- Highlights of This Issue
- Part III. Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous
- Definition of Terms and Abbreviations
- Numerical Finding List
- Effect of Current Actions on Previously Published Items
Internal Revenue Bulletin: 2018-17
April 23, 2018
These synopses are intended only as aids to the reader in identifying the subject matter covered. They may not be relied upon as authoritative interpretations.
This notice requests comments on the potential expansion of the scope of the determination letter program for individually designed plans during the 2019 calendar year, beyond provision of determination letters for initial qualification and qualification upon plan termination.
This notice publishes the reference price under § 45K(d)(2)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code for calendar year 2017. The reference price applies in determining the amount of the enhanced oil recovery credit under § 43, the marginal well production credit under § 45I, and the percentage depletion in case of oil produced from marginal properties under § 613A.
Attached is Notice 2018–33, which provides for adjustments to the limitation on housing expenses for purposes of section 911 of the Internal Revenue Code. These adjustments are made on the basis of geographic differences in housing costs relative to housing costs in the United States. Further, if the limitation on housing expenses is higher for taxable year 2018 than the adjusted limitations on housing expenses provided in Notice 2017–21, qualified taxpayers may apply the adjusted limitations for taxable year 2018 to their 2017 taxable year.
Attached is Revenue Procedure 2018–23, which provides a waiver for the time requirements for individuals electing to exclude their foreign earned income who must leave a foreign country because of war, civil unrest, or similar adverse conditions in that country. Rev. Proc. 2018–23 adds Turkey to the list of waiver countries for tax year 2016 for which the minimum time requirements are waived. No country is added to the list of waiver countries for tax year 2017. Generally, U.S. citizens or resident aliens living and working abroad are taxed on their worldwide income. However, if their tax home is in a foreign country and they meet either the bona fide residence test or the physical presence test, they can choose to exclude from their income a limited amount of their foreign earned income ($101,300 for 2016). Both the bona fide residence test and the physical presence test contain minimum time requirements.
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The Internal Revenue Bulletin is the authoritative instrument of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for announcing official rulings and procedures of the Internal Revenue Service and for publishing Treasury Decisions, Executive Orders, Tax Conventions, legislation, court decisions, and other items of general interest. It is published weekly.
It is the policy of the Service to publish in the Bulletin all substantive rulings necessary to promote a uniform application of the tax laws, including all rulings that supersede, revoke, modify, or amend any of those previously published in the Bulletin. All published rulings apply retroactively unless otherwise indicated. Procedures relating solely to matters of internal management are not published; however, statements of internal practices and procedures that affect the rights and duties of taxpayers are published.
Revenue rulings represent the conclusions of the Service on the application of the law to the pivotal facts stated in the revenue ruling. In those based on positions taken in rulings to taxpayers or technical advice to Service field offices, identifying details and information of a confidential nature are deleted to prevent unwarranted invasions of privacy and to comply with statutory requirements.
Rulings and procedures reported in the Bulletin do not have the force and effect of Treasury Department Regulations, but they may be used as precedents. Unpublished rulings will not be relied on, used, or cited as precedents by Service personnel in the disposition of other cases. In applying published rulings and procedures, the effect of subsequent legislation, regulations, court decisions, rulings, and procedures must be considered, and Service personnel and others concerned are cautioned against reaching the same conclusions in other cases unless the facts and circumstances are substantially the same.
The Bulletin is divided into four parts as follows:
Part I.—1986 Code. This part includes rulings and decisions based on provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
Part II.—Treaties and Tax Legislation. This part is divided into two subparts as follows: Subpart A, Tax Conventions and Other Related Items, and Subpart B, Legislation and Related Committee Reports.
Part III.—Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous. To the extent practicable, pertinent cross references to these subjects are contained in the other Parts and Subparts. Also included in this part are Bank Secrecy Act Administrative Rulings. Bank Secrecy Act Administrative Rulings are issued by the Department of the Treasury’s Office of the Assistant Secretary (Enforcement).
Part IV.—Items of General Interest. This part includes notices of proposed rulemakings, disbarment and suspension lists, and announcements.
The last Bulletin for each month includes a cumulative index for the matters published during the preceding months. These monthly indexes are cumulated on a semiannual basis, and are published in the last Bulletin of each semiannual period.
