SOI Tax Stats - Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) Statistics

 

First Round Economic Impact Payment Statistics 
Second Round Economic Impact Payment Statistics
Third Round Economic Impact Payment Statistics

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, also known as the CARES Act, was enacted in March 2020 and created a refundable tax credit for individuals. The advance payment of this "2020 recovery rebate for individuals" is referred to as the first round of economic impact payments (First Round EIPs). The tabulations found on this page provide data on those First Round EIPs, which were distributed to individuals by the end of 2020. Subsequent legislation enacted in December 2020, titled "Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2021" (enacted as Division M of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021) created an additional refundable tax credit for individuals. The advance payment of this "additional 2020 rebate for individuals" is referred to as a "Second Round EIP." Data on the Second Round EIPs and on recovery rebate credits claimed on 2020 tax returns will be provided at a later date.


Economic Impact Payments (EIPs)

Section 2201(a) of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), Public Law 116-136, 134 Stat. 281 (March 27, 2020) added section 6428 to the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Section 6428(a) provides an eligible individual for their first taxable year beginning in 2020 a refundable tax credit of up to $1,200 ($2,400 for eligible individuals filing a joint tax return), plus $500 per qualifying child of the eligible individual.

This tax credit is referred to in section 6428 as a "2020 recovery rebate for individuals." Section 6428(f)(3)(A) instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to make advance refunds of this credit "as rapidly as possible" and before January 1, 2021. The IRS refers to the advance refund of this credit as an economic impact payment (EIP). EIPs made under section 6428 are referred to as a "First Round EIP."

The credit phases out at a rate of 5% of the taxpayer's adjusted gross income (AGI) in excess of a threshold. The threshold is $150,000 in the case of a joint return, $112,500 in the case of a head of household, and $75,000 otherwise. Those ineligible for the credit are (1) nonresident alien individuals, (2) individuals who can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer, and (3) an estate or trust. When spouses file jointly, both spouses must have a valid social security number (SSN) to receive the credit, unless either spouse is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces at any time during the taxable year. In that case, only one spouse needs to have a valid SSN.

Eligibility for, and the amount of, a First Round EIP was based on an individual's Tax Year 2019 return, or if a Tax Year 2019 return was not filed, the individual's Tax Year 2018 return. Eligible individuals who otherwise did not have a tax filing obligation but received Social Security benefits, Railroad Retirement benefits, compensation and pension benefit payments from the Veterans Administration, or Supplemental Security Income received a First Round EIP without having to file a return. Other eligible individuals who otherwise did not have a tax filing obligation are able to submit information through the "Non-filers: Enter Your Information Here" online portal, or through other special or simplified procedures provided by the IRS, to receive a First Round EIP.

The Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2021, enacted as Division M of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, Public Law 116-260, 134 Stat. 1182 (December 27, 2020) added section 6428A to the Code. This legislation created an "additional 2020 recovery rebate for individuals." The IRS refers to the advance refund of this credit as a "Second Round EIP." This legislation also altered for the "2020 recovery rebate credit" the requirements regarding the inclusion of valid SSNs and changed the phase-out threshold for qualifying widows and widowers to be $150,000. These statutory changes did not affect the First Round EIPs, as reported in the tabulations found on this page.

First Round EIP Statistics

Table 1: Classified by Adjusted Gross Income

Total, Calendar Year 2020 XLSX

Table 2: Classified by State

 Total, Calendar Year 2020 XLSX 

Table 3: Classified by Marital Status

Total, Calendar Year 2020 XLSX


Second Round Economic Impact Payments

The Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2021, enacted as Division M of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, Public Law 116-260, 134 Stat. 1182 (December 27, 2020) added section 6428A to the Code.  This legislation created an “additional 2020 recovery rebate for individuals.”  The IRS refers to the advance refund of this credit as a “Second Round EIP.”  Section 6428A(f)(3)(A) instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to make advance refunds of this credit “as rapidly as possible” and before January 15, 2021.  

The additional credit phases out at a rate of 5% of the taxpayer’s adjusted gross income (AGI) in excess of a threshold.  The threshold is $150,000 in the case of a joint return or qualifying widow or widower, $112,500 in the case of a head of household, and $75,000 otherwise.  Those ineligible for the credit are (1) nonresident alien individuals, (2) individuals who can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer, and (3) an estate or trust.  When spouses file jointly, each spouse must have a valid social security number (SSN) to receive the individual portion of the credit for that spouse, unless either spouse is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces at any time during the taxable year.  In that case, only one spouse needs to have a valid SSN. To receive the qualifying dependent portion of the credit, at least one spouse must have a valid SSN.

