Instructions for Form SS-8 (05/2014)

Determination of Worker Status for Purposes of Federal Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding

Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless otherwise noted.

Revised: 05/2014

Instructions for Form SS-8 - Introductory Material

Future Developments

Information about any future developments affecting Form SS-8 (such as legislation enacted after we release it) will be posted at

General Instructions

Purpose of Form

Firms and workers file Form SS-8 to request a determination of the status of a worker under the common law rules for purposes of federal employment taxes and income tax withholding. Generally, under the common law rules a worker is an employee if the firm has the right to control what will be done and how it will be done. See Publication 15–A, Employer's Supplemental Tax Guide, for more information on how to determine whether a worker providing services is an employee or independent contractor.

A Form SS-8 determination may be requested only in order to resolve federal tax matters. If Form SS-8 is submitted for a tax year for which the statute of limitations on the tax return has expired, a determination letter will not be issued.

The IRS does not issue a determination letter for proposed transactions or on hypothetical situations or for other reasons not in the best interests of tax administration. We may, however, issue an information letter when it is considered appropriate.


Firm. For the purposes of this form, the term “firm” means any individual, business enterprise, organization, state, or other entity for which a worker has performed services. The firm may or may not have paid the worker directly for these services.

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If the firm was not responsible for payment for services, be sure to enter the name, address, and employer identification number of the payer on the first page of Form SS-8, below the identifying information for the firm and the worker.


Workers for state and local governments and/or interstate instrumentalities may be covered by a Section 218 Agreement. A Section 218 Agreement is a written, voluntary agreement between the State Social Security Administrator and the Social Security Administration. All 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and approximately 60 interstate instrumentalities have Section 218 Agreements extending social security coverage to specified employees. Workers covered under a Section 218 Agreement are subject to social security and Medicare tax regardless of any determinations made under the common law rules.

Whether a state or local government worker is subject to social security and Medicare tax depends on which of the following three categories the worker falls into:

  1. Subject to social security under a Section 218 Agreement, or

  2. Subject to social security under mandatory coverage provisions, or

  3. Excluded from social security because there is no Section 218 Agreement and the employee is covered by a qualified retirement plan.

If the worker is uncertain whether a Section 218 Agreement covers the state or local government entity, he or she should contact the entity before submitting Form SS-8. If the entity is uncertain about whether a Section 218 Agreement covers the position in question, the entity should contact the State Social Security Administrator for the state in which it operates.

The Form SS-8 Determination Process

The IRS will acknowledge the receipt of your Form SS-8. Because there are usually two (or more) parties who could be affected by a determination of employment status, the IRS attempts to get information from all parties involved by sending those parties blank Forms SS-8 for completion. Some or all of the information provided on this Form SS-8 may be shared with the other parties listed on page 1. The case will be assigned to a technician who will review the facts, apply the law, and render a decision. The technician may ask for additional information from the requestor, from other involved parties, or from third parties that could help clarify the work relationship before rendering a decision. The IRS will generally issue a formal determination to the firm or payer (if that is a different entity), and will send a copy to the worker. A determination letter applies only to a worker (or a class of workers) requesting it, and the decision is binding on the IRS if there is no change in the facts or law that form the basis for the ruling. In certain cases, a formal determination will not be issued. Instead, an information letter may be issued. Although an information letter is advisory only and is not binding on the IRS, it may be used to assist the worker to fulfill his or her federal tax obligations. In other very limited circumstances the IRS may issue a courtesy letter that the worker may rely on to fulfill his or her federal tax obligations.

Neither the Form SS-8 determination process nor the review of any records in connection with the determination constitutes an examination (audit) of any federal tax return. If the periods under consideration have previously been examined, the Form SS-8 determination process will not constitute a reexamination under IRS reopening procedures. Because this is not an examination of any federal tax return, the appeal rights available in connection with an examination do not apply to a Form SS-8 determination. If you disagree with a determination, you can identify facts that were part of the original submission that you think were not fully considered. If you have additional information concerning the relationship that was not part of the original submission, you can submit the additional information and request that the office reconsider the determination.

Completing Form SS-8

Answer all questions as completely as possible. Attach additional sheets if you need more space. Provide information for all years the worker provided services for the firm. Determinations are based on the entire relationship between the firm and the worker. Also indicate if there were any significant changes in the work relationship over the service term.

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Form SS-8 will be returned to the requestor if all required information is not provided.

Additional copies of this form may be obtained on or by calling 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676).


There is no fee for requesting a Form SS-8 determination letter.


Form SS-8 must be signed and dated by the taxpayer. A stamped signature will not be accepted.

The person who signs for a corporation must be an officer of the corporation who has personal knowledge of the facts. If the corporation is a member of an affiliated group filing a consolidated return, it must be signed by an officer of the common parent of the group.

The person signing for a trust, partnership, or limited liability company must be, respectively, a trustee, general partner, or member-manager who has personal knowledge of the facts.

A Form SS-8 that is not properly signed and dated by the taxpayer cannot be processed and will be returned.