This notice requests comments on the potential expansion of the scope of the determination letter program for individually designed plans during the 2019 calendar year, beyond provision of determination letters for initial qualification and qualification upon plan termination. In reviewing comments submitted in response to this notice, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury Department) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will consider the factors regarding the scope of the determination letter program set forth in section 4.03(3) of Revenue Procedure 2016–37, 2016–29 I.R.B. 136. The Treasury Department and the IRS will issue guidance if they identify any additional types of plans for which plan sponsors may request determination letters during the 2019 calendar year.
Revenue Procedure 2016–37 sets forth procedures for issuing determination letters and describes an extension of the remedial amendment period for individually designed plans. Effective January 1, 2017, the sponsor of an individually designed plan may submit a determination letter application only for initial plan qualification, for qualification upon plan termination, and in certain other limited circumstances identified in subsequent published guidance. Section 4.03(3) of Rev. Proc. 2016–37 provides that the Treasury Department and the IRS will consider each year whether to accept determination letter applications for individually designed plans in specified circumstances other than for initial qualification and qualification upon plan termination.
Comments are requested on specific types of plans for which the Treasury Department and the IRS should consider accepting determination letter applications during calendar year 2019 in circumstances other than for initial qualification and qualification upon plan termination. As provided in section 4.03(3) of Rev. Proc. 2016–37, circumstances for consideration include, for example, significant law changes, new approaches to plan design, and the inability of certain types of plans to convert to pre-approved plan documents. Comments that suggest expanding the scope of the program for a particular type of plan should not merely state the type of plan, but should also specify the issues applicable to that type of plan that would justify review of that particular plan type under the determination letter program. Such issues may include specific plan features and special plan designs applicable to that type of plan, or unresolved questions of qualification in form with respect to that type of plan.
Comments may be submitted in writing on or before June 4, 2018. Comments should be mailed to Internal Revenue Service, CC:PA:LPD:PR (Notice 2018–24), Room 5203, P.O. Box 7604, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044, or sent electronically to email@example.com. Please include “Notice 2018–24” in the subject line of any electronic communications. Alternatively, comments may be hand delivered Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (Notice 2018–24), Courier’s Desk, Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20224. All comments will be available for public inspection and copying.
This notice publishes the reference price under § 45K(d)(2)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code for calendar year 2017. The credit period for the nonconventional source production credit under § 45K ended on December 31, 2013, for facilities producing coke or coke gas (other than from petroleum based products). However, the reference price continues to apply in determining the amount of the enhanced oil recovery credit under § 43, the marginal well production credit for qualified crude oil production under § 45I, and the percentage depletion in case of oil and natural gas produced from marginal properties under § 613A.
Section 45K(d)(2)(C) provides that the term “reference price” means, with respect to a calendar year, the Secretary’s estimate of the annual average wellhead price per barrel for all domestic crude oil the price of which is not subject to regulation by the United States.
Section 43(a) provides that, for purposes of § 38, the enhanced oil recovery credit for any taxable year is an amount equal to 15 percent of the taxpayer’s qualified enhanced oil recovery costs for such taxable year.
Section 43(b)(1) provides that the amount of enhanced oil recovery credit for any taxable year shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount of such credit (determined without regard to this paragraph) as - (A) the amount by which the reference price for the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the taxable year begins exceeds $28, bears to (B) $6. Section 43(b)(2) provides that the term “reference price” means, with respect to any calendar year, the reference price determined for such calendar year under § 45K(d)(2)(C).
Section 45I(a) provides that, for purposes of § 38, the marginal well production credit for any taxable year is an amount equal to the product of the credit amount and the qualified crude oil production and the qualified natural gas production which is attributable to the taxpayer.
Section 45I(b)(1) provides that for crude oil, the amount of the marginal well production credit is $3 per barrel of qualified crude oil production.
Section 45I(b)(2) provides that the $3 amount under § 45I(b)(1) shall each be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount which bears the same ratio to such amount (determined without regard to this paragraph) as – (i) the excess (if any) of the applicable reference price over $15, bears to (ii) $3. The applicable reference price for a taxable year is the reference price of the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the taxable year begins.
Section 45I(c) provides that the term reference price means, with respect to any calendar year – (i) in the case of qualified crude oil production, the reference price determined under § 45K(d)(2)(C).
