because only four of those badges had been proven. 12/09/2011
2011-04 Appleton v. Comm., No. 10-4522 (3d Cir. June 10, 2011) Whether the 3rd Circuit erred in holding that the government of the U.S. Virgin Islands should be permitted to intervene in the Tax Court deficiency proceeding pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 24(b)(2). 11/08/2011
2011-03 O’Donnabhain v. Commissioner, 134 T.C. 34 (2010) Whether hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery constitute medical care within the meaning of sections 213(d)(1)(A) and (9)(B). 11/02/2011
2011-02 Keller v. Comm., 556 F.3d 1056 (9th Cir. 2009), rev'g TCM 2006-131 Whether the gross valuation misstatement penalty under I.R.C. Sec. 6662(h) applies when a deduction or credit is disallowed in full, regardless of the reason for the disallowance. 10/11/2011
2011-01 Robinson Knife Manuf. v. Comm., 600 F.3d 121 (2d Cir. 2010) Whether sales-based royalties that taxpayer paid for the right to use trademarks on the kitchen tools that it manufactures and sells are production costs "allocable to property produced" (inventory) within the meaning of Treas. Reg. Sec. 1.263A-1(e). 02/08/2011
2010-06 Vainisi v. Comm., 599 F.3d 567 (7th Cir. 2010) Whether in 2003 and 2004, I.R.C. Sec. 291 applies to a bank that converted in 1997 from a C corporation to a qualified subchapter S subsidiary as defined in Sec.1361(b)(3)(B). 12/13/2010
2010-05 VERITAS Software Corp. v. Commissioner, 133 T.C. No. 14 Whether the U.S. Tax Court erred in concluding that the comparable uncontrolled transaction (CUT) method, with adjustments, was the best method to determine an arm’s length result. 11/10/2010
2010-04 Shoukri Osman Saleh Abdel-Fattah v. Comm., 134 T.C. No. 10 Whether the State Department certification required under I.R.C. Sec. 893(b) is a prerequisite for the tax exemption provided for in I.R.C. Sec. 893(a). 10/13/2010
2010-03 Xilinx, Inc. v. Commissioner, 598 F.3d 1191 (9th Cir. 2010) Whether the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals erred in concluding that under regulations promulgated under section 482 effective for taxable years 1997-1999, employee stockoption (ESO) compensation should not be shared in a qualified cost sharing arrangement (CSA). 07/16/2010
2010-02 Thompson v. U.S., 87 Fed. Cl. 728 (Fed. Cl. 2009) Whether an interest in a limited liability company (LLC) is a limited partnership interest as defined under Sec. 1.469-5T(e)(3). 05/19/2010
2010-01 Tidewater Inc. v. U.S., 565 F.3d 299 (5th Cir. 2009) Whether certain time charters entered into between members of Taxpayer’s controlled group and unrelated customers are leases under I.R.C. Section 7701(e). 05/14/2010
2009-01 Cox v. Comm., 514 F.3d 1119 (10th Cir. 2008), rev'g 126 T.C. 367 Whether indirect consideration of a tax liability in conjunction with evaluating collection alternatives disqualifies an appeals officer from conducting a subsequent CDP hearing focusing on that liability. 05/07/2009
2008-01 Herbert V. Kohler, Jr. et al. v. Comm.; T.C. Memo. 2006-152 Whether Sec. 2032 allows a discount for transfer restrictions and a purchase option (“restrictions”) imposed on closely-held corporate stock pursuant to a post-death taxfree reorganization in determining the fair market value of the decedent’s stock on the alternate valuation date. 03/03/2008
2007-05 Roosevelt Wallace v. Comm., 128 T.C. No. 11 (April 16, 2007). The Service will no longer litigate whether payments made by the Department of Veterans Affairs under the compensated work therapy program described in 38 U.S.C. section 1718 are tax exempt. RELEASE DATE: October 18, 2007 10/18/2007
2007-04 U.S. v. Roxworthy, 457 F.3d 590 (6th Cir. 2006). Whether a company should have been required to produce an accounting firm's opinion letters in response to an IRS summons. RELEASE DATE: Septemember 25, 2007 09/25/2007
2007-03 Snider v. U.S.; Turley v. U.S., 468 F.3d 500 (8th Cir. 2006). Issues relating to a special agent's disclosure of the identity of a taxpayer under investigation to a third-party witness. RELEASE DATE: July 25, 2007 07/23/2007
2007-02 Moore v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 2006-171, T.C. Dock. #11634-05L. Whether prohibited ex parte communications during a collection due process hearing before the Office of Appeals may be remedied by sharing the content of the communications with the taxpayer and allowing the taxpayer an opportunity to respond. RELEASE DATE: February 27, 2007 02/27/2007
2007-01 North Dakota State Univ. v. U.S., 255 F.3d 599 (8th Cir. 2001). This AOD addresses whether early retirement payments that the taxpayer made to tenured faculty members are wages subject to Federal Insurance Contributions Act ("FICA") taxes. RELEASE DATE: January 18, 2006 01/18/2007
2006-02 Pacific Gas and Electric Company v. U.S., 417 F.3d 1375. Whether the statute of limitations barred the Service from recovering erroneously paid overpayment interest by offsetting against a subsequent refund of tax and interest determined to be due to the taxpayer for the same taxable year. RELEASE DATE: June 26, 2006 10/26/2006