Eligibility for and the amount of the Second Round EIP was based on an individual’s Tax Year 2019 return.  Eligible individuals who otherwise did not have a tax filing obligation but received Social Security benefits, Railroad Retirement benefits, compensation and pension benefit payments from the Veterans Administration, or Supplemental Security Income received a Second Round EIP without having to file a return.  Other eligible individuals who otherwise did not have a tax filing obligation needed to submit information through the “Non-filers: Enter Your Information Here” online portal, or through other special or simplified procedures provided by the IRS, to receive a Second Round EIP.

This legislation also altered the “2020 recovery rebate credit” requirements regarding the inclusion of valid SSNs and changed the phase-out threshold for qualifying widows and widowers to be $150,000.  These statutory changes did not affect the First Round EIPs, as reported in the tabulations found on this page.

Second Round EIP Statistics

Table 1: Classified by Adjusted Gross Income

Total, (As of early February) XLS

Table 2: Classified by State

Total, (As of early February) XLS 

Table 3: Classified by Marital Status

Total, (As of early February) XLS


Third Round Economic Impact Payments

Section 9601(a) of the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, Public Law 117-2, 135 Stat. 4 (March 11, 2021), added section 6428B to the Internal Revenue Code (Code).  Section 6428B provides an eligible individual for their first taxable year beginning in 2021 a refundable tax credit of up to $1,400 ($2,800 for eligible individuals filing a joint tax return), plus $1,400 per qualifying dependent of the eligible individual(s). This tax credit is referred to in section 6428B as a “2021 recovery rebate to individuals.” Section 6428B(g)(3) instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to make advance refunds of this credit “as rapidly as possible” and by December 31, 2021. (In other words, no advance refund may be disbursed after that date.) The IRS refers to the advance refund of this credit as a “Third Round EIP.

The 2021 credit is reduced proportionally as a taxpayer’s adjusted gross income (AGI) exceeds a threshold and rises to a full phase-out amount. The threshold and full phase-out amounts are $150,000 and $160,000 in the case of a joint return or qualifying widow or widower, $112,500 and $120,000 in the case of a head of household, and $75,000 and $80,000 otherwise. Those ineligible for the credit are (1) nonresident alien individuals, (2) individuals who can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer, and (3) an estate or trust. When spouses file jointly, each spouse must have a valid social security number (SSN) to receive the individual portion of the credit for that spouse (in other words, for the married couple to receive the full $2,800), unless either spouse is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces at any time during the taxable year. In that case, only one spouse needs to have a valid SSN. An individual without a valid SSN can still receive up to $1,400 for a qualified dependent claimed on the individual’s return if the individual meets all other eligibility and income requirements.

An individual’s eligibility for and amount of the Third Round EIP was based on the individual’s Tax Year 2020 return. If that return was not filed as of the initial determination date for the individual’s Third Round EIP, the IRS used the individual’s Tax Year 2019 return to make an “initial” Third Round EIP. If an individual filed a Tax Year 2020 return after the initial determination date for the individual’s Third Round EIP and before the additional determination date, and that Tax Year 2020 return indicated that the individual was eligible for a larger credit amount, the IRS disbursed a “plus-up” payment to the individual. This additional amount was equal to the total amount of Third Round EIP to which the individual was entitled, minus the initial amount that the IRS disbursed to that individual. The amounts shown in the Third Round EIP tables include both initial and plus-up payments issued by the time the data were tabulated.

Eligible individuals who did not file a Tax Year 2019 or 2020 return but received Social Security retirement, survivor or disability benefits (SSDI), Railroad Retirement benefits, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), or Veterans Affairs benefits automatically received a Third Round EIP. The IRS also used information provided by individuals who filed in 2020 a Tax Year 2019 return through the “Non-filers: Enter Your Information Here” online portal, or through other special or simplified filing procedures published by the Treasury Department and the IRS in 2020. The Treasury Department and the IRS provided these 2020 filing options to help eligible individuals who did not have a tax filing obligation to receive a First Round EIP provided under section 6428 of the Code, as added by section 2201(a) of the CARES Act, Public Law 116-136, 134 Stat. 281 (March 27, 2020).

On June 14, 2021, the Treasury Department and the IRS released a new “Non-filer Sign-up Tool” on IRS.gov to help eligible individuals who had not filed a Tax Year 2020 or 2019 return to file a Tax Year 2020 return and receive, among other tax benefits, Third Round EIPs. This tool is an update of last year's IRS Non-filers tool. Similarly, the Treasury Department and the IRS published in 2021 for individuals who do not have a tax filing obligation simplified filing procedures that were based on the simplified filing procedures published in 2020 for the First Round EIP.

Third Round EIP Statistics

Table 1: Classified by Adjusted Gross Income

Total, (As of early June) XLS

Table 2: Classified by State

Total, (As of early June) XLS

Table 3: Classified by Marital Status

Total, (As of early June) XLS