Section 613A(c)(6)(A) provides, in general, the allowance for depletion under § 611 shall be computed in accordance with § 613 with respect to - (i) so much of the taxpayer’s average daily marginal production of domestic crude oil as does not exceed the taxpayer’s depletable oil quantity (determined without regard to paragraph (3)(A)(ii)), and (ii) so much of the taxpayer’s average daily marginal production of domestic natural gas as does not exceed the taxpayer’s depletable natural gas quantity (determined without regard to paragraph (3)(A)(ii)), and the applicable percentage shall be deemed to be specified in subsection (b) of § 613 for purposes of subsection (a) of that section.
Section 613A(c)(6)(C) provides that the term “applicable percentage” means the percentage (not greater than 25 percent) equal to the sum of - (i) 15 percent, plus (ii) 1 percentage point for each whole dollar by which $20 exceeds the reference price for crude oil for the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the taxable year begins. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “reference price” means, with respect to any calendar year, the reference price determined for such calendar year under § 45K(d)(2)(C).
The reference price under § 45K(d)(2)(C) for calendar year 2017 is $48.05.
This notice provides adjustments to the limitation on housing expenses for purposes of section 911 of the Internal Revenue Code for specific locations for 2018. These adjustments are made on the basis of geographic differences in housing costs relative to housing costs in the United States.
Section 911(a) allows a qualified individual to elect to exclude from gross income the foreign earned income and housing cost amount of such individual. The term “housing cost amount” is generally the total of the housing expenses for the taxable year minus a base housing amount. See section 911(c)(1). For this purpose, the housing expenses taken into account are limited to an amount that is tied to the maximum foreign earned income exclusion. Specifically, the limit on such housing expenses equals 30 percent (adjusted as may be provided under the Secretary’s authority under section 911(c)(2)(B)) of the maximum exclusion amount (computed on a daily basis), multiplied by the number of days in the applicable period that fall within the taxable year. See section 911(c)(2)(A). Thus, under this general limitation, a qualified individual whose entire taxable year is within the applicable period is limited to maximum housing expenses of $31,230 ($104,100 x .30) for 2018.
Similarly, the computation of the base housing amount is also tied to the maximum foreign earned income exclusion. Specifically, the base housing amount is 16% of the maximum exclusion amount (computed on a daily basis), multiplied by the number of days in the applicable period that fall within the taxable year. See sections 911(c)(1)(B) and 911(d)(1). Assuming that the entire taxable year of a qualified individual is within the applicable period, the base housing amount for 2018 is $16,656 ($104,100 x .16). Section 911(c)(2)(B) authorizes the Secretary to issue regulations or other guidance to adjust the percentage under section 911(c)(2)(A)(i) (which determines the limit on housing expenses) based on geographic differences in housing costs relative to housing costs in the United States. Pursuant to this authority, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury Department) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) have published annual notices concerning the limitation on the section 911 housing cost amounts since the 2006 taxable year.
For more background on the foreign housing exclusion, see https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/foreign-housing-exclusion-or deduction.
The following table provides adjusted limitations on housing expenses (in lieu of the otherwise applicable limitation of $31,230) for 2018.