2006-01 Erickson Post Acquisition, Inc. v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 2003-218. Whether the cash payment from the wholesaler to the retailer was a taxable advance payment or a nontaxable loan. RELEASE DATE: June 12, 2006 06/12/2006
2005-03 Montgomery v. Comm., 122 T.C. 1 (2004). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence as to the Tax Court's rejection of the Service's interpretation of "underlying tax liability" and concluding that the term "underlying tax liability" encompasses the amounts the Service assessed for a particular tax period, including amounts assessed as deficiencies, amounts "self-assessed" under I.R.C. Section 6201(a) or a combination of such amounts.

RELEASE DATE: December 15, 2006
12/15/2006
2005-02 Sherwin-Williams v. Comm., 330 F.3rd 449 (6th Cir. 2003). This Action on Decision reflects the Service’s nonacquiescence as to whether the Court of Appeals erred in ruling that income, including investment income, used to pay the costs of administration is eligible for treatment as a set-aside under the statute. RELEASE DATE: September 12, 2005. 09/12/2005
2005-01 Estate of Mitchell v. Comm., 250 F.3d 696 (9th Cir. 2001). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's nonacquiescence as to whether the Court of Appeals erred in shifting the burden of proving the valuation of stock to the Commissioner on the basis that the Commissioner’s determination of the value of the stock was arbitrary and excessive. RELEASE DATE: 06/03/2005 06/03/2005
2004-06 IRS v. Donald Snyder, 343 F.3d 1171 (9th Cir. 2003). Whether the value of a debtor's interest in a pension plan that is excluded from the bankruptcy estate under Bankruptcy Code Section 541(c)(2) should be included in the value of the Service's secured claim under Bankruptcy Code Section 506(a). RELEASE DATE: 10/18/2004. 10/18/2004
2004-05 Diane Fernandez v. Comm., 114 T. C. 324 (2000) Docket No. 16710-99. This Action of Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in results only as to whether the Tax Court has jurisdiction, under I. R. C. Sec. 6015(e) in a case involving an understatement of tax, to review the Service's determination to deny relief under Sec. 6015(f). RELEASE DATE: 08/30/2004. 08/30/2004
2004-04 Kaffenberger v. U.S., 314 F.3d 944 (8th Cir. 2003. Whether the Form 4868, Application for Automatic Extension of Time to File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, constitutes an informal claim for refund, and whether the 2-year period of limitations, set forth in I.R.C. Sec. 6532(a)(1), for bringing a refund suit can be extended once the 2-year period has expired. RELEASE DATE: 08/30/2004. 08/31/2004
2004-03 U.S. v. Roland Harry Macher (In re Macher), 91 AFTR2d 2003-2654. This Action of Decision reflects the Service’s nonacquiescence as to whether a bankruptcy court has the authority to order the United States to process and consider a debtor’s plan of reorganization in accordance with procedures applicable to offers in compromise submitted by taxpayers who are not currently in bankruptcy. 08/03/2004
2004-02 Tax Analysts v. IRS, 215 F. Supp.2d 192, reversed, 350 F.3d 100. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in result only as to whether letter rulings issued by the Service that deny or revoke an organization's tax exempt status are subject to public inspection under I.R.C. Sec. 6110. 07/02/2004
2004-01 Sidney L. Olson and Miriam K. Olson v. Comm. 48 T.C. 855. 2. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's withdrawal of its acquiescence as to whether the distribution of the stock of a controlled corporation by a distributing corporation to the shareholders of the distributing corporation to prevent the potential union of the distributing corporation from claiming that the distributing and controlled corporations constitute a single employer for labor law purposes qualifies as a valid corporate business purpose under § 1.355-2(b) of the Income Tax Regulations. This Revised Action on Decision does not affect the Service’s acquiescence regarding issue (2) of the original Action on Decision. 01/22/2004
2003-04 General Electric Co. & Subs. v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1995-306. The Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in result only as to whether aircraft engines and thrust reversers sold by the taxpayer through its wholly-owned domestic international sales corporation ("DISC") to airframe manufacturers for incorporation in the United States into aircraft that are delivered for use outside the United States constitute "export property" within the meaning of section 993(c)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code and Treas. Reg. Section 1.993-3(d)(2)(iii). 12/08/2003
2003-03 Michael and Nancy B. McNamara v. Commissioner The Action on Decision reflects the Service's nonacquiescence as to whether farm rental income is includible in self-employment income if the lessor materially participates in farm production, but the lease agreement itself does not require the lessor to materially participate. 10/21/2003