Where To File

Send the completed and signed Form SS-8 to:

Internal Revenue Service
Form SS-8 Determinations
P.O. Box 630
Stop 631
Holtsville, NY 11742-0630

Faxed, photocopied, or electronic versions of Form SS-8 are not acceptable for the initial request for the Form SS-8 determination. Do not submit Form SS-8 with your tax return as that will delay processing time.

Instructions for Workers

If you are requesting a determination for more than one firm, complete a separate Form SS-8 for each firm.

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Form SS-8 is not a claim for refund of social security and Medicare taxes or federal income tax withholding.

If the IRS determines that you are an employee, you are responsible for filing an amended return for any corrections related to this decision. A determination that a worker is an employee does not necessarily reduce any current or prior tax liability. For more information, call 1-800-829-1040.

Time for filing a claim for refund. Generally, you must file your claim for a credit or refund within 3 years from the date your original return was filed or within 2 years from the date the tax was paid, whichever is later.

Filing Form SS-8 does not prevent the expiration of the time in which a claim for a refund must be filed. If you are concerned about a refund, and the statute of limitations for filing a claim for refund for the year(s) at issue has not yet expired, you should file Form 1040X, Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, to protect your statute of limitations. File a separate Form 1040X for each year.

On the Form 1040X you file, do not complete lines 1 through 23 on the form. Write “Protective Claim” at the top of the form, sign and date it. In addition, enter the following statement in Part III: “Filed Form SS-8 with the Internal Revenue Service Office in Holtsville, NY. By filing this protective claim, I reserve the right to file a claim for any refund that may be due after a determination of my employment tax status has been completed.”

Filing Form SS-8 does not alter the requirement to timely file an income tax return. Do not delay filing your tax return in anticipation of an answer to your Form SS-8 request. In addition, if applicable, do not delay in responding to a request for payment while waiting for a determination of your worker status.

Instructions for Firms

If a worker has requested a determination of his or her status while working for you, you will receive a request from the IRS to complete a Form SS-8. In cases of this type, the IRS usually gives each party an opportunity to present a statement of the facts because any decision will affect the employment tax status of the parties. Failure to respond to this request will not prevent the IRS from issuing a determination letter based on the information available to it so that the worker may fulfill his or her federal tax obligations. However, the information that you provide is extremely valuable in determining the status of the worker.

If you are requesting a determination for a particular class of worker, complete the form for one individual who is representative of the class of workers whose status is in question. If you want a written determination for more than one class of workers, complete a separate Form SS-8 for one worker from each class whose status is typical of that class. A written determination for any worker will apply to other workers of the same class if the facts are not materially different for these workers. Please provide a list of names and addresses of all workers potentially affected by this determination so that the IRS can contact them for information.

If you have a reasonable basis for not treating a worker as an employee, you may be relieved from having to pay employment taxes for that worker under section 530 of the Revenue Act of 1978. However, this relief provision cannot be considered in conjunction with a Form SS-8 determination because the determination does not constitute an examination of any tax return. For more information regarding section 530 of the Revenue Act of 1978 and to determine if you qualify for relief under this section, visit

How To Get Help

To get IRS forms and publications, go to or call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676).

The Taxpayer Advocate Service Is Here To Help You

The Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) is your voice at the IRS. Our job is to ensure that every taxpayer is treated fairly and that you know and understand your rights.

What can TAS do for you? We can offer you free help with IRS problems that you can't resolve on your own. We know this process can be confusing, but the worst thing you can do is nothing at all! TAS can help if you can't resolve your problems with the IRS and:

  • Your problem is causing financial difficulties for you, your family, or your business.

  • You face (or your business is facing) an immediate threat of adverse action.

  • You have tried repeatedly to contact the IRS but no one has responded, or the IRS has not responded to you by the date promised.

If you qualify for our help, you'll be assigned to one advocate who'll be with you at every turn and will do everything possible to resolve your problem. Here's why we can help:

  • TAS is an independent organization within the IRS.

  • Our advocates know how to work with the IRS.

  • Our services are free and tailored to meet your needs.

  • We have offices in every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

How can you reach us? If you think TAS can help you, call your local advocate, whose number is in your local directory and at, or call us toll-free at 1-877-777-4778.

How else does TAS help taxpayers?

TAS also handles large-scale, systemic problems that affect many taxpayers. If you know of one of these broad issues, please report it through the Systemic Advocacy Management System at

For additional information about TAS, visit or see Pub. 1546, The Taxpayer Advocate Service of the IRS – How to Get Help With Unresolved Tax Problems.

Low Income Taxpayer Clinics

Low Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs) serve individuals whose income is below a certain level and need to resolve tax problems such as audits, appeals and tax collection disputes. Some clinics can provide information about taxpayer rights and responsibilities in different languages for individuals who speak English as a second language. Visit or see IRS Publication 4134, Low Income Taxpayer Clinic List.


You may either represent yourself or, with proper written authorization, have someone else represent you. Your representative must be someone who is allowed to practice before the IRS, such as an attorney, certified public accountant, or enrolled agent (a person enrolled to practice before the IRS). Use Form 2848, Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative, to authorize someone else to represent you before the IRS.