|Country||Location||Limitation on Housing Expenses (full year)||Limitation on Housing Expenses (daily)|
|Brazil||Rio de Janeiro||35,100||96.16|
|Cayman Islands||Grand Cayman||48,000||131.51|
|Colombia||All cities other than Bogota||49,400||135.34|
|Costa Rica||San Jose||32,000||87.67|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Kinshasa||42,000||115.07|
|Dominican Republic||Santo Domingo||45,500||124.66|
|El Salvador||San Salvador||32,000||87.67|
|France||All cities other than Garches, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Paris, Sevres, Suresnes and Versailles||31,900||87.40|
|Germany||Frankfurt am Main||37,700||103.29|
|Germany||All cities other than Augsburg, Babenhausen, Bad Aibling, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Nauheim, Baumholder, Berchtesgaden, Berlin, Birkenfeld, Boeblingen, Bonn, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Butzbach, Cologne, Darmstadt, Delmenhorst, Duesseldorf, Erlangen, Flensburg, Frankfurt am Main, Friedberg, Fuerth, Garlstedt, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Geilenkirchen, Gelnhausen, Germersheim, Giebelstadt, Grafenwoehr, Grefrath, Greven, Gruenstadt, Hamburg, Hanau, Handorf, Hannover, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Herongen, Idar-Oberstein, Ingolstadt, Kaiserslautern, Landkreis, Kalkar, Karlsruhe, Kerpen, Kitzingen, Koblenz, Leimen, Leipzig, Ludwigsburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Mayen, Moenchen-Gladbach, Muenster, Munich, Nellingen, Neubruecke, Noervenich, Nuernberg, Ober Ramstadt, Oberammergau, Osterholz-Scharmbeck, Pirmasens, Rheinau, Rheinberg, Schwabach, Schwetzingen, Seckenheim, Sembach, Stuttgart, Twisteden, Vilseck, Wahn, Wertheim, Wiesbaden, Worms, Wuerzburg, Zirndorf and Zweibrueken||35,400||96.99|
|Holy See, The||Holy See, The||49,000||134.25|
|Korea||All cities other than Ammo Depot #9, Camp Carroll, Camp Colbern, Camp Market, Camp Mercer, Changwon, Chinhae, Chunchon, K-16, Kimhae, Kimpo Airfield, Kunsun, Kwangju, Munsan, Osan AB, Pusan, Pyongtaek, Seoul, Suwon, Taegu, Tongduchon, Uijongbu, and Waegwan||31,900||87.40|
|Kuwait||All cities other than Kuwait City||57,700||158.08|
|Malaysia||All cities other than Kuala Lumpur||33,700||92.33|
|Mexico||All cities other than Ciudad Juarez, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, Metapa, Mexico City, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, Tapachula, Tijuana, Tuxtla Gutierrez, and Veracruz||39,400||107.95|
|Netherlands||All cities other than Amsterdam, Aruba, Brunssum, Coevorden, Eygelshoven, The Hague, Heerlen, Hoensbroek, Hulsberg, Kerkrade, Landgraaf, Maastricht, Margraten, Papendrecht, Rotterdam, Schaesburg, Schinnen, Schiphol, and Ypenburg||34,700||95.07|
|Qatar||Al Udeid (in All Cities)||32,400||88.77|
|Qatar||All cities other than Doha||32,400||88.77|
|Switzerland||All cities other than Bern, Geneva and Zurich||32,900||90.14|
|Tanzania||Dar Es Salaam||44,000||120.55|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Port of Spain||54,500||149.32|
|United Arab Emirates||Abu Dhabi||49,687||136.13|
|United Arab Emirates||Dubai||57,174||156.64|
|United Kingdom||High Wycombe||62,100||170.14|
|United Kingdom||Menwith Hill||39,200||107.40|
|United Kingdom||All cities other than Basingstoke, Bath, Belfast, Birmingham, Bracknell, Bristol, Brookwood, Brough, Cambridge, Caversham, Chelmsford, Cheltenham, Chicksands, Croughton, Dunstable, Edinburgh, Edzell, Fairford, Farnborough, Felixstowe, Ft. Halstead, Gibraltar, Glenrothes, Greenham Common, Harrogate, High Wycombe, Huntingdon, Hythe, Kemble, Lakenheath, Liverpool, London, Loudwater, Menwith Hill, Mildenhall, Nottingham, Oxfordshire, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Reading, Rochester, Samlesbury, Southampton, Surrey, Waterbeach, Welford, West Byfleet, and Wiltshire||37,200||101.92|
|Vietnam||Ho Chi Minh City||42,000||115.07|
For some locations, the limitation on housing expenses provided in Section 3 of this notice may be higher than the limitation on housing expenses provided in the “Table of Adjusted Limitations for 2017” in Notice 2017–21. A qualified individual incurring housing expenses in such a location during 2017 may apply the adjusted limitation on housing expenses provided in Section 3 of this notice for 2017 in lieu of the amounts provided in the “Table of Adjusted Limitations for 2017” in Notice 2017–21 (and as set forth in the Instructions to Form 2555, Foreign Earned Income, for 2017).
The Treasury Department and the IRS anticipate that future annual notices providing adjustments to housing expense limitations will make a similar option available to qualified individuals that incur housing expenses in the immediately preceding year. For example, when adjusted housing expense limitations for 2019 are issued, it is expected that taxpayers will be permitted to apply those adjusted limitations to the 2018 taxable year.