2003-02 Intermet Corp. & Subs. v. Comm., 117 T.C. 133 (February 4, 2002). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in part (prior acquiescence in result, hereby revoked) to the Court's conclusion that deductions for state income tax deficiencies and interest thereon as well as interest on federal income tax deficiencies, all attributable to tax liabilities arising at least three years before the beginning of the taxable year, and taken into account in computing a net operating loss, qualify for a ten-year carryback as specified liability losses under former I.R.C. § 172(f)(1)(B). 05/01/2003
2003-01 Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, Inc. v. Comm., 79 T.C. 101 (1982). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence, and that the action on decision approved on June 27, 1988, is withdrawn, that a New York State corporate franchise tax refund attributable to a net operating loss carryback is includible in the income of a taxpayer using the accrual method of accounting when the taxpayer receives payment or notice that the refund claim has been approved, whichever is earlier. See Rev. Rul. 2003-3. Previously, the Service issued an action on decision that non-acquiesced in the decision of Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, Inc. v. Commissioner, 1988-1 C.B. 1. 01/03/2003
2002-06 Curell v. U.S., 2001-2 U.S.T.C. Para. 50,740 (S.D. Ohio 2001). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's nonacquiescence as to whether an LL.M. in Taxation qualify as a “special factor” justifying an award of attorneys’ fees to plaintiff’s counsel in excess of the statutory rate under I.R.C. § 7430. 12/09/2002
2002-05 Beck v. Comm., T.C. Memo 2001-198 (July 30, 2001). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence, and that the action on decision dated December 17, 2001, is withdrawn, in the court's conclusion that it had the authority to review respondent’s denial of equitable relief under section 66(c) in a deficiency proceeding. The Tax Court ultimately decided, however, that the Service did not abuse its discretion in denying such relief because the taxpayer failed to establish that she met the necessary requirements for relief under section 66(c). The Service believes that the Tax Court’s treatment of section 66(c) is correct and will no longer contest the Tax Court’s jurisdiction to review a request for relief under section 66(c). 12/09/2002
2002-04 Paul Pekar v. Commissioner, 113 T.C. 158 (1999). The Action on Decision reflects the Service''s acquiescence in result, as modified, only in the court''s conclusion the timely-mailing timely-filing provisions of section 7502 do not apply to foreign postmarks, and that "foreign postmarks do not effectively cause the filing date of a document to be the postmark date." Id., at 168. In order for a return timely mailed to be timely filed under section 7502, the postmark date appearing on the envelope containing the return must not only fall within the prescribed period for filing the return, but the envelope must be deposited in the mail of the United States. I.R.C. § 7502(a)(2)(A) and (B). Section 7502 does not apply to any document that is 03/11/2002
2002-03 Ridge and Marjory Harlan v. Comm., 116 T.C. 31 (2001) Reflects the Service''s acquiescence in the Court''s conclusion that held that in determining the applicability of the 6-year period of limitations provided by section 6501(e)(1)(A), second-tier partnership information returns are taken into account in computing the amount of gross income stated in the return. In determining the amount of gross income stated in the taxpayer''s return, the Service considered that taxpayer''s returns and the first-tier partnerships'' information returns. The taxpayers argued that the Service should have also considered the second-tier partnership information returns. The Tax Co 03/05/2002
2002-02 Sutherland Lumber-Southwest, Inc. v. Comm. The Action on Decision reflects the Service''s acquiescence in the Tax Court''s conclusion that the disallowance provisions of section 274(a) were inapplicable because "section 274(e) was intended to except certain categories of deduction from the effect of section 274." 114 T.C. 197, 203 (2000) [emphasis added]. Thus, the court concluded that "section 274(e)(2) acts to except the deductions in controversy from the effect of section 274, and, accordingly, [Sutherland''s] deduction [was] not limited to the value reportable by its employees." 114 T.C. at 206. On appeal, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit affirmed. The Service will no long 02/08/2002
