Topic no. 153, What to do if you haven't filed your tax return

If you haven’t filed your federal income tax return for this year or for previous years, you should file your return as soon as possible regardless of your reason for not filing the required return. If you need help, check our website. We have tools and resources available, such as the Interactive Tax Assistant (ITA) and FAQs.

If you're not sure whether you're required to file a return, visit Do I need to file a tax return? or refer to Publication 17, Your Federal Income Tax (For Individuals). If you're required to file and owe a balance, but you can't pay all the tax due on your return, the IRS may be able to help you establish a payment agreement. For additional information on tax payment options, refer to Topic no. 202.

If your return wasn't filed by the due date (including extensions of time to file):

  • You may be subject to the failure-to-file penalty, unless you have reasonable cause for your failure to file timely.
  • Tax not paid in full by the original due date of the return (regardless of extensions of time to file) may also result in the failure-to-pay penalty, unless you have reasonable cause for your failure to pay timely, or the IRS has approved your application Form 1127, Application for Extension of Time for Payment of Tax Due to Undue Hardship.
  • Interest is charged on taxes not paid by the original due date, even if you have an extension of time to file or pay. Interest is also charged on penalties.
  • There's no penalty for failure to file if you're due a refund. However, you risk losing a refund altogether if you file a return or otherwise claim a refund after the statute of limitations has expired. An original return claiming a refund must be filed within 3 years of its due date for a refund to be allowed in most instances. After the expiration of the three-year period, the refund statute generally prevents the issuance of a refund check and the application of any credits, including overpayments of estimated or withholding taxes, to other tax years that are underpaid. However, the statute of limitations for the IRS to assess and collect any outstanding balances doesn't start until a return has been filed. In other words, there's no statute of limitations for assessing and collecting the tax if no return has been filed.