Notice 2011–8, 2011–8 I.R.B. 503; Notice 2012–19, 2012–10 I.R.B. 440; Notice 2013–31, 2013–21 I.R.B. 1099; Notice 2014–29, 2014–18 I.R.B. 991; Notice 2015–33, 2015–18 I.R.B. 934; Notice 2016–21, 2016–12 I.R.B. 465; and Notice 2017–21, 2017–13 I.R.B. 1026 are relisted to assist those individuals who are filing prior year or amended tax returns.
This notice supersedes Notice 2006–87, 2006–43 I.R.B. 766; Notice 2007–25, 2007–12 I.R.B. 760; Notice 2007–77, 2007–40 I.R.B. 735; Notice 2008–107, 2008–50 I.R.B. 1265; Notice 2010–27, 2010–15 I.R.B. 531; Notice 2011–8, 2011–8 I.R.B. 503; Notice 2012–19, 2012–10 I.R.B. 440; Notice 2013–31, 2013–21 I.R.B. 1099; Notice 2014–29, 2014–18 I.R.B. 991; Notice 2015–33, 2015–18 I.R.B. 934; Notice 2016–21, 2016–12 I.R.B. 465; and Notice 2017–21, 2017–13 I.R.B. 1026.
This notice is effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018. However, as provided in Section 4, a taxpayer may apply the 2018 adjusted housing limitations contained in Section 3 of this notice to his or her taxable year beginning in 2017.
.01 This revenue procedure provides information to any individual who failed to meet the eligibility requirements of section 911(d)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code because adverse conditions in a foreign country precluded the individual from meeting those requirements.
.02 The Internal Revenue Service previously has listed countries for which the eligibility requirements of section 911(d)(1) of the Code are waived under section 911(d)(4) because of adverse conditions in those countries. See Rev. Proc. 2017–26, 2017–13, I.R.B. 1036.
.01 Sections 911(a) of the Code allows a “qualified individual,” as defined in section 911(d)(1), to exclude from gross income the individual’s foreign earned income and the housing cost amount.
.02 Section 911(d)(1) of the Code defines the term “qualified individual” as an individual whose tax home is in a foreign country and who is (A) a citizen of the United States and establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that the individual has been a bona fide resident of a foreign country or countries for an uninterrupted period that includes an entire taxable year, or (B) a citizen or resident of the United States who, during any period of 12 consecutive months, is present in a foreign country or countries during at least 330 full days.
.03 Section 911(d)(4) of the Code provides an exception to the eligibility requirements of section 911(d)(1). An individual will be treated as a qualified individual with respect to a period in which the individual was a bona fide resident of, or was present in, a foreign country if the individual left the country during a period for which the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of State, determines that individuals were required to leave because of war, civil unrest, or similar adverse conditions that precluded the normal conduct of business. An individual must establish that but for those conditions the individual could reasonably have been expected to meet the eligibility requirements.
.01 For 2016, in addition to the determination with respect to South Sudan described in Rev. Proc. 2017–26, the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, has determined that war, civil unrest, or similar adverse conditions precluded the normal conduct of business in the following country beginning on the specified date:
|Country||Date of Departure On or After|
|Turkey||October 29, 2016|
Accordingly, for purposes of section 911 of the Code, an individual who left Turkey on or after October 29, 2016, will be treated as a qualified individual with respect to the period during which that individual was present in, or was a bona fide resident of, Turkey if the individual establishes a reasonable expectation that he or she would have met the requirements of section 911(d) but for those conditions.
.02 To qualify for relief under section 911(d)(4) of the Code, an individual must have established residency, or have been physically present, in the foreign country on or before the date that the Secretary of the Treasury determines that individuals were required to leave the foreign country. Accordingly, individuals who were first physically present or established residency in Turkey after October 29, 2016, are not eligible to qualify for the exception provided in section 911(d)(4) of the Code for taxable year 2016.
.03 For 2017, the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, has determined that no country has experienced war, civil unrest, or similar adverse conditions that precluded the normal conduct of business. Therefore, no country is listed in this revenue procedure for section 911 purposes for tax year 2017.
Previously issued revenue procedures under section 911(d)(4) remain in full force and effect. However, Rev. Proc. 2017–26, 2017–13, I.R.B. 1036, is supplemented.