2002-01 Intermet Corporation & Subs. v. Comm., 117 T.C. No. 13. The Action on Decision reflects the Service''s acquiescence in result only to the Court''s conclusion that deductions for state income tax deficiencies and interest thereon as well as interest on federal income tax deficiencies, all attributable to tax liabilities arising at least three years before the beginning of the taxable year, and taken into account in computing a net operating loss, qualify for a ten-year carryback as specified liability losses under former I.R.C. § 172(f)(1)(B). In addition, the Service recently lost Host Marriott Corp. v. United States, 113 F.Supp. 2d 790 (D. Md. 2000), aff''d in unpublished opinion, 02/11/2002
2001-08 N.Dakota State Univ v. USA, 84 F. Supp. 1043 (D.N.D. 1999), The Eighth Circuit held that a payment made to a tenured faculty member under the taxpayer's early retirement program was made in exchange for the relinquishment of the tenured faculty member’s contractual and constitutionally-protected tenure rights rather than as remuneration for services to taxpayer. The court cited Rev. Rul. 58-301, 1958-1 C.B. 23, as support for its decision and rejected the government's argument that 01/01/2002
2001-07 Robert L. Beck v. Comm, T.C. 2001-198( filed 07/30/01). The Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion that it had the authority to review respondent’s denial of equitable relief under section 66(c) in a deficiency proceeding. The Tax Court construed the taxpayer's contention as a prayer for relief under section 66(c), which may provide relief from income tax liability with respect to unreported community income. The Service argued that the taxpayer failed to meet the 01/01/2002
2001-06 Therese Hahn v. Commissioner, 110 T. C. No. 140 (1998) Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion that the 1981 amendment did not expressly repeal the effective date of section 2040(b)(1), since there is no language in the 1981 amendment that specifically repeals the effective date of subsection (b)(1). The Court also held that the 1981 amendment did not impliedly repeal the effective date of section 2040(b)(1), because section 2040(b)(1) enacted in 1976 and the 1981 amendment to 10/18/2001
2001-05 Mesa Oil, Inc. v. United States. Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence whether a verbatim recording of a collection due process (CDP) hearing is required under §§ 6320 and 6330 to create a judicially reviewable administrative record. The district court held the administrative record to be inadequate for judicial review under section 6330(d)(1)(B), because “no record of the hearing was made, and no analysis of the evidence or arguments was presented in the 08/23/2001
2001-04 Exxon v. Commissioner, 113 T. C. No. 338 (1999). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in result only in the court's conclusion, with respect to the net income issue, that the PRT allowances effectively compensated for the nondeductibility of interest expense and that the PRT, in its predominant character, constituted a tax in the nature of an income or excess profits tax in the U.S. sense. In reaching this holding, the Court relied on “representative industry data” presented at trial by Exxon. The Court 08/17/2001
2001-03 Farmland Industries, Inc. v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 1999-388 T.C. Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that held that each corporation was formed, operated, and sold to facilitate the petitioner's petroleum business. Because a sufficient nexus to the patronage business existed, the court found the stock not to be an investment and held its sale generated patronage income or loss. Likewise, the section 1231 assets were found to be used in the petitioner's 03/27/2001
2001-02 Arnold W. Vinick v. USA, 205 F.3d 1 (1st Cir. 2000). Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in the First Circuit's reversal of the lower court's decision that Vinick was liable as a responsible person under section 6672 for the unpaid withholding taxes of Jefferson Bronze Company. The First Circuit held that the lower courts' findings of fact were 'based on a misunderstanding of the legal standard for what constitutes a responsible person.' The court further stated that [a]bsent a 02/27/2001
2001-01 Security State Bank v. Comm., 214 F.3d 1254 (10 th Cir. 2000). This Action on decisions reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that neither section 1281(a)(1) nor section 1281(a)(2) were applicable to short-term loans made in the ordinary course of business. 01/29/2001
2000-09 Weisbart v. United States Dept of Treas. & IRS. Reflects the Service's acquiescence with the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit's decision that section 7502 treats the claim as filed on the date of mailing (August 17, 1995) because the taxpayer mailed the claim on the last day of the period prescribed for filing the claim with respect to the withheld taxes. Pointing to Treas. Reg. §§ 301.6402-3(a)(5) and 301.7502-1, the Second 11/17/2000
2000-08 John D. Shea v. Commissioner, 112 T.C. 183 (1999) The Tax Court held that the burden of proof should be placed on the Commissioner with respect to the section 66(b) issue. Rather than relying on established case law for its determination as to whether the section 66(b) issue was new matter, the court incorporated section 7522 into its analysis. Section 7522 requires the Commissioner to issue a notice of deficiency which contains a description of the basis for the Commissioner's tax 11/03/2000
2000-07 Kathy A. King v. Commissoner, 115 T.C. No. 8 (Aug 10, 2000). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that held that the nonpetitionering spouse was entitled to notice and an opportunity to intervene. The Tax Court reasoned that the rationale for the notice and intervention rules of section 6015(e)(4), i.e., fairness to the nonelecting spouse to be heard in order to ensure that innocent spouse relief is granted on the merits after taking into account all relevant 09/25/2000
2000-06 Diane Fernandez v. Commissioner, 114 T. C. No 21. Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion holding that when a taxpayer makes a requisite election under sections 6015(b) and/or (c) along with its request under section 6015(f), and files a timely petition with the Tax Court pursuant to section 6015(e), the Tax Court has jurisdiction to review the request for innocent spouse relief under all subsections of section 6015.The court reasoned that the statutory language gave 09/25/2000
2000-05 Osteopathic Medical v. Commissioner, 113 T.C. No. 26. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion that held that the taxpayer was not required to account for inventories or to use an accrual method of accounting based on its determination that the furnishing of chemotherapy drugs was not a sale of merchandise within the meaning of Treas. Reg. § 1.471-1. Osteopathic Medical Oncology and Hematology, P.C. v. Commissioner, 113 T.C. No. 26 (No. 11551-98 Nov. 22, 1999). 04/29/2000
2000-04 Smith v. Comm, 198 F.3d 515 (5th Cir. 1999), rev'g, 108 T.C. 412. The Tax Court upheld the Commissioner’s determination that the claim against the estate should be limited to the amount actually paid. The Tax Court held that, '[w]here a claim is disputed, contingent, or uncertain as of the date of the decedent's death, the estate is not entitled to a deduction until the claim is resolved and it is determined what amount, if any, will be paid. It is this latter amount that is allowed as a deduction.' 108 T.C. at 419. 05/09/2000
2000-03 Simpson v. United States, 183 F.3d 812 (8th Cir. 1999). Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in the Court's conclusion, that under the plain language of TRA 86 section 1433(b)(2)(A), the statutory protection applies to transfers under trusts that were irrevocable on September 25, 1985, because Congress intended to protect trust creators who relied on the law as it existed at the time the trust became irrevocable. The district court in Simpson v. United States, 17 03/04/2000
2000-02 Ahadpour v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 1999-9. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion, to the extent, that the Tax Court held that petitioners had only a conditional right to retain the escrow payments. In the court's view, the unconditional right to retain the escrow payments arose only after buyer paid the remainder of the purchase price and the deed was delivered. 03/03/2000
2000-01 McLeod v. United States, 276 F.Supp. 213 (S.D. Ala. 1967). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion holding that the Department of Pensions and Security “constructively placed” the children in the taxpayer's home for adoption by presenting its favorable report to the court. Therefore, the requirements of section 152(b)(2) and Treas. Reg. § 1.152-(2)(c) were satisfied and taxpayer was entitled to the exemptions. In the Action on Decision in McLeod distributed on January 11, 1968, 1968 AOD LEXIS 75, the 03/03/2000
1999-17 Duke Energy Natural Gas Corporation v. Comm. Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in the court's conclusion holding that natural gas gathering systems are property includible in asset class 13.2 and must be depreciated over a 7-year period. 03/03/2000
1999-16 Conway v. Commissioner, 111 T.C. 350 (1998) Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that held that the transaction was a nontaxable exchange pursuant to section 1035. Consequently, the 10-percent penalty under section 72(q), which generally applies to taxable distributions from an annuity, was not applicable to the transaction. Section 1035(a)(3) provides that no gain or loss shall be recognized on the exchange of an annuity contract for another annuity contract. See also Treas 03/03/2000
1999-15 William & Helen Woodral v. Commissioner, 112 T.C.19 (1999). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that it was unnecessary to look to the legislative history because the language of section 6404(g) clearly granted the Tax Court jurisdiction to review the Service's failure to abate interest under Section 6404, not just subsection 6404(e). The Court then concluded that the evidence failed to establish that the interest on the employment taxes was excessive in 03/03/2000