A taxpayer who needs assistance on how to claim this exclusion, or on how to file an amended return, should consult the section under the heading Foreign Earned Income Exclusion at https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/us-citizens-and-resident-aliens-abroad ; consult the section under the heading How to Get Tax Help at the same web address; or contact a local IRS office.
Revenue rulings and revenue procedures (hereinafter referred to as “rulings”) that have an effect on previous rulings use the following defined terms to describe the effect:
Amplified describes a situation where no change is being made in a prior published position, but the prior position is being extended to apply to a variation of the fact situation set forth therein. Thus, if an earlier ruling held that a principle applied to A, and the new ruling holds that the same principle also applies to B, the earlier ruling is amplified. (Compare with modified, below).
Clarified is used in those instances where the language in a prior ruling is being made clear because the language has caused, or may cause, some confusion. It is not used where a position in a prior ruling is being changed.
Distinguished describes a situation where a ruling mentions a previously published ruling and points out an essential difference between them.
Modified is used where the substance of a previously published position is being changed. Thus, if a prior ruling held that a principle applied to A but not to B, and the new ruling holds that it applies to both A and B, the prior ruling is modified because it corrects a published position. (Compare with amplified and clarified, above).
Obsoleted describes a previously published ruling that is not considered determinative with respect to future transactions. This term is most commonly used in a ruling that lists previously published rulings that are obsoleted because of changes in laws or regulations. A ruling may also be obsoleted because the substance has been included in regulations subsequently adopted.
Revoked describes situations where the position in the previously published ruling is not correct and the correct position is being stated in a new ruling.
Superseded describes a situation where the new ruling does nothing more than restate the substance and situation of a previously published ruling (or rulings). Thus, the term is used to republish under the 1986 Code and regulations the same position published under the 1939 Code and regulations. The term is also used when it is desired to republish in a single ruling a series of situations, names, etc., that were previously published over a period of time in separate rulings. If the new ruling does more than restate the substance of a prior ruling, a combination of terms is used. For example, modified and superseded describes a situation where the substance of a previously published ruling is being changed in part and is continued without change in part and it is desired to restate the valid portion of the previously published ruling in a new ruling that is self contained. In this case, the previously published ruling is first modified and then, as modified, is superseded.
Supplemented is used in situations in which a list, such as a list of the names of countries, is published in a ruling and that list is expanded by adding further names in subsequent rulings. After the original ruling has been supplemented several times, a new ruling may be published that includes the list in the original ruling and the additions, and supersedes all prior rulings in the series.
Suspended is used in rare situations to show that the previous published rulings will not be applied pending some future action such as the issuance of new or amended regulations, the outcome of cases in litigation, or the outcome of a Service study.
The following abbreviations in current use and formerly used will appear in material published in the Bulletin.
B.T.A.—Board of Tax Appeals.
CFR—Code of Federal Regulations.
Del. Order—Delegation Order.
DISC—Domestic International Sales Corporation.
ERISA—Employee Retirement Income Security Act.
FICA—Federal Insurance Contributions Act.
FISC—Foreign International Sales Company.
FPH—Foreign Personal Holding Company.
FUTA—Federal Unemployment Tax Act.
G.C.M.—Chief Counsel’s Memorandum.
I.R.B.—Internal Revenue Bulletin.
PHC—Personal Holding Company.
PO—Possession of the U.S.
PTE—Prohibited Transaction Exemption.
Pub. L.—Public Law.
REIT—Real Estate Investment Trust.
Rev. Proc.—Revenue Procedure.
Rev. Rul.—Revenue Ruling.
S.P.R.—Statement of Procedural Rules.
Stat.—Statutes at Large.
T.I.R.—Technical Information Release.
U.S.C.—United States Code.
A cumulative list of all revenue rulings, revenue procedures, Treasury decisions, etc., published in Internal Revenue Bulletins 2017–27 through 2017–52 is in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2017–52, dated December 27, 2017.
Bulletin 2018–1 through 2018–17
A cumulative list of all revenue rulings, revenue procedures, Treasury decisions, etc., published in Internal Revenue Bulletins 2017–27 through 2017–52 is in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2017–52, dated December 27, 2017.
Bulletin 2018–1 through 2018–17
The Introduction at the beginning of this issue describes the purpose and content of this publication. The weekly Internal Revenue Bulletins are available at www.irs.gov/irb/.
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