1999-14 Mutual Assurance, Inc. v. United States, 56 F.3d 1353. Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in the court's conclusion that held that a timely filed claim for refund that was allowed in full may be amended after the expiration of the statute of limitations for filing a claim for refund. The court relied on Bemis Brothers Bag Co. v. United States, 289 U.S. 28 (1933) which dealt with whether the original claim and the amended claim perfected after the limitations period had sufficient similarity for the amendment to 03/03/2000
1999-13 Dubin v. Commissioner, 99 T.C. 325 (1992) . Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the court's conclusion that held although section 6231(a)(12) expressly provides that a husband and wife who have a joint interest in a partnership shall be treated as one person, the regulations reverse that rule, stating that a husband and wife holding a joint interest should be treated as separate partners. Temp. Treas. Reg. § 301.6231(a)(12)-1T(a). The Court determined that the bankruptcy of the husband caused the partnership items on the 03/03/2000
1999-12 RJR Nabisco, Inc. et al. v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1998-252. Reflects the Service's nonacquiescence in the Court's conclusion that held the graphic design and advertising campaign costs incurred by petitioner are currently deductible business expenses under I.R.C. §162. The Tax Court characterized the graphic design and advertising campaign costs as advertising costs and held the costs were deductible on the ground that the Service had conceded the deductibility of advertising costs in Rev. Rul. 92-80, 03/03/2000
1999-11 James J. and Sandra A. Gales v. Comm, T.C. Memo. 1999-27 Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that the advance commissions were loans rather than income in the year received., specifically finding that on occasion repayment was demanded of taxpayer and that he personally repaid some of the advance commissions. The court relied upon Dennis v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1997-275, where advance commissions were found to be loans because the taxpayer was personally liable for repayment at the time 03/03/2000
1999-10 Boyd Gaming Corporation v. Comm., 9th Cir. 1999. Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that held that the taxpayer's particular security and other business-related concerns provided sufficient justification for its policy of requiring employees to stay on the employer's business premise to satisfy "the convenience of the employer" test of section 119. In applying section 119 and Treas. Reg. § 1.119-1, the Service 03/03/2000
1999-09 IRS v. Waldschmidt (In re Bradley), (M.D. Tenn. 1999). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's interpretation of amended setion 121 in light of section 1398 and declining to follow Mehr and Barden, held that a bankruptcy estate steps into the debtor's shoes for purposes of section 121. 03/03/2000
1999-08 Hospital Corp. of America and Subsidiaries v. Comm, 109 T.C. 21. Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion, to the extent, that the Tax Court held that the term "tangible personal property," as defined under a pre-1981 ITC analysis, has continued viability under ACRS and MACRS. The issue as to whether the various disputed items are structural components or tangible personal property is a factual question. We do not agree with the court's determination with respect to the various disputed properties. We cannot 03/03/2000
1999-07 Vulcan Materials Commpany and Subsidiaries v. Comm. Reflects the findings of the Tax Court that the statutory language of section 902(a) and its regulations are unclear. The Court was not persuaded that the reference to "accumulated profits" necessarily meant all of the foreign corporation's accumulated profits for the year. The Court interpreted the language "on or with respect to the accumulated profits of such 03/03/2000
1999-06 Estate of Mellinger v. Commissioner, 112 T.C. 4 (1999). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion that closely-held stock held in a QTIP trust should not be aggregated, for valuation pusposes, with stock in the same corporation held in a revocable trust and includible in the decedent's gross estate. The Tax Court's decision in this case is consistent with the Service’s position regarding the valuation of minority interests passing to QTIP trusts. The proper funding of the 03/03/2000
1999-05 St. Jude Medical, Inc. v Comm, 34 F. 3d 1394 (8th Cir. 1994). Reflects the conclusion by the Eighth Circuit that for purposes of calculating the CTI of a DISC, mandating the use of SIC categories to allocate R&D expenses is inconsistent with Congress's intent in enacting the DISC statute to allow costs to be allocated on a product-by-product basis or on the basis of product lines. The Court also stated that the mandated use of Section 1.861-8 by 03/03/2000
1999-04 Oshkosh Truck Corporation v. United States 123 F.3d 1477. Reflects the Service's acquiescence that a presumed markup percentage must be used in computing the vehicular excise tax on automotive articles sold to the United States directly by manufacturers when there are no retail sales outlets for such automotive articles. 03/03/2000
1999-03 Murillo v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 1998-13. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion, in this case, that the Individual Retirement Account (IRA) forfeiture was similar to the Service's levy on a Keogh account in Larotonda v. Commissioner, 89 T.C. 287 (1987) (involving the predecessor to section 72(t)), and was outside the class of early distributions that Congress intended to discourage in enacting section 72(t). 03/03/2000
1999-02 Larotonda v. Commissioner, AOD CC-1998-010. An action on decision stating that the Service will not acquiescence to the Court's conclusion in Larotonda. Recent legislation warrants the withdrawing of this AOD. The statutory provision effectively at issue in Larotonda was modified by the Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-206, 112 Stat. 685 (1998), enacted on July 22, 1998. Section 3436 of the Act amends section 72(t) to provided that the early distribution tax shall not apply to a distribution made on account of a levy 03/03/2000
1999-01 Eisenberg v. Comm., 155 F. 3d 50 (2d Cir. 1998). This Action on Decision reflects the Service's acquiescence in the Court's conclusion, to the extent, that it held that there is no legal prohibition against the discount in the value of a gift of closely held stock by an amount attributed to the potential capital gains tax liability of the corporation upon liquidation, or upon the sale or distribution of its assets. The applicability of such a discount, as well as its amount, will hereafter be treated as factual matters to be determined by competent expert testimony. 03/03/2000
1998-08 Fluor v. U.S., 126 F.3d 1397 (Fed. Cir. 1997). Although the Service agrees with the Federal Circuit's holding that an underpayment of tax that is eliminated by the carryback of excess foreign tax credits from a later year remains due and unpaid for purposes of computing interest until the year in which the credit arises, the Service does not agree with the court's determination that interest on the underpayment stops running on the last day of that tax year. 03/03/2000
1998-07 Clark D. & Janis L. Pulliam v. Comm., T.C. Memo. 1997-274. This Action on Decision reflects the Service's disagreement with the Tax Court's opinion, on the facts presented, that protecting against competition and retaining a key employee are valid corporate business purposes sufficiently compelling to overcome the evidence that a distribution of stock was used as a device for distributing earnings and profits. 03/03/2000
1998-06 Estate of Clara K. Hoover v. Comm., 69 F.3d 1044 (10th Cir. 1995). This Action on decision reflects the Service's agreement with the circuit court's ruling that, in the absence of regulations, an estate claiming a special use valuation under I.R.C. § 2032A for property used for farming purposes may also take into account a minority interest discount in valuing the property. 03/03/2000
1998-05 McCormick v. Peterson, CV93-2157 (E.D>N.Y. 1993). Reflects the Service's agreement with the district court's ruling that adding the words "under protest" to the signature of a tax return without otherwise modifying the words of the jurat does not cast doubt on the validity of the jurat and, accordingly, does not invalidate the document as a return. 03/03/2000
1998-04 Fredericks v. Commissioner, No. 96-7748. Reflects the Service's agreement with the circuit court's ruling that, based upon the particular facts of this case, the Service was equitably estopped from relying upon a Form 872-A to indefinitely extend the period of imitations for making an assessment when the Service's actions misled the taxpayer into believing that the form was not in effect. 03/03/2000
1998-03 Golden Belt Telephone Coop v. Comm, 108 T.C. 498 (1997). Reflects the Service's agreement that, in determining the tax exempt status of a rural telephone cooperative, payments to the cooperative by long distance providers for billing and collection services are excluded in determining the percentage of payments received by the cooperative for communication services provided to its members. 03/03/2000
1998-02 Bilzerian v. United States, 86 F.3d 1067 (11th Cir. 1996) Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the result reached by the Eleventh Circuit in holding that once an assessed tax liability is paid by the taxpayer, the Service cannot use administrative collection actions to collect that liability even if the Service had erroneously refunded all or part of the liability after its payment. 03/03/2000
1998-01 Beatty v. Commissioner, 106 T.C. 268 (1996). Reflects the Service's agreement that a county sheriff was entitled to reduce his gross receipts by costs of goods sold in computing income from providing meals to prisoners. 03/03/2000
1997-14 Transwestern Pipeline Co. v. United States, 639 F.2d 679. Revised AOD reflects the Service's agreement with the Court of Claims' conclusion that recoverable line pack gas, which is used to maintain adequate pressure in gas pipelines, is appropriately treated as a capital asset rather than included in the taxpayer's inventory of gas available for sale. 03/03/2000
1997-13 Pacific Enterprises & Subs. v. Comm., 101 T.C. 1 (1993). This Action on decision reflects the Service's agreement that recoverable cushion gas and recoverable line pack gas, which are used to maintain adequate pressure in gas storage reservoirs and pipelines, respectively, are appropriately treated as nondepreciable capital assets. 03/03/2000
1997-12 Jackson v. Comm, 108 T.C. 130 (1997) ( T.C. # 23558-94). Reflects the Service's agreement that a former insurance agent is not required to pay tax under the Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA) on specified contractual termination payments he received from an insurance company upon the termination of his contract with the insurance company. 03/03/2000
1997-11 Trans City Life Insurance Company v. Commissioner. Reflects the Service's disagreement with the Tax Court's conclusion that the Commissioner abused his discretion in determining that reinsurance agreements entered into by the taxpayer with an unrelated insurer had a significant tax avoidance effect. 03/03/2000
1997-10 Sun Microsystems, Inc. v. Commissioner, T.C.M. 1995-69. Reflects the Service's agreement that the income recognized by the taxpayer's employees under I.R.C. § 421(b) on the "disqualifying disposition" of incentive stock options were includable as "wages" incurred as a research expense in calculating the taxpayer's credit for increasing research expenses under I.R.C. § 41. 03/03/2000
1997-09 Royal Caribbean Cruises, Ltd. v. Commissioner, 108 F.3d 290. Reflects the Service's acceptance of the Eleventh Circuit's holding that the I.R.C. § 4471 excise tax on voyages on commercial passenger vessels does not apply to voyages on which passengers embark or disembark at intermediate stops within the United States if the voyage both begins and ends outside the United States. 03/03/2000
1997-08 May Department Stores Co. v. United States, 36 Fed. Cl. 680. May Department Stores Co. v. United States, 36 Fed. Cl. 680 (Ct. Fed. Cls. 1996). AOD reflects the Service's agreement that, if a taxpayer elects to have overpayments of tax reported on a timely filed income tax return credited to the next year's tax liability without specifying the estimated tax installment against which the overpayment is to be credited, the Service, in computing interest on any subsequently determined tax deficiencies for the tax year in which the overpayments were reported, will not treat the reported overpayments of tax as having been credited against installments of 03/03/2000
1997-07 The Edna Louise Dunn Trust v. Commissioner. Reflects the Service's agreement that a corporation's distribution of stock to shareholders in a spinoff of a subsidiary was tax-free under I.R.C. § 355(a)(1). 03/03/2000
1997-06 Risman v. Commissioner, 100 T.C. 1991 (1993) (T.C. # 11429-91). AOD reflects the Service's continued disagreement with the factual finding that the taxpayer made a deposit, not a payment of tax, when the remitted a check with a request for extension of time for filing a return. 03/03/2000
1997-05 Hurt v. USA, 70 F.3d 1261 (4th Cir. 1995). Reflects the Service's disagreement with the Fourth Circuit's opinion that the Service was not entitled to collect statutory interest on the taxes assessed pursuant to a Tax Court decision based upon a settlement agreement. 03/03/2000
1997-04 Duncan v. U.S., Docket No. 95-228 (U.S. D.C.,E.D. Ky.) Reflects the Service's agreement that disability benefits paid from a Kentucky policemen and firefighter's retirement fund can be excluded from gross income under I.R.C. § 104(a)(1) as benefits paid under a statute in the nature of a workmen's compensation act. 03/03/2000
1997-03 Buckeye Countrymark v. Comm., 103 T.C. 547 (1994) Reflects the Service's agreement that nonexempt cooperatives subject to subchapter T of the Internal Revenue Code are permitted to carry back losses from furnishing goods and services to its members to earlier tax years under I.R.C. § 172. 03/03/2000
1997-02 United States v. Kao, 81 F.3d 114 (9th Cir. 1996). Reflects the Service's acquiescence in the result that the Service could not, by issuing summonses, compel taxpayers to sign consent directives authorizing the release of records from unidentified domestic and foreign banks. 03/03/2000
1997-01 Xerox Corporation v. United States, 41 F.3d 647 (Fed. Cir. 1994). Reflects the Service's disagreement that the U.S.-U.K. Income Tax Treaty allows a United States corporation to treat advance tax paid by a U.K. subsidiary as a creditable tax under I.R.C. § 902(a). 03/03/2000